IDTechEx预测,到2034年,水电解槽的年市值将超700亿美元。

2024-2034年绿色制氢和电解槽市场:技术、参与者、预测

回顾碱性、PEM、固体氧化物 & AEM电解槽技术和供应商的发展历程。电解槽技术市场预测。项目分析、技术经济分析、全球电解槽市场分析、电解槽制造分析。


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水电解槽系统作为绿色制氢的核心技术,正不断经历技术的革新和优化。在全球范围内,绿氢项目的开发已吸引大量的资源和资金。一直致力于绿氢研究的IDTechEx,近期更新其2023年版《绿色氢气生产:电解槽市场》报告,推出最新的2024版。最新报告对AWE、PEMEL、AEMEL和SOEC四种主流技术进行了更详尽的剖析,包括工作原理、系统性能特征、材料和组件、工厂需求平衡(BOP)、系统案例研究以及技术的关键优势和局限性的更多详细信息。相较以往版本,新版报告显著扩展了电解槽系统和堆栈供应商列表和系统规格。同时,最新报告新增了项目案例研究、商业模式分析,并对绿色氢气生产成本进行了更细致的考虑。此外,该报告公开了一个包含电解槽供应商信息、商业系统规格和电解槽制造装置规划的数据库。
IDTechEx forecasts the annual water electrolyzer market value to exceed US$70 billion by 2034, representing a CAGR of 40.7% over 2024-2034. This growth is driven by the increasing focus from companies and governments on developing green hydrogen plants to decarbonize hard-to-abate industries. Hydrogen demand is expected to grow globally from incumbent applications, including refining and ammonia production, as well as from new markets such as in methanol, green steel, and transport applications. Additional growth drivers include the continued development and innovation of water electrolysis technologies and installation of large electrolyzer manufacturing capacities worldwide.
 
Continuing its exploration of the green hydrogen space, IDTechEx has updated its Green Hydrogen Production: Electrolyzer Markets 2023 report for 2024, building on existing research. This latest edition delves deeper into the four principal technologies (AWE, PEMEL, AEMEL, and SOEC), offering a comprehensive analysis of their operating principles, system performance characteristics, materials and components, and balance of plant requirements (BOP). It also provides case studies of systems, along with a critical evaluation of the technologies' relative strengths and weaknesses. The report provides a comprehensive list of electrolyzer system and stack suppliers, detailing system specifications of commercial systems across the key technologies. Additionally, it includes green project case studies, examines business models, and presents a nuanced view of the factors influencing the cost of green hydrogen production. Accompanying this report is a database featuring electrolyzer suppliers, specifications of commercial systems, and an overview of planned electrolyzer manufacturing installations.
 
The need for green hydrogen and advanced electrolyzer technologies
Global activities in the hydrogen sector have intensified, with a drive from governments, industries, and corporations to transition to a hydrogen economy for decarbonizing sectors that are difficult to electrify directly. Green hydrogen - produced through water electrolysis powered by renewable energy - has emerged as a key decarbonization solution, propelled by governmental ambitions to establish substantial gigawatt (GW) scale electrolyzer manufacturing and green hydrogen production capacities by the end of this decade.
 
The pivot to green hydrogen goes further than the goal of low-carbon hydrogen production to replace existing grey hydrogen sites - it is a strategic move to decarbonize industries where electrification is not feasible, such as heavy industry (e.g. petroleum refining) and various transportation sectors (e.g. shipping). These sectors, crucial yet challenging in terms of emissions reduction, can leverage hydrogen as a potent and clean energy vector. Additionally, the integration of green hydrogen into the energy mix could enhance energy security and pave the way for new market opportunities in renewable energy storage and coupling of various sectors.
 
Nonetheless, green hydrogen faces many commercial and technical challenges. Among the key hurdles are access to cheap renewable energy with high capacity factors as well as low-cost, efficient and durable electrolyzer systems. The latter necessitates improvement and development of advanced electrolyzer technologies. Moreover, projects need to demonstrate viable business cases and models, which is especially challenging for newer hydrogen applications like renewable energy storage. The report sheds light on some additional challenges.
 
 
Overview of the green hydrogen plant and types of water electrolyzer technology. Source: IDTechEx
 
Electrolyzer technology
There are four main types of electrolyzer technology that can be used to produce green hydrogen: alkaline water (AWE or AEL), proton exchange membrane (PEMEL or PEMWE), anion exchange membrane (AEMEL or AEMWE) and solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEC or SOEL). Each technology comes with its own set of performance characteristics, commercial maturity and various advantages and limitations. This report provides an analysis and comparison of the different electrolyzer systems available, covering working mechanisms, materials employed, and system performance, amongst other factors.
 
Alkaline water electrolyzers (AWE) have long been commercial and used for industrial applications. They are characterized by their lowest capital costs (CapEx) as well as longer stack lifetimes compared to other technologies and are the most mature in terms of manufacturing. PEM electrolyzers (PEMEL) have higher power densities, output hydrogen pressures and faster response times than alkaline systems. This generally makes them better suited to coupling with renewable energy sources directly. PEMEL systems previously lagged behind AWE commercially but are now ready to compete in green hydrogen project installations.
 
SOEC is a relatively recent electrolyzer technology to reach commercial deployment, driven by advancements in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Operating at high temperatures (>600°C), they offer higher system efficiencies but are expensive and require further improvements. However, their higher temperatures and efficiency compared to low-temperature technologies offer several advantages. For example, SOEC systems can reuse waste process heat and co-electrolyzer H2O and CO2 producing syngas, which makes them well-suited for coupling with industrial applications.
 
AEMEL is the youngest and least commercially mature technology on the market. AEMEL aims to combine the benefits of AWE and PEMEL systems - low-cost and abundant materials of AWE with the higher efficiencies and dynamic response rates of PEMEL. The number of players developing AEMEL is limited, but it is likely to gain more market players and presence in commercial green hydrogen projects.
 
While this report focuses on the four technologies discussed above, IDTechEx has also identified novel and alternative electrolyzer technologies. These include CO2, seawater and other novel electrolyzers, such as photoelectrochemical electrolysis. This report provides an overview of these technologies and their commercial development.
 
Electrolyzer market, manufacturing capacities, commercial system specifications, system & project case studies
 
 
IDTechEx has identified many suppliers for the four main electrolyzer technologies, providing lists of players split by technology and region. Manufacturing capacity is expected to increase significantly over the next five years as players look to capture a share of this growing market. IDTechEx analysis shows that European and Chinese companies are particularly active in their plans to expand and grow their electrolyzer manufacturing capacities and capabilities. Significant investment into electrolyzer manufacturing is also expected from North American, India, and other players, which are looking to expand market shares.
 
The electrolyzer market is currently dominated by alkaline (AWE) and PEM electrolyzer manufacturers with comparatively few companies manufacturing or commercializing SOEC and AEMEL systems. However, the similarity between solid oxide electrolyzers and solid oxide fuel cells as well as shared aspects of AEMEL to AWE and PEMEL systems could provide a significant entry point for these technologies into the green hydrogen market. Certainly, growth in the electrolyzer market, across the four electrolyzer types, will be needed to meet ambitious national and regional targets for green and clean hydrogen production.
 
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of electrolyzer manufacturers and the overall market. This includes analysis of players by region and technology as well as manufacturing capacity, based on announced plans to install electrolyzer manufacturing facilities globally. Key examples of commercial systems and green hydrogen projects using different technologies are also presented.
 
Another key aspect of this report is the collection of key performance characteristics for electrolyzer systems. Key metrics for comparing and assessing the performance of an electrolyzer system include system scale (e.g. by production rate of H2), system efficiency (kWh/kg or % LHV), response time, dynamic range, hydrogen purity, output pressure, lifetime, and footprint. IDTechEx collected the different specifications for commercial systems.
 
Overall market narratives & granular 10-year market forecasts
 
 
Ultimately, one of the most important parameters is likely to be levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH), which is heavily influenced by the price of renewable electricity as well as the capital cost (CapEx) of the green hydrogen plant. IDTechEx's report offers discussions on the interplay between renewable energy, system CapEx and green hydrogen production. Furthermore, it offers a forecast for the price reduction in AWE, PEMEL, AEMEL and SOEC technologies.
 
IDTechEx forecasts significant growth in the green hydrogen market, both in terms of project installations and electrolyzer manufacturing capacity. This report offers granular 10-year market forecasts in gigawatts (GW) of electrolyzer capacity and US$ billions (US$B) for the key electrolyzer technologies: AWE, PEMEL, AEMEL and SOEC. An outlook and discussion on future electrolyzer technology adoption is also provided alongside improvements and innovations being made to electrolyzer technology as well as regional expectations for electrolyzer installations and comparison to national hydrogen targets.
 
IDTechEx hydrogen research portfolio
This report draws and expands on IDTechEx's existing research in green hydrogen production. Further information on the hydrogen economy, low-carbon hydrogen production, fuel cells, materials for electrolyzers and fuel cells as well as fuel cell mobility sectors can be found in the reports below:
 
Key aspects of this report:
 
Background into the hydrogen economy including: the need for low-carbon & green hydrogen, overview of global policies & regulations, overview of hydrogen certification standards
 
Analysis of electrolyzer technologies: alkaline water (AWE), proton exchange membrane (PEMEL), anion exchange membrane (AEMEL) and solid oxide (SOEC) electrolyzers. For each technology, IDTechEx provides:
  • Analysis of balance of plant (BOP) component requirements & lists of major suppliers
  • Summary of the technology's operating principles & plant layout, key performance characteristics, pros & cons, major stack or system innovations.
  • Analysis of key electrolyzer manufacturers, commercial system specifications, system case studies, business models & project analysis (by region and status).
 
Overview of alternative & novel electrolyzer technologies including CO2, seawater, and other electrolysis types.
 
Techno-economic considerations & green hydrogen project case studies: renewable energy considerations (e.g. capacity factors), cost of green hydrogen production (CapEx, LCOH), green hydrogen project analysis, key challenges in developing green hydrogen projects.
 
Electrolyzer market analysis: major business models & recent industry trends, comprehensive analysis of electrolyzer manufacturers (by technology, HQ country) and manufacturing capacities (by company, manufacturing country & technology), company profiles (from start-ups to established players) covering AWE, PEMEL, AEMEL, SOEC and alternative electrolyzer technologies.
 
Market forecasts: hydrogen demand (Mtpa), annual & cumulative electrolyzer installations by technology (GW), electrolyzer system capital cost (CapEx) forecast by technology (US$/kW), annual & cumulative electrolyzer market (US$B), regional expectations & comparison to national strategy targets.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
CAGRIDTechEx forecasts the annual water electrolyzer market value to exceed US$70 billion by 2034. This represents a CAGR of 40.7% over 2024-2034.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsGigawatts (GW) of electrolyzer capacity, US$ billions (US$B), US$/kW system CapEx
Regions CoveredWorldwide, All Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America (USA + Canada)
Segments CoveredAlkaline water (AWE), proton exchange membrane (PEMEL), anion exchange membrane (AEMEL) and solid oxide (SOEC) electrolyzers. Forecasts for technologies include annual & cumulative installations in gigawatts (GW), system CapEx reduction, annual & total market value (US$B). Regional expectations for Asia Pacific, Europe, North America and others.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Hydrogen as a key tool for decarbonization
1.2.Production: the colors of hydrogen
1.3.National hydrogen strategies
1.4.Electrolyzer cells, stacks and balance of plant (BOP)
1.5.Overview of electrolyzer technologies
1.6.Electrolyzer balance of plant (BOP) layout example
1.7.Electrolyzer performance characteristics
1.8.Overview of electrolyzer technologies & market landscape
1.9.Pros & cons of electrolyzer technologies
1.10.AWE key performance characteristics
1.11.Advantages & limitations of AWE
1.12.AWE system suppliers by type (atmospheric, pressurized, advanced)
1.13.PEMEL key performance characteristics
1.14.Advantages & limitations of PEMEL
1.15.PEMEL stack suppliers
1.16.AEMEL key performance characteristics
1.17.Advantages & limitations of AEMEL
1.18.AEMEL stack suppliers
1.19.SOEC key performance characteristics
1.20.Advantages & limitations of SOEC
1.21.SOEC & SOFC system suppliers
1.22.Balance of plant component suppliers
1.23.Overview of alternative & novel electrolyzer technologies
1.24.Need for renewable energy & capacity factor considerations
1.25.Electrolyzer manufacturing cost estimates & considerations
1.26.Electrolyzer system capital cost (CapEx) forecast by technology
1.27.Levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH)
1.28.Manufacturing scale-up is key for electrolyzer cost reductions
1.29.Electrolyzer suppliers by region (HQ)
1.30.Electrolyzer suppliers by technology
1.31.Electrolyzer manufacturing overview
1.32.Electrolyzer technology adoption
1.33.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by technology (2023-2029)
1.34.Electrolyzer installations forecast (GW) - annual & total
1.35.Annual electrolyzer installations by technology (GW)
1.36.Annual electrolyzer market (US$B)
1.37.Regional split in electrolyzer installations
1.38.National target & IDTechEx electrolyzer forecast comparison (Mtpa)
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.The need for unprecedented decarbonization
2.2.Hydrogen as a key tool for decarbonization
2.3.What is driving the hydrogen market?
2.4.Hydrogen economy and its key components
2.5.Production: the colors of hydrogen (1/2)
2.6.Production: the colors of hydrogen (2/2)
2.7.Why produce green hydrogen?
2.8.Overview of hydrogen application sectors
2.9.Which sectors could hydrogen decarbonize?
2.10.Power-to-X (PtX, P2X)
2.11.Historic state of the hydrogen industry
2.12.Traditional hydrogen production
2.13.Removing CO₂ emissions from hydrogen production
2.14.Hydrogen production processes by stage of development
3.POLICY & REGULATION
3.1.Overview of policy & regulation
3.1.1.National hydrogen strategies focus on green hydrogen
3.2.Global hydrogen policies
3.2.1.National hydrogen strategies (1/2)
3.2.2.National hydrogen strategies (2/2)
3.2.3.Hydrogen policy developments
3.2.4.Hydrogen policy developments
3.2.5.Hydrogen policy developments
3.2.6.Hydrogen policy developments
3.2.7.Hydrogen policy developments
3.2.8.Global policy impacts
3.2.9.Global policy impacts
3.2.10.National target & IDTechEx electrolyzer forecast comparison (Mtpa)
3.3.Hydrogen certification
3.3.1.Why is hydrogen certification needed?
3.3.2.Elements for a successful certification scheme
3.3.3.Emissions system boundaries for blue & green H₂
3.3.4.Landscape of hydrogen certification schemes (1/2)
3.3.5.Landscape of hydrogen certification schemes (2/2)
3.3.6.Voluntary certification standards
3.3.7.Mandatory certification standards
3.3.8.The potential role of carbon pricing in the hydrogen economy
4.OVERVIEW OF ELECTROLYZER TECHNOLOGIES
4.1.Introduction to electrolyzer technologies
4.1.1.What are electrolyzers?
4.1.2.Monopolar vs bipolar electrolyzers
4.1.3.Overview of electrolyzer technologies
4.1.4.Electrolyzer performance characteristics
4.1.5.Typical green hydrogen plant layout
4.1.6.Electrolyzer cells, stacks and balance of plant (BOP)
4.2.Electrolyzer balance of plant (BOP) components & operational considerations
4.2.1.Introduction to the balance of plant (BOP) for electrolyzers
4.2.2.Electrolyzer balance of plant (BOP) components
4.2.3.Balance of plant (BOP) layout example
4.2.4.Key balance of plant (BOP) design considerations for electrolyzer plants
4.2.5.Thermal management & heat exchangers (1/2)
4.2.6.Thermal management & heat exchangers (2/2)
4.2.7.Electrolyzer plant water uses
4.2.8.Water purification processes (1/3)
4.2.9.Water purification processes (2/3)
4.2.10.Water purification processes (3/3)
4.2.11.Pumping requirements
4.2.12.Overview of electrical infrastructure needed for electrolyzer plants
4.2.13.Electrical infrastructure - transformers, rectifiers & switchgears
4.2.14.Electrical infrastructure - power supply unit (PSU) example
4.2.15.Electrical infrastructure example - Green Power Co Ltd
4.2.16.Hydrogen purity requirements & the need for gas purification
4.2.17.Gas purification - gas-liquid separator overview
4.2.18.Gas purification - gas-liquid separator comparison
4.2.19.Gas-liquid separator example - Pall Corporation
4.2.20.Gas purification - O₂ dehydrogenation & H₂ deoxygenation units
4.2.21.Gas purification - adsorption dryers for water removal
4.2.22.Gas purification - pressure swing adsorption (PSA) (1/2)
4.2.23.Gas purification - pressure swing adsorption (PSA) (2/2)
4.2.24.Gas purification - other options
4.2.25.Hydrogen safety considerations - gas crossover
4.2.26.Hydrogen safety considerations - leak detection case study (1/2)
4.2.27.Hydrogen safety considerations - leak detection case study (2/2)
4.2.28.NanoScent - hydrogen purity sensing case study
4.2.29.Hydrogen compression equipment
4.2.30.Hydrogen compression - Neuman & Esser example
4.2.31.Overview of hydrogen storage
4.2.32.Compressed hydrogen storage
4.2.33.Stationary storage systems
4.2.34.Balance of plant component suppliers (1/2)
4.2.35.Balance of plant component suppliers (2/2)
4.3.Electrolyzer challenges, innovations & comparisons
4.3.1.Why innovate electrolyzer materials & components?
4.3.2.Electrolyzer degradation
4.3.3.Factors to consider in electrolyzer choice
4.3.4.Considerations for choosing electrolyzer technology
4.3.5.Key requirements for cost-competitive green H₂ production
4.3.6.Cost challenges in green hydrogen production
4.3.7.Recent development in the hydrogen market
4.3.8.Future trends in the electrolyzer market
4.3.9.Important competing factors for the green H₂ market
4.3.10.Pros & cons of electrolyzer technologies
4.3.11.Key innovations in electrolyzer technologies
4.3.12.Electrolyzer technologies by state of development
4.3.13.Electrolyzer manufacturers database
5.ALKALINE WATER ELECTROLYZER (AWE) TECHNOLOGY
5.1.Overview of alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE) technology
5.1.1.Alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE) plant - operating principles
5.1.2.AWE plant - process flow diagram
5.1.3.Overview of AWE advantages, limitations, status & prospects
5.1.4.Classifications of alkaline electrolyzers
5.1.5.Atmospheric vs pressurized AWEs
5.1.6.AWE cell designs - Nel ASA & Accelera (Hydrogenics)
5.1.7.AWE key performance characteristics
5.1.8.Advantages & limitations of AWE
5.1.9.AWE materials & components
5.1.10.US DOE technical targets for AWE
5.2.AWE materials & components
5.2.1.Cathode: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
5.2.2.Alkaline HER volcano & cathode catalysts
5.2.3.Nickel-based & Raney Ni electrocatalysts
5.2.4.Anode: oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
5.2.5.OER intermediate steps & scaling relationships
5.2.6.Alkaline OER volcano plot & anode catalysts
5.2.7.Nickel-based & mixed metal oxide (MMO) anodes
5.2.8.Considerations in AWE electrode design
5.2.9.Metal supports for electrocatalysts
5.2.10.Degradation of electrodes (1/2)
5.2.11.Degradation of electrodes (2/2)
5.2.12.AWE cathode & anode catalysts summary
5.2.13.Hydrogen embrittlement & compatible metal alloys
5.2.14.AWE bipolar plate characteristics
5.2.15.AWE bipolar plate materials
5.2.16.AWE separator / diaphragm
5.2.17.Commercial AWE diaphragm - Zirfon (1/2)
5.2.18.Commercial AWE diaphragm - Zirfon (2/2)
5.2.19.AWE gaskets
5.2.20.AWE gasket materials (1/2)
5.2.21.AWE end plates & stack assembly (1/2)
5.2.22.AWE end plates & stack assembly (2/2)
5.3.Zero-gap cell AWE
5.3.1.Zero-gap alkaline electrolyzers
5.3.2.Motivation for improving the AWE
5.3.3.Key innovation focuses for AWE improvement
5.3.4.AWE membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
5.3.5.Porous transport layers (PTLs) (1/2)
5.3.6.Porous transport layers (PTLs) (2/2)
5.3.7.De Nora's zero-gap cell design
5.3.8.Notable projects developing advanced AWE
5.4.Advanced AWE technologies
5.4.1.AWE systems with advanced design features
5.4.2.Next Hydrogen: new AWE stack architecture (1/2)
5.4.3.Next Hydrogen: new AWE stack architecture (2/2)
5.4.4.AquaHydrex: AWE system redesign
5.4.5.Hysata: capillary-fed cell design
5.4.6.Hysata: capillary-fed cell design
5.5.AWE suppliers, system specs, system case studies & project analysis
5.5.1.AWE system suppliers by type (atmospheric, pressurized, advanced)
5.5.2.AWE suppliers list (1/4)
5.5.3.AWE suppliers list (2/4)
5.5.4.AWE suppliers list (3/4)
5.5.5.AWE suppliers list (4/4)
5.5.6.Commercial AWE system specs (1/3)
5.5.7.Commercial AWE system specs (2/3)
5.5.8.Commercial AWE system specs (3/3)
5.5.9.Nel Hydrogen's AWE system case study - skid-mounted system
5.5.10.Exion Hydrogen system case study - containerized system
5.5.11.Overview of AWE projects by status
5.5.12.Overview of AWE projects by region
5.5.13.Overview of operational AWE projects - small to medium scale projects
5.5.14.China - Sinopec Xinjiang Kuqa
5.5.15.Sweden - Ovako's Hofors steel rolling plant
5.5.16.Japan - Fukushima Hydrogen Energy Research Field
5.5.17.Overview of large AWE projects under active development
5.5.18.Saudi Arabia - NEOM Green Hydrogen Complex
5.5.19.Sweden - H2 Green Steel
5.5.20.USA - Advanced Clean Energy Storage (ACES) Delta Hub
6.PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER (PEMEL) TECHNOLOGY
6.1.Overview of proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL) technology
6.1.1.Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL) plant - operating principles
6.1.2.PEMEL plant - process flow diagram
6.1.3.Overview of PEMEL advantages, limitations, status & prospects
6.1.4.PEMEL key performance characteristics
6.1.5.Advantages & limitations of PEMEL
6.1.6.PEMEL materials & components summary
6.1.7.US DOE technical targets for PEMEL
6.1.8.PEMEL & PEMFC component overlap
6.1.9.PEMEL cell design example - Siemens Energy
6.1.10.PEM electrolyzer example
6.2.PEMEL operating principles, materials & components
6.2.1.Cathode: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
6.2.2.Acidic HER volcano & cathode catalysts
6.2.3.Commercial platinum on carbon (Pt/C) catalysts
6.2.4.Anode: oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
6.2.5.Acidic OER volcano & cathode catalysts
6.2.6.Commercial iridium-based catalysts
6.2.7.Ir-Ru mixed metal oxide (MMO) catalysts
6.2.8.PEMEL cathode & anode catalysts summary
6.2.9.Proton exchange membrane overview
6.2.10.Overview of PFSA membranes
6.2.11.Overview of PFSA membranes
6.2.12.Nafion - the market leading membrane
6.2.13.Nafion properties & grades
6.2.14.Pros & cons of Nafion & PFSA membranes
6.2.15.Implications of potential PFAS bans
6.2.16.Gas diffusion layer (GDL) vs porous transport layer (PTL)
6.2.17.PTL/GDL characteristics & materials
6.2.18.Cathode GDL: carbon paper
6.2.19.Anode PTL: sintered porous titanium
6.2.20.Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) overview
6.2.21.PEMEL vs PEMFC membrane electrode assembly
6.2.22.MEA functions & requirements
6.2.23.Typical catalyst coated membrane (CCM)
6.2.24.Bipolar plate functions & characteristics
6.2.25.Bipolar plate flow fields
6.2.26.Commercial bipolar plate: platinum-coated titanium
6.2.27.PEMEL gasket functions & requirements
6.2.28.Gasket design considerations
6.2.29.Gasket material selection
6.2.30.PEMEL cell frames
6.2.31.PEMEL end plates & stack assembly
6.2.32.Stack assembly example - Plug Power
6.3.Advanced PEMEL stack designs
6.3.1.Hoeller Electrolyzer - next generation PEM stacks
6.3.2.Hystar - reducing PEMEL membrane thickness without impacting safety (1/2)
6.3.3.Hystar - reducing PEMEL membrane thickness without impacting safety (2/2)
6.3.4.H2U Technologies - PGM-free PEM electrolyzer
6.3.5.Fusion Fuel - miniaturized PEMEL
6.4.PEMEL suppliers, system specs, system case studies & project analysis
6.4.1.PEMEL stack suppliers
6.4.2.PEMEL suppliers list (1/4)
6.4.3.PEMEL suppliers list (2/4)
6.4.4.PEMEL suppliers list (3/4)
6.4.5.PEMEL suppliers list (4/4)
6.4.6.Commercial PEMEL system specs (1/4)
6.4.7.Commercial PEMEL system specs (1/4)
6.4.8.Commercial PEMEL system specs (1/4)
6.4.9.Commercial PEMEL system specs (1/4)
6.4.10.H-TEC SYSTEMS case study - containerized system
6.4.11.Nel Hydrogen system case study - non-containerized system
6.4.12.Overview of PEMEL projects by status
6.4.13.Overview of PEMEL projects by region
6.4.14.Overview of operational PEMEL projects - small to medium scale projects
6.4.15.Spain - Iberdola's Puertollano Green Hydrogen Plant
6.4.16.Canada - Air Liquide's Becancour plant
6.4.17.Germany - Shell's REFHYNE 1
6.4.18.Overview of large PEMEL projects under active development
6.4.19.France - Air Liquide's Normand'Hy project
6.4.20.USA - Plug Power's liquid hydrogen Texas plant
6.4.21.Portugal - Galp's Sines refinery
7.ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER (AEMEL) TECHNOLOGY
7.1.Overview of anion exchange membrane electrolyzer (AEMEL) technology
7.1.1.Anion exchange membrane electrolyzer (AEMEL) plant - operating principles
7.1.2.AEMEL plant - process flow diagram
7.1.3.The case for AEMEL development
7.1.4.AEMEL's similarities to AWE & PEMEL
7.1.5.AEMEL key performance characteristics
7.1.6.Advantages & limitations of AEMEL
7.1.7.AEMEL materials & components summary
7.2.AEMEL operating principles, materials & components
7.2.1.AEMEL catalysts summary
7.2.2.Anion exchange membranes (AEMs)
7.2.3.Anion exchange membrane (AEM) materials
7.2.4.AEM material challenges & prospects
7.2.5.Comparison of commercial AEM materials
7.2.6.Commercial AEM material examples
7.2.7.AEMEL membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
7.2.8.Commercial AEMEL MEA design
7.2.9.Other AEMEL components: GDL/PTL, bipolar plates, sealants, end plates
7.3.AEMEL suppliers, system specs, system case studies & project analysis
7.3.1.AEMEL stack suppliers
7.3.2.AEMEL suppliers list
7.3.3.Commercial AEMEL system specs
7.3.4.Enapter - the leading AEMEL company
7.3.5.Enapter's AEM Nexus 1000 (1MW system)
7.3.6.Enapter's projects in Asia
7.3.7.Enapter's projects in Europe
8.SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYZER (SOEC) TECHNOLOGY
8.1.Overview of solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEC)
8.1.1.Solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC) plant - operating principles
8.1.2.SOEC plant - process flow diagram
8.1.3.SOEC key performance characteristics
8.1.4.Advantages & limitations of SOEC
8.1.5.SOEC materials & components summary
8.1.6.US DOE technical targets for SOEC
8.2.SOEC operating principles, materials & components
8.2.1.Solid oxide cell configurations
8.2.2.Tubular vs planar SOEC & SOFC cells
8.2.3.SOEC electrolyte functions & requirements
8.2.4.Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte
8.2.5.YSZ electrolyte technical & commercial considerations
8.2.6.Cathode: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
8.2.7.Ni cermet - the conventional material
8.2.8.Anode: oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
8.2.9.LSM-YSZ - the conventional material
8.2.10.SOEC component degradation challenges
8.2.11.SOEC interconnect functions & requirements
8.2.12.Metallic interconnects
8.2.13.SOEC sealant functions & requirements
8.2.14.Compressive sealants
8.2.15.Glass-ceramic sealants
8.2.16.SOEC insulation functions & requirements
8.2.17.Metallic component manufacturing, component integration & assembly
8.2.18.Elcogen - commercial SOEC cell example
8.2.19.Topsoe's SOEC cell development & outlook
8.2.20.Ceres Power - commercial SOFC example
8.3.SOEC suppliers, system case studies, business models & project analysis
8.3.1.SOEC & SOFC system suppliers
8.3.2.SOEC supplier list
8.3.3.Commercial SOEC system specs
8.3.4.FuelCell Energy's SOEC system
8.3.5.FuelCell Energy's SOEC system
8.3.6.Overview of business models for SOEC
8.3.7.Traditional syngas & grey hydrogen production technologies
8.3.8.Opportunity to reuse external process heat for SOEC
8.3.9.Production of syngas using steam & CO₂
8.3.10.Example opportunity - clean syngas production using SOEC
8.3.11.Nuclear plants coupled with electrolysis for pink/purple hydrogen production
8.3.12.Is dynamic SOEC operation possible?
8.3.13.Overview of SOEC projects by region
8.3.14.Overview of SOEC projects by status
8.3.15.USA - Bloom Energy at the NASA Ames Research Center
8.3.16.Netherlands - Sunfire's MultiPLHY
8.3.17.Norway - Norsk E-Fuel Alpha Plant
8.3.18.South Korea -Bloom Energy & SK E&C partnership
9.ALTERNATIVE & NOVEL ELECTROLYZER TECHNOLOGIES
9.1.Overview of alternative & novel electrolyzer technologies
9.1.1.Overview of alternative & novel electrolyzer technologies
9.2.CO₂ electrolysis: low- & high-temperature
9.2.1.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction
9.2.2.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction catalysts
9.2.3.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction technologies
9.2.4.Low-temperature electrochemical CO₂ reduction
9.2.5.ECO2Fuel Project
9.2.6.High-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers
9.2.7.Topsoe
9.2.8.Cost comparison of CO₂ electrochemical technologies
9.2.9.H₂O electrolysis industry much more developed than CO₂ electrolysis
9.2.10.Coupling H₂ and electrochemical CO₂
9.2.11.What products can be made from CO₂ reduction?
9.2.12.Economic viability CO₂ reduction products
9.2.13.USA and Europe leading the way in CO₂ electrolysis
9.2.14.Summary of electrochemical CO₂ reduction
9.3.Seawater electrolysis
9.3.1.Introduction to seawater electrolysis
9.3.2.Direct seawater vs brine (chlor-alkali) electrolysis
9.3.3.Key challenges & limitations of seawater electrolysis
9.3.4.Overview of potential approaches for designing direct seawater electrolyzers
9.3.5.Catalyst research for direct seawater electrolysis
9.3.6.Membrane research for direct seawater electrolysis
9.3.7.Electrolyte research for direct seawater electrolysis
9.3.8.Commercial efforts in direct seawater electrolysis
9.4.Other novel electrolysis technologies
9.4.1.Proton ceramic electrolysis
9.4.2.Photocatalytic & photoelectrochemical methods
9.4.3.New high-temperature electrolysis technology
9.4.4.Direct MCH synthesis - ENEOS Corporation
9.4.5.Direct ammonia production by nitrogen electrolysis
9.4.6.Microbial electrolysis
10.TECHNO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS & GREEN HYDROGEN PROJECT ANALYSIS
10.1.Renewable energy sources for green hydrogen
10.1.1.Effect of geopolitics on gas prices & low-carbon hydrogen
10.1.2.Need for renewable energy & capacity factor considerations (1/2)
10.1.3.Need for renewable energy & capacity factor considerations (2/2)
10.1.4.Wind power potential & regional variability
10.1.5.Solar power potential & regional variability
10.1.6.Strategies to increase green hydrogen plant capacity factors
10.1.7.Importance of dynamic operation for electrolyzers
10.1.8.LCOE & importance of low-cost renewable energy in green H₂ production
10.1.9.Renewable installations needed for green hydrogen plants
10.1.10.Securing renewable energy for green hydrogen projects (1/2)
10.1.11.Securing renewable energy for green hydrogen projects (2/2)
10.1.12.Nuclear plants coupled with electrolysis for pink/purple hydrogen production
10.2.Cost of green hydrogen production
10.2.1.Electrolyzer manufacturing cost estimates & considerations
10.2.2.Electrolyzer system capital cost (CapEx) forecast by technology
10.2.3.Levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH)
10.2.4.Sensitivity of LCOH to electricity prices & system CapEx
10.2.5.LCOH forecast for different types of hydrogen (grey, blue & green)
10.2.6.The impact of IRA tax credits on the cost of hydrogen
10.2.7.Regional LCOH fluctuations
10.3.Green hydrogen project analysis
10.3.1.Technological challenges for developing green hydrogen projects
10.3.2.Financial & macro-economic challenges for developing green hydrogen projects
10.3.3.Regulatory & environmental for developing green hydrogen projects
10.3.4.Green hydrogen project announcements by region
10.3.5.Green hydrogen project announcements by status
10.3.6.Green hydrogen project announcements by technology
11.ELECTROLYZER MARKET ANALYSIS
11.1.Overview of electrolyzer market analysis
11.1.1.Overview of electrolyzer technologies & market landscape
11.2.Electrolyzer market trends & business models
11.2.1.Opportunities to supply low-carbon products
11.2.2.Future-proofing for climate pledges & regulations
11.2.3.Opportunities in the electrolyzer & fuel cell materials supply chain
11.2.4.The focus on PEM electrolyzers
11.2.5.Plug-and-play & customizable PEMEL systems
11.2.6.Containerized electrolyzers & site layout optimization
11.2.7.Systems integration - a promising business strategy
11.2.8.Large scale AWE plants
11.2.9.Battolyser - battery & electrolyzer system
11.2.10.Subsea hydrogen storage
11.2.11.Manufacturing scale-up is key for electrolyzer cost reductions
11.2.12.Electrolyzer manufacturing challenges overview
11.2.13.Simultaneous engineering in electrolyzer design
11.2.14.The push towards electrolyzer gigafactories
11.2.15.Electrolyzer suppliers partnering with project developers
11.2.16.Project development interest from EPC & energy companies
11.2.17.Large order backlogs & long lead times
11.2.18.Key electrolyzer companies facing financial trouble
11.3.Electrolyzer manufacturing & supplier analysis
11.3.1.Electrolyzer supplier & market overview
11.3.2.Electrolyzer manufacturer database
11.3.3.Electrolyzer suppliers by technology
11.3.4.Electrolyzer suppliers by region (HQ)
11.3.5.Electrolyzer suppliers by region (HQ)
11.3.6.Electrolyzer suppliers by country (HQ)
11.3.7.Electrolyzer suppliers by commercialization status & technology
11.3.8.Electrolyzer suppliers by commercialization status & region (HQ)
11.3.9.Electrolyzer manufacturing overview
11.3.10.Electrolyzer technology adoption
11.3.11.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by technology (2023-2029)
11.3.12.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by HQ region (2023-2029)
11.3.13.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by HQ country (2023-2029)
11.3.14.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by manufacturing region (2023-2029)
11.3.15.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by manufacturing country (2023-2029)
11.3.16.Electrolyzer market trends in China & Asia Pacific
11.3.17.Electrolyzer market trends in Europe
11.3.18.Electrolyzer market trends in North America
11.3.19.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by company 2023
11.3.20.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by company 2026
11.3.21.Electrolyzer manufacturing capacities by company 2029
12.ELECTROLYZER MARKET FORECASTS
12.1.Forecast summary
12.2.Electrolyzer market forecasting methodology & assumptions
12.3.Hydrogen demand considerations
12.4.Hydrogen demand forecast
12.5.Electrolyzer installations forecast (GW) - annual & total
12.6.Annual electrolyzer installations by technology (GW)
12.7.Total electrolyzer installations by technology (GW)
12.8.Percentage splits of electrolyzer installations by technology
12.9.Electrolyzer system capital cost (CapEx) forecast by technology
12.10.Annual electrolyzer market (US$B)
12.11.Total electrolyzer market (US$B)
12.12.Regional split in electrolyzer installations (1/2)
12.13.Regional split in electrolyzer installations (2/2)
12.14.National target & IDTechEx electrolyzer forecast comparison (Mtpa)
13.COMPANY PROFILES
13.1.Alkaline water electrolyzers (AWE)
13.1.1.AquaHydrex
13.1.2.Asahi Kasei: Aqualyzer
13.1.3.Battolyser Systems
13.1.4.H2Pro
13.1.5.Hysata
13.1.6.LONGi Hydrogen
13.1.7.Nel ASA
13.1.8.Nel ASA: AWE Electrodes & Manufacturing Facilities
13.1.9.Next Hydrogen
13.1.10.Stargate Hydrogen
13.1.11.thyssenkrupp nucera
13.2.Proton exchange membrane electrolyzers (PEMEL)
13.2.1.1s1 Energy
13.2.2.Electric Hydrogen
13.2.3.H2U Technologies
13.2.4.Hoeller Electrolyzer
13.2.5.H-Tec Systems
13.2.6.Hystar
13.2.7.ITM Power Plc
13.2.8.Ohmium
13.2.9.Plug Power
13.3.Anion exchange membrane electrolyzers (PEMEL)
13.3.1.Enapter AG
13.4.Solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEC)
13.4.1.Bloom Energy
13.4.2.Elcogen
13.4.3.FuelCell Energy
13.4.4.Genvia
13.4.5.OxEon Energy
13.5.Alternative & novel electrolyzer technologies
13.5.1.Advanced Ionics
13.5.2.Atmonia
13.5.3.Avantium: Volta Technology
13.5.4.ENEOS Corporation: Direct MCH Technology
13.5.5.Equatic
13.5.6.Twelve Corporation
 

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2024-2034年绿色制氢和电解槽市场:技术、参与者、预测

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幻灯片 489
Companies 32
预测 2034
已发表 Feb 2024
ISBN 9781835700181
 

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