Advanced Materials Report

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Quantum Dots 2018-2028: Trends, Markets, Players

Materials, players and applications such as displays (edge optic, QD enhancement film, color filter, on-chip, emissive), lighting, visible & IR/NIR image sensor, photovoltaics, etc

Brand new for July 2018

IDTechEx Research has been analysing the technologies and markets for quantum dots since 2013. Since that time, it has stayed extremely close to the latest research and market developments via its interview programme and company and conference visits.
Furthermore, IDTechEx Research has engaged closely with many of its clients, helping them better understand the technology and market landscape and helping them set their innovation and commercialization strategies.
In its analysis of quantum dots, IDTechEx Research brings its wealth of expertise in analysing advanced electronic materials and devices. We have been in this business for the past 19 years and in this time have closely observed the rise and/or fall, and the success and/or disappointment, of many emerging technologies.
This gives us a uniquely experienced eye when it comes to analysing emerging electronic material technologies. This is crucial because it helps us establish a realistic market and technology roadmap that reflects the true potential of the technology based on its intrinsic characteristics and on the true level of technical and commercial challenges that it faces.
The depth and breadth of our expertise in these fields is reflected in our report portfolio which covers numerous advanced materials, many emerging electronic devices such as printed and/or flexible electronics, and novel manufacturing processes.
What this report offers
This report provides a detailed technology analysis. It considers various quantum dot compositions such as Cd-based, In-based QDs as well as the likes of emerging organic and inorganic perovskites, PbS, CuInSe, InGaN, quantum rods, and so on. It also provides a detailed benchmarking of QDs vs existing phosphor technology. Our analysis is data driven, reflecting the latest commercial and academic results. For each material, as appropriate, we assess its performance, its key remaining material challenges, its production processes, and its directions/strategies of improvement.
Our technology roadmap also considers how the technology mix in various applications will be transformed with time. In displays, it considers the rise and fall of various QD integration approaches. It shows that film-type now reigns supreme after edge optic went obsolete. It however also shows the emerging approaches such as color filter or on-chip type, enabled by material improvements, will eventually unseat it. Furthermore, it will consider QDs as the ultimate emissive material for displays, tracing the trends in efficiency and lifetime improvements whilst exploring the remaining challenges in terms of performance, lifetime, deposition/patterning, device design, and so on.
In lighting, our roadmap considers how and when QDs will become used in LED lights either as direct or remote downconverters and either in general lighting or specialized niche applications. In sensors, it will explore hybrid QD-Si visible image sensors can simultaneously achieve high resolution and global shutter, whilst it shows how QD-Si infrared image sensors can overcome current resolution issues imposed unmonolothic integration. In photovoltaics, it reports the latest progress worldwide whilst stating the might commercial and technical challenges that are yet to be overcome and considers novel uses cases such as LCS.
Crucially, our technology analysis considers the requirements that must be met to enable each application and outlines the current progress and future strategies in achieving targets. Here, we will consider parameters such as stability (air, heat, light), self-absorption, blue absorbance, efficiency (QY), narrowband emission (FWHM) and so on.
This report also provides ten-year market forecasts in sqm (or Kg) and value, and at material and solution level, for 12 technologies: edge optic displays, film type displays, color filter QD display, on-chip QD display, emissive QD displays, QD-Si hybrid visible image sensors, IR/NIR image sensors, remote QD LED lights and on-chip QD LED lights, QD photovoltaics, researchers and more.
Our forecasts draw heavily from our technology analysis which gives us realistic and expert view of when and how various technologies can become commercially viable compared incumbents, and also from our detailed interviews, deep market insights, and close trend tracking.
This report also provides detailed overviews of 37 players in the value chain. In many cases, our overviews also include a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, threats) analysis of the key players.
To learn more about our analysis refer to these articles:
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.2.What are quantum dots?
1.3.An old technology?
1.4.Snapshot of readiness level of various QD applications
1.5.Displays: benchmarking various integration methods
1.6.QD Technology and Market Roadmap (10 year view)
1.7.Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
1.8.Ten-year quantum material market forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2.2.Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2.3.Ten-year quantum material market forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2.5.Ten-year forecast of change in QD technology mix in display sector (%)
2.6.Ten-year forecast for different QD solutions in displays in area or M sqm (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.7.Ten-year forecast for different QD solutions in displays in TONNES (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.8.Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value in displays (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.9.Ten-year quantum dot material market forecasts in value in displays (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.10.Non display
2.11.Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in lighting applications
2.12.Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in image sensors (visible and IR/NIR)
2.13.Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in other applications (photovoltaics, research, etc.)
3.1.An old technology?
3.2.What are quantum dots?
3.3.Typical structure of a quantum dot
3.4.Different types of colloidal quantum dots
3.5.Colloidal quantum dots
3.6.Photoluminescence of quantum dots
3.7.Typical nuclei based growth process
3.8.Example of a typical two-pot growth process for InP core-shell QDs
3.9.Basic approaches to synthesis: molecular seeding to lower temperature?
3.10.Basic approaches to synthesis: continuous QD growth
3.11.Key material requirements
4.1.Why use heavy metals?
4.2.Cadmium under RoHS
4.3.Cd-free InP-based quantum dots
4.4.Evolution of InP QD FWHM as a function of time
4.5.Cd-based to Cd-free quantum dots: commercial transition is in full swing
4.6.Timeline of exemption and the arrival of the ban
4.7.How much cadmium is there in a display?
4.8.Is Indium Phosphide a safer alternative?
5.1.Eliminating self-absorption
5.2.Reducing lattice mismatch with graded core-shell compositions
5.3.Improved stability: embedding QDs in silica particles to form microspheres
5.4.Improved stability: sapphire QD coating
6.1.Perovskite quantum dots (or nanocrystals): a rival to traditional solutions?
6.2.Perovskite downconverters or emitters: an introduction
6.3.Perovskites: controlling emission wavelength via halide component
6.4.Perovskites: controlling emission wavelength via size
6.5.Perovskite QDs: higher defect tolerance of FWHM and QY
6.6.Perovskite QDs: high blue absorbance
6.7.Challenges or shortcomings
6.8.Perovskite quantum dots: why red is difficult
6.9.Red perovskite QDs: preventing phase instability
6.10.Perovskite quantum dots: self absorption issues
6.11.Perovskites: stability issue is a persistent concern
6.12.Perovskites: improving stability with ligands
6.13.Perovskite QDs: improving stability by embedding a host matrix
6.14.Perovskite QD-composites: improving stability by embedding in a polymer host
6.15.Perovskite QDs: toxicity concerns
6.16.Electroluminescent PeQD LEDs
6.17.Perovskite QLED: efficiency progress for inorganic green PeQLEDs?
6.18.Inorganic red PeQLED: what about lifetime?
6.19.Commercial progress and prospects
6.20.Perovskite green QD films for displays: stable commercial offerings
6.21.Perovskite QDs: the only way is hybrid?
6.22.Conclusions on perovskite QDs
6.23.InGaN/GaN QDs: viable material?
6.24.InGaN/GaN QDs: cutting reaction time and FWHM
6.25.CuInS2/ZnS: broadband QDs useful in solar windows?
6.26.PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsivity and wide spectrum
6.27.Rhodamine-based fluorescent materials as all organic downconverters
6.28.Carbon quantum dots (CQD)
6.29.Graphene Quantum Dots
6.31.White-blue emission from silicon QD
7.1.Phosphors: basic introduction
7.2.Thee ways to achieve white in LEDs
7.3.Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
7.4.Table of phosphor materials
7.5.Why the search for narrow FWHM red phosphors?
7.6.Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
7.7.Thermal stability of common red, green and yellow phosphors
7.8.GE's narrowband red phosphor: KSF:Mn+4
7.9.Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
7.10.Lumileds red emitting phosphor (SLA)
7.11.Toray: High performance organic phosphors
7.12.Suppliers of phosphors
7.13.Phosphors: FWHM comparison with quantum dots
7.14.Phosphors: colour tunability comparison with quantum dots
7.15.Phosphors: Particle size comparison with quantum dots
7.16.Phosphors: Response time comparison with quantum dots
7.17.Phosphors: Stability comparison with quantum dots
7.18.Strength of hybrid phosphor-QD approach
7.20.Quantum rods
8.1.Quantum rods: demonstrating printed greyscale displays
8.2.Quantum rods: material choices for red, green and blue photoluminescence
8.3.Quantum rods: material performance for red, green and blue photoluminescence
8.4.Quantum rods: principle of voltage controlled emission resulting in high contrast ratio
8.5.Quantum rods displays: performance of 17" active matrix inkjet printed QR display
8.6.Importance of early patents
8.7.Case Study: Evident
8.8.Nanoco vs Nanosys
8.9.IP acquisition
8.10.Nanosys vs QD Vision
9.1.Quantum dots as fluorescent tags
9.2.Examples of images
9.3.Advantages over organic dyes
9.4.Comparison of absorption/emission
9.5.Major milestones in academic research
9.6.Various approaches to use quantum dots
9.7.Example: monitoring enzyme activity
9.8.Zymera in vivo imaging
10.1.Understanding color standards
10.2.How LED backlights reduced color performances
10.3.100% sRGB can be achieved without QD
10.4.The challenge of Rec 2020
10.5.FWHM and colour gamut
10.6.Performance sensitivity to emission wavelength
11.1.Displays: edge optic
11.1.1.LED backlight units in LCD
11.1.2.Replacing phosphors with quantum dots
11.1.3.Edge optic integration: a technology going obsolete?
11.1.4.Color IQ from QD Vision: going obsolete
11.2.Displays: enhancement film or remote film-film QD phosphors
11.2.1.Film type integration: growing commercial success but for how long?
11.2.2.QDEF film from Nanosys
11.2.3.Key direction of development for film type integration: transition towards Cd free materials
11.2.4.Key direction of development for film type integration (IV): Glass based QD sheet in LCD displays
11.3.Displays: quantum dot color filters
11.3.1.Colour filter type: approaching commercial readiness?
11.3.2.Colour filter type remaining challenges: patterning
11.3.3.QDCF: strategies to make QDs compatible with photoresist and photolithography
11.3.4.QDFC: performance of epoxied silica QDs as QDCF
11.3.5.Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): inkjetting
11.3.6.Inkjet printed QD colour filters
11.3.7.Inkjet printed InP QD colour filters: performance levels
11.3.8.Colour filter type remaining challenges: colour purity and contrast
11.3.9.Colour filter type remaining challenges: new polarizers, short-pass filters, and other additional layers?
11.4.Displays: quantum on-chip LEDs
11.4.1.On chip integration: improving stability
11.4.2.Colour filter type remaining challenges: patterning
11.4.3.On chip type remaining challenges: stress conditions
11.4.4.On chip type remaining challenges: heat and light stability
11.4.5.On chip type remaining challenges: light flux stability
12.1.On-chip QDs for micro-LED displays: range of devices and stress conditions
12.2.QDs vs Phosphors for micro LED displays: the size and resolution advantage
12.3.QDs: photopatternable QDs for micro-displays
12.4.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: material consideration
12.5.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: rational for engineered multi core-shell giant QDs
12.6.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: material challenges (I)
12.7.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: surviving the photopatterning process
12.8.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: demonstrating heat and light flux stability
12.9.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: performance levels
12.10.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: comparison with RGB LEDs
13.1.Display trend: evolution from PLED to PhOLED to TADF to QDs?
13.2.Emissive type: how far off from commercial readiness?
13.3.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (I): optimal device design
13.4.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): efficiency
13.5.Nanophotonica: performance progress of QLEDs
13.6.Progress from QD Vision (no longer active)
13.7.Perovskite QLED: efficiency progress for inorganic green PeQLEDs?
13.8.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): blue QD challenge
13.9.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): ink formulation challenge
13.10.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): transfer printing
13.11.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (III): lifetime
13.12.Inorganic red PeQLED: what about lifetime?
14.1.Why quantum dot as optical sensor materials?
14.2.Common material of choice?
14.3.Improving silicon image sensors
14.4.QD layer advantage in image sensor (I): Increasing sensor sensitivity and gain
14.5.QD-Si hybrid image sensors(II): : reducing thickness
14.6.How is the QD layer applied?
14.7.QD optical layer: approaches to increase conductivity of QD films
14.8.QD-Si hybrid image sensors: enabling high resolution global shutter
14.9.QD-Si hybrid image sensors: Low power and high sensitivity to structured light detection for machine vision?
14.10.Can hybrid organic CMOS image sensors also give high res global shutter?
14.11.Progress in CMOS global shutter using silicon technology only
14.12.Quantum dots for near infra sensors
14.13.Current issue with infrared image sensors
14.14.Quantum: covering the range from visible to near infrared
14.15.Results and status for IR vision
14.16.Potential unresolved questions and issues
14.17.PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsibility and wide spectrum
15.1.Quantum dots in lighting applications
15.2.QDs in horticulture
15.3.Achieving high CRI in general lighting
15.4.Why the search for narrow FWHM red phosphors (I)?
15.5.Achieving warm colours using 'remote' QD phosphors
15.6.Examples of LED lights with remote QD integration
15.7.Achieving high CRI using on-chip phosphors
15.8.On-chip QD integration: different LED types and performance requirements
15.9.Achieving high CRI using on-chip QDs: stability results (I)
16.1.Many competing technologies in PV
16.2.Quantum dot PV is still in early stage
16.3.Comparison of efficiencies
16.4.Quantum dot PV: SWOT analysis
16.5.Progress in QD photovoltaics
16.6.QD luminescent solar concentrator?
17.1.Hydrogen production
17.2.Visible light photocatalysis
17.5.QDChip spectrometer
17.6.Security tagging
18.1.Company profiles: material companies
18.1.2.QD Vision
18.1.4.Quantum Material Corporation
18.1.8.Pacific Light
18.1.11.Nanjing Technology Company
18.1.12.Shoei Chemical
18.1.14.Dow Electronic Materials
18.1.16.Qlight (Merck)
18.1.17.ULVAC Solutions
18.2.Company profiles: non-material companies
18.2.2.LG Display
18.2.3.Wah Hong (now retired)
18.2.7.Dai Nippon Printing (DNP)
18.3.Company profiles: non-material non-display companies
18.3.1.InVisage (now Apple
18.3.4.The Nexxus R30 lightbulb (discontinued)
18.3.6.Pacific Light
18.3.8.Recent collaboration: Marl Partner
18.3.10.Magnolia Solar Corporation
18.3.11.QD solar concentrator (UbiQD - Los Alamos)
18.3.12.Quantag: quantum dot security tagging

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