虚拟、增强和混合现实 2023-2033:技术、参与者和市场: IDTechEx

The extended reality headset industry is forecast to grow to US$20 billion in 2033

虚拟、增强和混合现实 2023-2033:技术、参与者和市场

包括扩展现实耳机、传感器、触觉学、显示屏、光学和元宇宙相关技术等。虚拟、增强和混合现实市场的参与者、预测和分析。


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VR (Virtual Reality) replaces the real environment with the virtual whereas AR (Augmented Reality) overlays content on top of the real world. MR (Mixed Reality) - is when capable AR devices blur the line between the real and digital worlds, with overlaid virtual content interacting with real objects. Collectively, these concepts are referred to as XR (eXtended Reality). The XR headset industry is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 13% between 2023 and 2033 but how will developments in XR device hardware and their use-cases support this?
 
 
Source IDTechEx
VR (Virtual Reality) replaces the real environment with the virtual whereas AR (Augmented Reality) overlays content on top of the real world. MR (Mixed Reality) - is when capable AR devices blur the line between the real and digital worlds, with overlaid virtual content interacting with real objects. Collectively, these concepts are referred to as XR (eXtended Reality). The XR headset industry is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 13% between 2023 and 2033 but how will developments in XR device hardware and their use-cases support this?
 
"Virtual Reality & Augmented Reality Headsets 2023-2033" assesses this market in considerable detail: evaluating the different constituent technologies; evolving use-cases; potential adoption barriers and the difficulties of competing in this crowded space. Profiles of 22 companies are included, with interviews and updates from conferences in 2022 including CES and Laval Virtual. 10-year market forecasts and assessments of the potential for success of the technologies covered are included, covering headsets (VR, AR including MR categorized by field of view), accessories, optics, displays and sensing.
 
VR - from toy to tool
 
VR has found its place as an enabler of telepresence and as a tool for design or visualization, but home gaming has been the key driver of the VR headset industry surpassing the multibillion-dollar mark. However, VR started life as a training tool and the same low-cost standalone devices that hastened adoption for gaming are finding significant use in industry to this end. In October 2021, Accenture ordered 60,000 Meta Quest 2 headsets to help ease onboarding of new recruits, marking a wider trend of employers looking for new ways to promote engagement with remote workforces.
 
This report discusses the ways emerging use-cases are affecting the design and product targeting of VR headsets. A key question addressed is how VR headset manufacturers are finding new ways to compete in the consumer space beyond the Meta-dominated gaming market.
 
AR - the future of mobile computing?
 
MR-capable AR headsets are hoped to one day fulfil the role the smartphone currently plays in our lives, yet most people today have only experienced AR through their smartphones. Attempts to crack the consumer AR headset market have proved extremely challenging. AR headsets have made a wider impact in professional usage with clear use-cases such as guiding workers around a warehouse, simplifying complex maintenance tasks, aiding complex surgery, and more. However, when targeting the general public, headset manufacturers must contend with social acceptability and privacy concerns - not to mention pricing their headsets to sell and demonstrating their value in daily life.
 
How might AR headsets find niches in the consumer space in the short-term? How will AR applications transition from the smartphone to headsets? How will AR devices compete with more established technologies, including VR headsets, in the longer term? Addressing these questions is a major focus of the report.
 
Componentry, computing, and connectivity
 
Many XR devices are now standalone, fully contained computing systems with Qualcomm now offering a line of specialist XR SoCs (system-on-chips) to support this. However, more conventional computing systems remain ready for XR headsets to take advantage of. As the XR industry remains in a transitional time, an emerging category of XR devices shares computing load between onboard chips and external devices. This uses modern low-latency communication standards, particularly WiFi 6E, to achieve this wirelessly. As XR devices supplant these devices, a move towards mobile edge computing via 5G and its replacements is likely, with some XR SoCs already containing 5G antennas to support this. The evolution of XR devices from PC peripherals to fully-fledged computing devices is examined in IDTechEx's report.
 
Displays and optics define much of the user experience of XR devices as well as setting many variables in their design. The report outlines the industry landscape for important components. It also outlines how key challenges holding back the XR industry - particularly the low-efficiency optics and displays used in AR devices - impact current devices and will be tackled in the future.
 
To blur the line between the real and the digital as strongly as possible, XR headsets must take in a huge range of data about the environment and their users. This report covers the range of sensors that are required to perform such diverse tasks as mapping out the user's location with cameras and track where the user is looking. Haptics add the dimension of touch to XR, deepening immersion and making interactions more natural. The integration of haptics into XR peripherals is detailed, and the ways in which haptics and sensing combine to facilitate new modes of interaction with created realities are outlined.
 
Historic trends in the XR industry hold the key to major questions
 
From IDTechEx's database of technical and pricing data for the majority of XR headsets released since 2010, the changing status of the industry is quantitively examined with conclusions indicating the next decade of evolution. How have headsets competed with one another? What gaps could new entrants exploit? What can we expect from the next generation of XR headsets? The answers lie in examining the data in the context of IDTechEx's wider survey of the industry.
Key aspects
This report provides the following information:
 
Technology trends & player analysis:
  • An introduction to the augmented, mixed and virtual reality (AR/MR/VR) headset market, including analysis of key trends, expected market entrance from major players and assessment of the competitive landscape.
  • Quantitative analysis of historic data on pricing and technical specifications for the AR/MR/VR headset industry, with conclusions on future development drawn.
  • Assessment of the evolving applications for AR/MR/VR headsets for consumer and professional use, including an introduction to important software and standards shaping the industry, discussion of the metaverse, segmentation of key customers and applications for AR/MR/VR, analysis of the effects of new applications on headset designs and the new competitive niches in the market that emerging players are looking to exploit.
  • Outline of trends in headset design and how these cater to various applications.
  • In-depth technical discussion of computing componentry for AR/MR/VR, how AR/MR/VR devices interface with computers and the effects of new, low-latency communication standards including WiFi 6E and 5G.
 
Discussion of important componentry for AR/MR/VR devices and accessories:
  • Optics, including VR lenses and waveguides/optical combiners for AR/MR.
  • Displays including LCD, OLED, microLED and LBS (laser beam scanning).
  • Sensing for positional and motion tracking.
  • Sensing for eye tracking.
  • Haptics for AR/MR/VR devices and their accessories.
  • The future of XR input devices, unifying sensing and haptics.
  • Company profiles, including interviews and SWOT analysis.
 
Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • 10-year market forecasts for overall AR/MR/VR headset and accessory market.
  • 10-year granular market forecasts for component technologies of AR/MR/VR headsets, including displays, optics, optical sensors and haptics.
  • Analysis and technical discussion of the potential winning technologies within these areas.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.List of acronyms
1.2.Companies profiled
1.3.What are VR, AR, MR and XR?
1.4.Established applications in VR, AR & MR
1.5.The "metaverse": the next big thing for XR?
1.6.Everyone wants a chunk of the metaverse: Big Tech entry into the AR/MR market
1.7.Classifying headsets
1.8.Lessons for consumer XR success
1.9.Comparing XR headset OEMs
1.10.The future of VR
1.11.VR headsets: revenue forecast
1.12.VR still has technical challenges to overcome
1.13.VR: status and outlook
1.14.AR headsets: revenue forecast
1.15.AR applications in 2023 vs. 2033
1.16.Consumer AR devices face tough competition
1.17.AR headsets as a replacement for other smart devices
1.18.AR: price segmentation has only just stabilized
1.19.The newest AR devices emphasize simplicity
1.20.AR: Outlook by device type
1.21.AR: Outlook by computing type
1.22.Important XR-specific components
1.23.SWOT: XR computing solutions
1.24.Technological status of VR lens technologies
1.25.VR lenses: key technological takeaways
1.26.Status and market potential of optical combiners
1.27.AR combiners: key technological takeaways
1.28.The future of VR displays
1.29.Technological status of AR displays
1.30.Summary: Displays for AR
1.31.Controllers and sensing connect XR devices to the environment and the user
1.32.Summary: Positional and motion tracking for XR
1.33.Common forms for XR haptic devices
1.34.The status of haptics in XR
1.35.XR headsets: state of the market in 2022
2.INTRODUCTION TO VR/AR/MR
2.1.Overview - What are VR, AR, MR and XR?
2.2.Defining terms
2.2.1.XR nomenclature - a source of confusion
2.2.2.MR and AR - spectrum or subset?
2.2.3.XR nomenclature used in this report
2.2.4.Nomenclature confusion: AR, MR and smartglasses
2.2.5.AR vs. MR: a blurring line
2.2.6.Further confusion: passthrough and see-through AR/MR
2.2.7.Old Terminology: PC-, Standalone, and Smartphone XR
2.2.8.Updating terminology: Standalone vs. Tethered
2.2.9.Why computing defines XR devices
2.3.The evolution of extended reality (XR)
2.3.1.AR, MR, VR and XR: a brief history
2.3.2.The 2010s to date - the age of XR begins
2.3.3.Gauging interest: Google search trends
2.3.4.AR, MR, and VR - market development
2.3.5.The consumer VR market is consolidating
2.3.6.Applications in VR, AR & MR
2.3.7.The "metaverse" - hype or the new shape of the internet?
2.4.Introduction to VR
2.4.1.VR introduction: an evolving landscape
2.4.2.VR: who has the intellectual property?
2.4.3.Types of VR headset: PC, standalone, smartphone/mobile
2.4.4.Timeline of modern VR
2.5.Introduction to AR and MR devices
2.5.1.What makes an AR device MR-capable?
2.6.Overview of major players
2.6.1.VR headsets: major OEMs
2.6.2.AR/MR headsets: major OEMs
2.6.3.Potential Big Tech entries to the AR market (I)
2.6.4.Potential Big Tech entries to the AR market (II)
2.6.5.ByteDance and Pico - late to the metaverse race?
2.6.6.The outlook for XR: Comparing the VR, AR and MR markets
3.MARKET FORECASTS
3.1.Overview
3.1.1.VR headset forecasting: important data sources
3.1.2.AR headset forecasting: important data sources
3.1.3.Methodology - device and component forecasts
3.1.4.AR and VR headsets: state of the market in 2022
3.1.5.AR and VR headsets: Component technology choices
3.2.Forecasts: VR headsets and components
3.2.1.VR: Historic device sales
3.2.2.Data on PC VR headset usage for gaming
3.2.3.Evolution in VR headset adoption for gaming
3.2.4.Cyclic nature of VR hardware sales
3.2.5.Product release timelines: Oculus/Meta and HTC
3.2.6.VR headsets: volume forecast
3.2.7.VR headsets: revenue forecast
3.2.8.VR forecast data tables
3.2.9.VR headset forecasts: discussion
3.2.10.VR displays: technological trends
3.2.11.VR component forecasting: displays
3.2.12.VR lenses: the winning technological solutions
3.2.13.VR component forecasting: lenses
3.2.14.Eye tracking in VR: forecasting overall adoption rate
3.2.15.VR component forecasting: eye tracking
3.2.16.Eye tracking - discussing technology adoption
3.2.17.Prominent technical challenges to be addressed
3.2.18.VR forecasting: Summary and outlook (I)
3.2.19.VR forecasting: Summary and outlook (II)
3.3.Forecasts: AR headsets and components
3.3.1.AR: Defining terminology (I)
3.3.2.AR: Defining terminology (II)
3.3.3.What is not considered in forecasting
3.3.4.AR: Historic device sales
3.3.5.AR: Outlook by device type
3.3.6.AR: Outlook by computing type
3.3.7.AR headsets: volume forecast
3.3.8.AR headsets: revenue forecast
3.3.9.AR headsets: volume forecast (subdivided by computing type)
3.3.10.AR headsets: revenue forecast (subdivided by computing type)
3.3.11.AR forecast data tables
3.3.12.AR forecast data tables - subdivided by computing type
3.3.13.AR combiners: Promising technological candidates
3.3.14.AR component forecasts: optical combiners
3.3.15.AR displays: the strongest future choices
3.3.16.AR component forecasts: displays
3.3.17.Eye tracking in AR: forecasting overall adoption rate
3.3.18.AR component forecasting: eye tracking
3.3.19.AR forecasting : Summary and Outlook (I)
3.3.20.AR forecasting: Summary and outlook (II)
3.4.Forecasts: XR accessories
3.4.1.XR accessories: revenue forecast
3.4.2.Haptics in XR accessories: revenue forecast
3.5.Forecasts: overall summary
3.5.1.Key points from this report's forecasts
4.XR APPLICATIONS AND CONTENT
4.1.Overview
4.1.1.VR vs. AR: comparing applications in 2022
4.1.2.What is a computing platform?
4.1.3.XR devices and the metaverse
4.1.4.Industry 4.0 and XR
4.1.5.VR/AR solutions for Industry 4.0
4.1.6.Building software for XR: software development kits, game engines and standardization
4.1.7.The OpenXR standard - unifying the XR ecosystem
4.1.8.Segmenting XR target customers
4.1.9.Customer targeting in VR vs. AR
4.2.VR applications
4.2.1.VR devices and their use environment
4.2.2.Gaming dominates VR for consumers
4.2.3.The VR games industry
4.2.4.HTC is trying to find a new niche with the Vive Flow
4.2.5.What makes a VR headset suitable for professional use?
4.2.6.VR for enterprise: diverse applications, similar hardware
4.2.7.The Meta/Oculus Quest 2 remains the XR device to beat - but the road has been bumpy
4.2.8.Avatar Medical: VR-viewable medical imaging
4.2.9.VR applications in 2023 vs. 2033
4.2.10.VR applications: outlook
4.3.AR applications
4.3.1.Smartphones have introduced the public to AR
4.3.2.SDKs for smartphone AR
4.3.3.Smartphone AR is defining applications for AR headsets
4.3.4.Visionaries 777 (I): rich 3D AR content for smartphones and headsets
4.3.5.Visionaries 777 (II): from marketing to training and productivity
4.3.6.Niantic and Pokémon Go: how much does AR add to smartphone gaming?
4.3.7.Qualcomm and Snapdragon Spaces
4.3.8.Consumer AR headsets: a rocky history
4.3.9.AR headsets as a replacement for other smart devices
4.3.10.Consumer AR devices face tough competition
4.3.11.Consumer AR in the short to medium term
4.3.12.Tilt 5: finding a niche for AR gaming
4.3.13.Nreal: AR as a replacement for screens
4.3.14.Commercial usage of AR headsets
4.3.15.Holo|one: streamlining commerical AR
4.3.16.HoloForge/Asobo Studios: bringing game development expertise to enterprise XR
4.3.17.Immersion: IT for XR devices
4.3.18.Artificial intelligence holds the key to AR's future
4.3.19.AR applications in 2023 vs 2033
4.3.20.AR applications: outlook
5.HEADSETS
5.1.Historic trends in XR headsets
5.1.1.Analyzing hardware trends
5.1.2.Price segmentation vs. target use case
5.1.3.VR: price evolution within segments (consumer)
5.1.4.VR: price evolution within segments (professional)
5.1.5.AR: price segmentation has only just stabilized
5.2.Trends in XR optics and displays
5.2.1.FoV evolution is relatively static
5.2.2.VR devices prioritize FoV over pixel density
5.2.3.AR pixel density is ahead of VR - and rapidly improving
5.2.4.VR screen resolution evolution outpaces AR
5.2.5.Higher FOV generally increases device weight
5.2.6.VR image quality vs. price - do you get what you pay for?
5.2.7.AR image quality vs. price: muddy waters
5.2.8.Trends in optics and displays: conclusion
5.3.Trends in other XR specifications
5.3.1.Reduction in device weight appears underprioritized
5.3.2.For VR positional tracking, 3DoF systems are dying out
5.3.3.AR tracking capabilities lag VR, showing the retreat of mixed reality-capable devices
5.3.4.Expectations for the future of XR device specifications
5.4.VR headsets
5.4.1.Introduction to VR
5.4.2.VR introduction: an evolving landscape
5.4.3.VR: who has the intellectual property?
5.4.4.Types of VR headset: PC, standalone, smartphone/mobile
5.4.5.Timeline of modern VR
5.4.6.Smartphone VR - the gateway to VR
5.4.7.Smartphone VR: from dominance to obsolescence
5.4.8.Was smartphone VR intended to be a long-term prospect?
5.4.9.Tethered VR - defining the VR experience
5.4.10.Tethered VR - device compatibility
5.4.11.Standalone VR - simplifying VR
5.4.12.Generating mass appeal in VR
5.4.13.Standalone vs. tethered VR - asserting a new status quo
5.4.14.The rapid rise of standalone VR
5.4.15.VR headsets and application specificity
5.4.16.Compact VR devices and the search to stand out
5.4.17.VR headsets: summary
5.5.Profiles of VR industry players
5.5.1.Pico's entry to the consumer market
5.5.2.Lynx Reality (I): production delays and challenging conditions for hardware startups
5.5.3.Lynx Reality (II): battery development and upcoming devices
5.5.4.Lynx Reality (III): user experience and ecosystem compatibility
5.5.5.Panasonic/Shiftall - beaten to market by HTC?
5.5.6.Shiftall MeganeX vs. Vive Flow - who are they aimed at?
5.6.AR headsets - Including MR-capable AR
5.6.1.AR device designs vary based on application
5.6.2.What will the AR device of the future look like?
5.6.3.Hardware hurdles hindering AR ubiquity
5.6.4.Target sectors for AR products
5.6.5.How many AR product announcements see release?
5.6.6.Categories of AR/MR
5.6.7.AR announcements by computing type - standalone devices dominate
5.6.8.Targets for AR hardware
5.7.Profiles of AR industry players
5.7.1.Lenovo and the ThinkReality A3 (I)
5.7.2.Lenovo and the ThinkReality A3 (II)
5.7.3.Microsoft's HoloLens 2 (I) — design
5.7.4.Microsoft's HoloLens 2 (II) — display and optics
5.7.5.Snap's AR Spectacles development kit: spectacular looks, less-than-spectacular battery life
5.7.6.Mira: simplifying AR
5.7.7.Vuzix: industrial AR leaders
5.8.Other smart headwear
5.8.1.Wearables related to VR: FPV and video glasses
5.8.2.Wearables related to AR: hearing glasses, camera glasses
5.8.3.Audio and camera glasses as a stepping stone to consumer AR
5.8.4.Outlook for non-XR smart headwear
6.COMPONENTS
6.1.Computing and communications
6.1.1.Why computing defines XR devices
6.1.2.Tethered vs. Standalone: a resurgence for tethered headsets? Not likely.
6.1.3.Chipsets: powering standalone XR
6.1.4.How do specialist XR SoCs differ?
6.1.5.Why are SoCs appearing in tethered XR headsets?
6.1.6.The line between Tethered and Standalone XR is blurring
6.1.7.AR devices as "heads-up smartwatches"
6.1.8.VR backpack computing: a transition technology
6.1.9.Case study (I): location-based entertainment, WiFi 6E and HTC's Vive Focus 3
6.1.10.HTC Vive case study (II): WiFi 6E's capabilities and the next steps
6.1.11.Unlink VR case study: optical communication with headsets
6.1.12.SWOT: XR computing solutions (I)
6.1.13.SWOT: XR computing solutions (II)
6.2.XR optics
6.2.1.Motivation - why are XR optics important?
6.2.2.Optical requirements for XR
6.2.3.AR/MR vs. VR optics: development status and design considerations
6.2.4.Defining field of view (FoV) - a key consideration for XR optics and headsets
6.2.5.The vergence-accommodation conflict
6.2.6.Comparing the future of the VR and AR optics industries
6.3.VR optics
6.3.1.Introduction
6.3.2.The VR optics technology landscape
6.3.3.Fresnel lenses: SWOT analysis
6.3.4.Polarization-based pancake lenses
6.3.5.Devices using pancake lenses
6.3.6.Catadioptric freeform prism lenses
6.3.7.Solutions to the vergence-accommodation conflict for VR
6.3.8.SWOT: VA conflict solutions (I)
6.3.9.SWOT: VA conflict solutions (II)
6.3.10.Technological status of VR lens technologies
6.3.11.VR lenses: key technological takeaways
6.4.AR optics
6.4.1.Optical combiners: definition and classification
6.4.2.Optical combiners for AR
6.4.3.Common waveguide architectures
6.4.4.Common waveguide architectures: Operating principle and device examples
6.4.5.Common waveguides architectures: the influence of eyebox size
6.4.6.Introduction: reflective (geometric) waveguides
6.4.7.Reflective waveguides: SWOT Analysis
6.4.8.Introduction: diffractive waveguides
6.4.9.Diffractive waveguides: method of operation
6.4.10.Introduction: surface relief grating waveguides
6.4.11.Surface relief grating waveguide example: Magic Leap 1
6.4.12.Diffractive waveguides (SRG): SWOT Analysis
6.4.13.Introduction: Volume holographic grating waveguides
6.4.14.Diffractive waveguides (VHG): SWOT Analysis
6.4.15.Trouble at Microsoft? The future of HoloLens devices and possible usage of holographic waveguides
6.4.16.Birdbath optics: current top choice for lower-end AR
6.4.17.Birdbath combiners: SWOT analysis
6.4.18.Lumus: Company overview
6.4.19.Dispelix: Company overview
6.4.20.DigiLens: Company overview (I)
6.4.21.DigiLens: Company overview (II)
6.4.22.Status and market potential of optical combiners
6.4.23.AR combiners: key technological takeaways
6.5.XR displays
6.5.1.Introduction: Displays for AR/VR
6.5.2.Displays for AR/VR: Technology breakdown
6.5.3.How do display requirements differ between AR and VR?
6.5.4.Foveated rendering and displays: Higher display quality at reduced resolution for both VR and AR
6.6.VR displays
6.6.1.Display types in VR products
6.6.2.Comparing VR display types
6.6.3.VR headset example utilizing LCD
6.6.4.Overview of OLED displays
6.6.5.LCDs for VR: set to remain dominant?
6.6.6.New headsets and the OLED resurgence
6.6.7.Summary: Displays for VR
6.7.AR displays
6.7.1.Fragmented display market for AR displays
6.7.2.Micro-display technology comparison (I)
6.7.3.Micro-display technology comparison (II)
6.7.4.Jade Bird Display (JBD): Company overview
6.7.5.TriLite: Company overview
6.7.6.Display types in AR/MR Products: Summary
6.7.7.VividQ: holographic displays for AR
6.7.8.SWOT: "True 3D" displays
6.7.9.Summary: Displays for AR (I)
6.7.10.Summary: Displays for AR (II)
6.8.Overview of XR sensing
6.8.1.Controllers and sensing connect XR devices to the environment and the user
6.8.2.Where are XR sensors located?
6.8.3.Sensors case study: Microsoft's HoloLens 2
6.9.Positional and motion tracking
6.9.1.3DoF vs. 6DoF: what motion can my headset track?
6.9.2.6DoF tracking setups: inside-out vs. outside-in
6.9.3.Tracking (1) - A basic explanation of an inside-out setup
6.9.4.Tracking (2) - A typical outside-in PC VR setup
6.9.5.Beyond 6DoF: what else might XR headsets track?
6.9.6.3D imaging and motion capture
6.9.7.Application example: Motion capture in animation
6.9.8.Stereoscopic vision
6.9.9.Time of Flight (ToF) cameras for depth sensing
6.9.10.Structured light
6.9.11.Comparison of 3D imaging technologies
6.9.12.Ultraleap: hand tracking without the controllers
6.9.13.Microsoft: from Kinect to HoloLens
6.9.14.Intel's RealSense™: structured light for 3D motion tracking vs. stereoscopic cameras
6.9.15.Summary: Positional and motion tracking for XR
6.10.Eye tracking
6.10.1.Why is eye-tracking important for AR/VR devices?
6.10.2.Eye-tracking sensor categories
6.10.3.Eye-tracking using cameras with machine vision
6.10.4.Eye-tracking companies based on conventional/NIR cameras and machine vision software
6.10.5.Event-based vision: Pros and cons
6.10.6.Importance of software for event-based vision
6.10.7.Prophesee: Company overview
6.10.8.Eye tracking with laser scanning MEMS
6.10.9.AdHawk Microsystems: Laser scanning MEMS for eye tracking
6.10.10.Capacitive sensing of eye movement
6.10.11.Somalytics: Company overview
6.10.12.Summary: Eye-tracking for XR
6.11.Haptics
6.11.1.Haptics: bringing another sense into XR
6.11.2.Classes of haptic feedback
6.11.3.Commodity haptic feedback actuators
6.11.4.Common forms for XR haptic devices
6.11.5.Haptics in XR controllers
6.11.6.Short-term steps for XR controller haptics
6.11.7.Wearable haptic interfaces in VR
6.11.8.Where can enhanced haptic experiences add value to XR?
6.11.9.Meta's microfluidic glove
6.11.10.SenseGlove: haptics and motion capture
6.11.11.Actronika: haptic vests conveying a full range of sensations
6.11.12.WeART - fingertip thermal haptics for XR
6.11.13.Contactless haptics: suitable for XR?
6.11.14.Summary: Haptics for XR
6.12.The future of interfacing with XR devices
6.12.1."Traditional" computing has yet to fully replace the keyboard - doing so is imperative for XR
6.12.2.Solving the XR interface equation: low-profile measurement methods
6.12.3.Electromyography (EMG) - measuring the muscles
6.12.4.Meta's prototype EMG wristband measures finger position with mm resolution
6.12.5.Electroencephalography (EEG) - reading the brain
6.12.6.An opportunity for EEG in XR
6.12.7.Summary: Emerging XR interface technologies
 

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虚拟、增强和混合现实 2023-2033:技术、参与者和市场

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幻灯片 379
预测 2033
已发表 Sep 2022
ISBN 9781915514189
 

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