Off Grid & Energy Harvesting Report

By 2040, electricity generated off grid will exceed the green electricity from national grids

Self-Powering Smart Cities 2018-2028

Producing electricity from city roads, windows, buildings, barriers, wind, water, BIPV.


 
The new 140+ page IDTechEx report, "Self-Powering Smart Cities 2018-2028" has a host of new infograms, forecasts, roadmaps and technology comparisons embracing activities of no less than 241 organisations. It is intended for distributed energy technology developers and users, property, road and campus developers, electricity utilities, urban planners, legislators and architects. Learn how we have entered a golden age where beautiful and sometimes invisible Building Integrated Photovoltaics BIPV is a practicality rather than an expensive dream. A host of new technologies are assessed in depth, some invisibly retrofittable like photovoltaic window coating and glass that powers its own electrically-operated darkening for privacy and climate control. This hugely increases the addressable markets. We show how this can be on a national grid, using the grid merely as back up or fully off grid.
 
The report starts with a comprehensive Executive Summary and Conclusions, sufficient in itself for those in a hurry as it explains definitions, microgrids to megagrids, good and bad practice, technology preferences and futures with 12 pages of detailed forecasts at the end. After the introduction chapter putting it all in context, there are chapters on urban wind energy including a full appraisal of Airborne Wind Energy to be first commercialised in 2018, urban photovoltaics including how we shall achieve transparency and doubling efficiency, Building Integrated Photovoltaics BIPV in action then a chapter on self-powered multifunctional windows and glass. The seventh chapter appraises electricity generating roads, paths, fences and road furniture and the report closes with a good look at urban blue energy from river and sea: most cities are on one or the other. The emphasis is in on commercialisation and emerging options with real depth. Indeed, it is the first to give a 20 year roadmap of the whole picture, importantly embracing more than the buildings, because, for example, solar paths, fences, road furniture (bus and vehicle charging shelters, signage, lamp posts) and roads together can be the dominant part of the electricity generating package. Learn of a 10MW car park working today.
 
The emphasis is analytical not evangelical. It exposes bad practice as well as good and benchmarks practice in other industries that should be transferred. We assess the many new forms of photovoltaics from that three times as efficient to flexible and/or transparent PV technologies for windows. Learn complementary technologies coming along. For example, a solar road can also capture movement using piezoelectrics and vertical wind turbines down the centre of a road can harness wind from traffic. We throw in some dreams as well because this is a subject where dreams today become practicality tomorrow. Do you want to help emerging nations to prosper without pollution? Do you desire freedom from national grid problems from terrorism, natural disasters, monopoly pricing and neglect? These and other questions are answered from the point of view of what buildings and their immediate environs can contribute electrically. Overall the major trends are identified as being off grid and integration.
 
Only the new report, "Self-Powering Smart Cities 2018-2028" critically covers the whole urban electricity generation picture focussing only on zero emission and looking forward all the way to 2050. It is a very exciting story, assessed and predicted by the many multi-lingual, PhD level analysts at IDTechEx who travel the world on your behalf. Our approach is creative, based on our industrial and academic background in this subject and best energy harvesting practice in other industries that can be transferred to urban infrastructure. The emphasis is what is emerging, its commercialisation and market drivers. The report is complementary to our energy harvesting, off-grid and other reports.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Why make electricity from urban infrastructure?
1.2.Purpose of this report
1.3.Some of the urban locations that will generate their own zero emission electricity
1.4.Off-grid structural types
1.5.Off grid leading technologies
1.6.Microgrids, single mode and minigrids with multi-mode harvesting
1.7.Building integrated photovoltaics BIPV: vitally important
1.8.BIPV impediments and very positive future
1.9.Incompetent urban ZE generation in buildings
1.10.Electricity generation from other urban infrastructure
1.10.1.Outdoor lighting
1.10.2.Solar roads, paths and barriers
1.11.PV as integrated power for other functions
1.12.Continuity as important as cost: energy storage vs energy harvesting for continuity
1.13.Market forecasts
1.13.1.Megacity growth 2011-2025
1.13.2.Megacity population by territory 2016
1.13.3.Which renewables, mainly zero emission, take over grid and off grid generation 2012-2040
1.13.4.World net electricity generation from renewable power by fuel 2012-2040 trillion kWh
1.13.5.Off grid renewable energy installed capacity GW and kW each in 2050
1.13.6.Retrofit building PV, opaque and transparent BIPV 2017-2028 $billion global
1.13.7.View of BIPV commercial, residential, industrial
1.13.8.Market for Wind + solar + small battery
1.13.9.Organic PV projection
1.13.10.Off-grid solar forecast
1.13.11.Installed capacity 2018-2050 kTWh/yr by grid, fringe of grid, off grid stationary, vehicle
1.14.Urban zero emission electricity generation technology and adoption roadmap
1.15.Urban zero emission electricity generation technology and adoption roadmap 2018-2050: storage
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Electrification alone will save 42% of world power demand
2.2.History
2.3.Access to electricity by people in 2018: conflicting forces
2.4.Electricity supply trends 2018 and 2050
2.5.Installed global capacity 2028 kTWh/yr by grid, fringe of grid, off grid stationary, vehicle
2.6.Much is changing
2.7.More reasons to worry about national grids now
2.8.On-grid vs off grid by country
2.9.Trends driving need for PV glass
2.10.Trend in the use of smart glass in the built environment?
2.11.Bridging solar technologies: DeGrussa Australia
3.URBAN WIND ENERGY
3.1.Height and good siting are paramount
3.2.Ground turbine wind power does not downsize well: physics and poorer wind
3.3.Max Bögl Wind AG
3.4.Turbine choices
3.5.Options for tapping excellent 200+m wind: particularly strong at night when PV is off
3.6.Small turbines
3.7.Airborne Wind Energy options: trend cloth kite>fixed wing>drone
3.7.1.Mainly a European thing....
3.7.2.AWE dream and reality
3.7.3.Some of the risks and misleading claims identified
3.7.4.Primary conclusions: AWE technologies
4.URBAN PHOTOVOLTAIC PROGRESS AND STRATEGY
4.1.Benefits sought
4.2.Thin concrete solar; ETH Zurich
4.3.Best Research-Cell Efficiencies
4.4.Basic configurations
4.5.Many competing technologies in PV
4.6.Latest technologies: production readiness
4.6.1.Conformability helps on buildings: SunMan
4.7.Inorganic PV: dominant now, promising future
4.7.1.Si, CdTe, perovskite, GaAs-Ge, in BIPV
4.7.2.Here comes GaAs thin film PV: Hanergy EIV cars have lessons for BIPV
4.7.3.Quantum dot technologies Quantum dot vs perovskite
4.7.4.Solterra
4.7.5.Magnolia Solar Corporation
4.7.6.Quantum dot TLSC: Los Alamos
4.7.7.QD Solar
4.8.Transparent and translucent PV
4.8.1.Kolon Industries
4.8.2.Opvius
4.8.3.Polysolar
4.8.4.SolarWindow Technologies
4.8.5.Tohoku University
4.8.6.Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology
4.9.Transparent Luminescent and Other Solar Concentrators
4.9.1.Michigan State University
4.9.2.University of Exeter's Solar Squared Solar Cells
4.9.3.Universities of Minnesota and Milano Bicocca
4.9.4.Washington Universities Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) Technology Panels
4.9.5.Light-guiding solar concentrators: ITRI Taiwan
4.9.6.Light guide solar optic: Morgan Solar Canada
5.BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS IN ACTION
5.1.Overview
5.2.Car parks and electric vehicle charging shelters
5.2.1.Saudi Aramco
5.2.2.Envision Solar Malta portable solar chargers
5.3.PV windows for buildings: Prism Solar, DSM, Topray, Sunshine Solar
5.4.Smartflex solar facades Via Solis
5.5.Pythagoras Solar
5.6.Taiyo Kogyo
6.SELF POWERED MULTIFUNCTIONAL SMART WINDOWS AND GLASS
6.1.Self powered architectural features
6.2.Summary of phenomena behind smart glass technologies, materials and manufacturers
6.3.Choices of capability of electrically active glass
6.4.Characteristics of electronic darkening options
6.5.PV with optically active window darkening: Princeton University
6.6.SPD technology and others
6.7.Window retrofit becomes possible: Argo
6.8.Research Frontiers Inc
6.9.Transparent OLED lighting self powered?
7.ELECTRICITY GENERATING ROADS, PATHS, FENCES, LAMP POSTS
7.1.Solar roads and paths
7.1.1.TNO Solaroad
7.2.Heavy duty in prospect
7.2.1.Bouygues
7.2.2.Solar Roadways: paths then roads
7.3.Electricity generating roads, paths: PV, piezo or ED?
7.3.1.Google and Pavegen: electrodynamic ED paths
7.3.2.Lancaster University UK
7.3.3.University of California, Merced: Piezo roads
7.3.4.GeorgiaTech piezo surfaces
7.3.5.Electricity from heat of roads, parking lots etc
7.4.Highway barriers: Eindhoven University of Technology
8.URBAN BLUE ENERGY
8.1.Dexawave, Noel Gaci, Euromed Malta wave power
8.2.Marine Power Systems wave power
8.3.REAC Energy ocean current
APPENDIX - DEVELOPING AND LIVING WITH A PV-CENTERED MICROGRID

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