Off Grid & Energy Harvesting Report

Harvesting for roads and sensing for IoT & healthcare may create a $1bn market for piezo transducers

Piezoelectric Harvesting and Sensing 2019-2039

Brand new for November 2018

California and Europe are pumping millions into development of electricity-generating roads using piezoelectrics. Piezos will also be useful in self-powered Internet of Things nodes because no one will change or even charge millions of batteries for those nodes let alone the envisaged billions. Without self-powered nodes, the IOT will be nothing more than a footnote in history.
The new IDTechEx report, "Piezoelectric Harvesting and Sensing 2019-2039" is the first to pull it all together. Milliwatts or megawatts: where will piezoelectric success lie? Why are life sciences seeking so many self-powered sensors? Can we combine piezo and solar roads for charging cars at speed and self-deicing? Much traffic and the piezo generates well: little traffic and the solar generates well? As the report makes clear, we need something more affordable and less poisonous than the traditional lead zirconate titanate for this. Which researchers and start-ups promise this? Why is the new piezotronics combining semiconductor devices and piezo so exciting?
New materials, devices, formats and applications are in prospect including paint, film, wide area sensing and roads and paths creating megawatts. In a balanced appraisal based on many new interviews, the positives and negatives are surfaced in "Piezoelectric Harvesting and Sensing 2019-2039". That includes the struggle for acoustically wide band piezo harvesters for widespread deployment. That means the elusive standard vibration harvesters that work well in the real world.
This 241 page report has a comprehensive Executive Summary and Conclusions for those with limited time. 10 primary conclusions are presented then new infograms packed with data. 11 forecasts for the devices and markets relevant to piezo harvesters and sensors are included with patent and popularity trends and initiators. The vibration harvesting market as a whole is appraised and routes to success in piezo harvesting are mapped. Piezo is also presented in the context of all harvesting markets by size in 2029.
Chapter 2 is the Introduction. It examines all harvesting technologies with piezo in context. Its parameters and uses are compared with other forms of harvesting. Promised improvements are revealed to make piezo roads a success. Choices of material are compared by parameter with latest arrivals. Modes of operation and standards are compared and multifunctional harvesters introduced.
Chapter 3 dives into the theory and fundamentals from crystallography to device and system design. This is brought alive by profiling several recent advances in research. Lead free and new morphologies are here plus how wide acoustic bandwidth and greater power can be achieved. Learn about polymer and flexible piezos and system design including battery elimination.
Chapter 4 specifically addresses piezo polymers for harvesting and sensing. Chapter 5 addresses low power energy harvesting and piezo sensors in consumer goods, healthcare and more. Piezo flags, wireless sensors, controllers and MEMS are here. Challenges of thin film versions are explained and there are many examples too plus dreams for the future.
Chapter 6 explores high power piezo harvesting with deepest coverage of the biggest current research investment: piezoelectric roads. Other targets and installations covered include wave power, rotating machines and flooring.
Chapter 7 analyses integration with other harvesters including woven and stretchable versions, even sails, and wearables. Chapter 8 closely examines piezoelectric sensors - materials including new arrivals, transducers, functions, signal processing, advantages, challenges and hopes. Multifunctional sensing is here and a host of applications. Chapter 9 profiles 54 organisations involved in piezo sensing and harvesting from materials research to distribution using new interviews and latest conference announcements.
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Table of Contents
1.2.Primary conclusions
1.2.2.Energy harvesting EH
1.2.3.Energy harvesting with sensing: self-powered sensors
1.2.4.Vibration sensing
1.2.5.Emerging applications that could be large
1.3.Patent analysis
1.3.1.All piezoelectric: patents and google trend: mixed signals
1.3.2.Piezoelectric harvesting patents and google trend: upward indicators
1.3.3.Piezoelectric sensing patents and google trend: patenting increases
1.3.4.Piezoelectric MEMS patents and google trend: patenting increases
1.3.5.Piezoelectric road patents and google trend: patenting increases
1.4.Piezo harvester and sensor modes: electrodynamic ED strongly competes
1.5.Vibration harvesting is a small market: status
1.6.Routes to success in piezoelectric energy harvesting
1.7.Market forecasts
1.7.1.Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer market units, unit price, market value <1W 2019-2039
1.7.2.Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer global market $ million low vs high power 2019-2039
1.7.3.All energy harvesting transducers by type $ billion in 2029
1.7.4.All energy harvesting transducers by energy source and application $ billion in 2029
1.7.5.All movement harvesting market by mode $ billion in 2029
1.7.6.Piezoelectric sensor transducer global market $ million 2019-2039
1.7.7.Piezo devices applicational market split 2029
1.7.8.Piezoelectric value chain 2029 $ billion
1.7.9.Peak car and impact sales k globally by year
1.7.10.Haptics global market by technology $ million 2015-2028
1.7.11.Wearable sensors global market $ million 2018-2028
1.7.12.Total connections by year for NB-IoT, LTE, LoRA and others 2018-2029
1.7.13.Number of suppliers of energy harvesting road technology 2018-2028
1.7.14.Number of trials of energy harvesting road technology 2018-2028
1.7.15.Miles of single lane road harvesting 2018-2028
1.7.16.Cost per mile of energy harvesting road 2018-2028
1.7.17.Solar road market value $ billion 2018-2028
1.7.18.Market value of non-solar road harvesting, road sensing, harvesting road furniture 2018-2028
1.7.19.Automotive MEMS and sensor market
2.1.What is piezoelectric harvesting and sensing?
2.2.1.Typical processes
2.2.2.Printable gallium phosphate
2.3.Energy harvesting transducer types, commercial success
2.4.Energy harvesting transducer principles, materials, benefits, challenges
2.5.Important compromises: power density vs efficiency
2.6.Important compromises: life vs cost per watt
2.7.Modes of operation and standards
2.8.Benefits and challenges of piezoelectric harvesting
2.9.Multifunctional piezoelectric devices: Novasentis Arkema Piezotech
3.1.Background and Definitions
3.2.Piezo effect - direct
3.3.Basic equations
3.4.Design options
3.5.Molecular models
3.6.Principle of device creation and operation
3.7.Quest for lead-free and new morphologies: zinc oxide
3.8.Vibrational Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters
3.8.2.Challenges: the quest for power and acoustic bandwidth
3.8.3.Research base: wide acoustic bandwidth piezo harvesting
3.8.4.Parameters of piezoelectrics for vibration harvesting
3.9.Energy harvesting system design
3.10.Piezotronic effect
3.10.2.Mechanisms and devices
3.10.3.Prospective applications
3.11.Battery elimination
4.2.Inferior strain and stress constant
4.3.Challenge: substrate clamping
4.4.Enhancing power from PVDF using graphene and thin film
4.5.PVDF flags : theory shows improvement potential
4.6.Flexible and biodegradable PVDF devices
5.1.Piezo harvesters on, in and by the human body
5.1.2.Healthcare: implanted defibrillators and pacemakers
5.1.3.Inner ear
5.1.4.Wrist health monitor
5.1.5.Patient behaviour monitoring
5.2.Collagen piezoelectric for disposables, implants, wearables
5.3.Hand controllers
5.4.Wireless sensors, IOT
5.5.2.Examples of MEMS harvesting
5.6.AdaptivEnergy Joule Thief: 40mW record
5.7.LORD Microstrain helicopter application
5.8.Pulse Switch Systems LightingSwitch™ and KCF vibration harvesters
5.9.Who are the low power commercial players remaining?
6.2.Wind power from "reeds"
6.3.Wind power from oscillating blocks or leaves
6.4.Wave power: Nottingham - Hiroshima, UK Japan
6.5.Piezo seaweed: Catholic Quangdong Korea
6.6.Piezoelectric rotating machines
6.7.Metro, dance hall, sidewalk footfall
6.8.Piezoelectric roads
6.8.2.Basic calculations
6.8.3.Other concerns and opportunities
6.8.4.Georgia Tech USA
6.8.5.University of California Merced
6.8.6.Pyro-E USA
6.8.7.Lancaster University UK
6.8.8.Piezoelectric paving Innowattech Israel
6.8.9.APC USA view
7.1.Progression of integration
7.2.Towards PVDF piezoelectric + photovoltaic tires and sails
7.3.Piezoelectric, pyroelectric, triboelectric combined
7.4.Ferroelectrets: piezo + electret FEP
7.5.Research focus on the four triboelectric modes with piezo etc
7.6.Piezoelectric with triboelectric
8.1.Definition and function
8.2.Sensor requirements by power level
8.3.Signal processing
8.4.Relative advantages
8.5.Multifunctional sensors
8.6.Piezoelectric sensor limitations
8.6.2.Static sensing
8.6.3.Temperature effects
8.7.1.The show so far
8.7.3.Biosensors using piezotronics
8.7.4.Pressure and wear sensing
8.7.5.Structural health monitoring
8.7.6.Fuel injection sensors
8.7.7.Force transducers
8.7.8.Traffic sensors
8.7.9.Sensor switches
8.7.10.Piezoelectric tyre sensors and harvesting by tires
8.7.11.Piezoelectric bioreceptor biosensors
8.7.12.Microphones Vesper
9.1.Advanced Cerametrics USA
9.2.Agency for Defense Development Korea
9.3.Algra Switzerland
9.4.APC International (formerly American Piezoelectric Company) USA
9.5.Arkema France
9.6.Automation Products Group, Inc. (APG SENSORS) USA
9.7.Arveni France
9.8.Benz Airborne Systems USA
9.9.Boeing USA
9.10.Carnegie Mellon University USA
9.11.CEDES Corporation of America USA
9.12.Chinese University of Hong Kong China
9.13.Columbia Research Laboratories, Inc. USA
9.14.Cooper Instruments
9.15.Dytran Instruments, Inc.
9.16.Erallo Technologies Inc USA
9.17.Fairchild Industrial Products,
9.18.Fraunhofer IKTS Germany
9.19.Georgia Institute of Technology USA
9.20.Holst Centre/TNO Netherlands
9.21.Honeywell Sensing and Control USA
9.22.IFM Efector, Inc.
9.23.IMEC Belgium
9.24.Imperial College London UK
9.25.Kyocera AVX Japan
9.26.Meggitt USA
9.27.Midé Engineering Solutions ( USA
9.28.Mod-Tronic Instruments Limited USA
9.29.Monitor Technologies, LLC USA
9.30.Mouser Electronics, Inc. USA
9.31.National Taiwan University Taiwan
9.32.NNL - Universita del Salento Italy
9.33.PCB Piezotronics USA
9.34.Phidgets, Inc USA
9.35.PI Ceramic Physik Instrumente Germany USA
9.37.Piezo Systems USA
9.38.Piezo Technologies USA
9.39.Process Technologies Group, Inc
9.40.PulseSwitch Systems Face Group
9.41.Pyro-E USA
9.42.Shanghai Jiao Tong University China
9.43.Silex Sweden
9.44.Smart Material Corp. USA
9.45.Technical University of Ilmenau Germany
9.46.TE Connectivity Switzerland
9.47.Teledyne Hastings Instruments USA
9.48.Texas Micropower USA
9.49.Tokyo Institute of Technology Japan
9.50.TRS Technologies, Inc. USA
9.51.Tyndall National Institute Ireland
9.52.University of Idaho USA
9.53.University of Princeton USA
9.54.Virginia Tech USA

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Report Statistics

-Forecasts to2039
-Last updateNov 2018


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