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Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Electronics Applications 2012-2022

Technologies, Players & Opportunities
Brand new for April 2012
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Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and their compounds exhibit extraordinary electrical properties for organic materials, and have a huge potential in electrical and electronic applications such as photovoltaics, sensors, semiconductor devices, displays, conductors, smart textiles and energy conversion devices (e.g., fuel cells, harvesters and batteries). This updated report brings all of this together, covering the latest work from over 100 organisations around the world to details of the latest progress applying the technologies. New developments, challenges and opportunities regarding material production and applications are provided.
The percentage of printed and partly printed electronics that is flexible 2012-2022
Source: IDTechEx
Carbon Nanotube and Graphene for Electronics Applications
Printable carbon nanotube inks and graphene-based inks are beginning to hit the market. However, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have not yet met commercial expectations from a decade ago, and now hot on its heels is graphene. Graphene is considered a hot candidate for applications such as computers, displays, photovoltaics and flexible electronics.
Opportunities for Graphene
Graphene and its compounds are increasingly used to make transistors that show extremely good performance - a progress that comes with new cheaper production processes for the raw material. Transistors on the basis of graphene are considered to be potential successors for some silicon components currently in use.
Promise for CNTs
On the other hand, carbon nanotubes are still a strong focus for research. CNTs are used for making transistors and are applied as conductive layers for the rapidly growing touch screen market. Still considered a viable replacement for ITO transparent conductors in some applications, CNTs are not out of the game just yet. Fabricated as transparent conductive films (TCF), carbon nanotubes can potentially be used as a highly conductive, transparent and cost efficient alternative in flexible displays and touch screens, for instance. While the cost of carbon nanotubes was once prohibitive, it has been coming down in recent years as chemical companies build up manufacturing capacity.
Ten Year Forecasts
IDTechEx market forecasts indicate that CNT and graphene transistors and other applications may be commercially available in volume from 2016 onwards, according to the new report Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Electronics Applications 2012-2022. According to IDTechEx, the biggest opportunity for both materials is in printed and potentially printed electronics, where the value of these devices that partly incorporate these materials will reach over $63 billion in 2022.
Market forecast by component type for 2012-2022 in US $ billions
Source: IDTechEx
Challenges are material purity, device fabrication, and the need for other device materials such as suitable dielectrics. However, the opportunity is large, given the high performance, flexibility, transparency and printability. Companies that IDTechEx surveyed report growth rates as high as 300% over the next five years. New developments regarding the production of pure CNTs and the separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes are given in this updated report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at Research@IDTechEx.com or call Clare on +44 (0) 1223 813 703 if you are based in EMEA or Raoul on +1 617 577 7890 if you are based in the Americas, ROW or Spain.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Carbon Nanotubes
2.1.Properties of CNTs
2.2.Metallic/semiconducting CNT separation
2.3.CNTs as conductors
2.4.Comparison to other conductors
2.5.Comparison to other semiconductors
2.6.Properties of graphene
2.7.Creating a band gap in graphene
3.1.Manufacture of CNTs
3.1.1.Arc Method
3.1.2.Laser Ablation Method
3.1.3.Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
3.2.Manufacture of Graphene
3.2.1.Scotch tape method
3.2.2.Epitaxial Graphene - grown on silicon-carbide crystals
3.2.3.Expanded Graphene
3.2.4.Templated growth
3.2.5.Other Approaches
3.2.6.New Process from UCSB - LPCVD
4.1.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
4.2.Printing Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene
4.2.1.Latest progress
4.3.1.Deposition technologies and main applications
4.3.2.Latest progress with CNT conductors
4.3.4.First commercialisation of Graphene based ink by MWV
4.5.1.CNT Transistors
4.5.2.Graphene Transistors
4.6.OLEDs and flexible displays
4.6.1.Latest progress
4.6.2.Surface-Mediated Cells, SMCs
4.8.Energy storage devices
4.9.1.Organic Photovoltaics
4.9.2.Hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics
4.9.3.Infrared solar cells
4.9.4.CNT Solar Cell
4.10.NRAM data storage device
4.11.Sensors and Smart Textiles
4.12.TCF for Touch Screens
4.13.Thin film speakers
4.14.CNTs for Touch Screens
4.15.Graphene for Touch Screens
5.1.Aneeve Nanotechnologies LLC, USA
5.2.Angstron Materials LLC., USA
5.3.Applied Nanotech, USA
5.4.Arry International Group, Hong Kong
5.5.BASF, Germany
5.6.Bayer MaterialScience, Germany
5.7.Berkeley Lab, USA
5.8.Brewer Science, USA
5.9.Cabot Corp., USA
5.10.Canatu Ltd., Finland
5.11.Carben Semicon Ltd, Russia
5.12.Carbon Solutions, Inc., USA
5.13.CarboLex, Inc., USA
5.14.Cap-XX Australia
5.15.Case Western Reserve University, USA
5.16.Catalyx Nanotech Inc. (CNI), USA
5.17.CheapTubes, USA
5.18.Chengdu Organic Chemicals Co. Ltd. (Timesnano), China
5.19.CNano Technology Ltd, USA
5.20.Cornell University, USA
5.21.CSIRO, Australia
5.22.C3Nano, Inc., USA
5.23.Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd., Japan
5.24.DuPont Microcircuit Materials (MCM), USA
5.25.Durham Graphene Sciences
5.26.Eden Energy Ltd., Australia
5.27.Eikos, USA
5.28.Focus Metals
5.29.Frontier Carbon Corporation (FCC), Japan
5.30.Fujitsu Laboratories, Japan
5.31.Future Carbon GmbH, Germany
5.32.Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), USA
5.33.Grafen Chemical Industries (GCI)
5.35.GRAnPH Nanotech
5.36.Graphene Energy Inc., USA
5.37.Graphene Frontiers
5.38.Graphene Industries Ltd., UK
5.39.Graphene Laboratories
5.40.Graphene Square
5.41.Graphene Technologies (GT)
5.44.Hanwha Nanotech Corporation, Korea
5.45.Harbin Mulan
5.47.HeJi, Inc., China
5.48.Helix Material Solutions Inc., USA
5.49.Hodogaya Chemical Co., Ltd., Japan
5.50.Honda Research Institute USA Inc. (HRI-US), USA
5.51.Honjo Chemical Corporation, Japan
5.52.HRL Laboratories, USA
5.53.Hyperion Catalysis International, Inc.
5.54.IBM, USA
5.55.Intelligent Materials PVT. Ltd. (Nanoshel), India
5.56.Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA
5.57.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
5.58.Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany
5.59.MER Corporation, USA
5.60.Mitsui Co., Ltd, Japan
5.61.Mknano, Canada
5.62.Nano-C, USA
5.63.NanoCarbLab (NCL), Russia
5.64.Nano Carbon Technologies Co., Ltd. (NCT)
5.65.Nanocomb Technologies, Inc. (NCTI), USA
5.66.Nanocs, USA
5.67.Nanocyl s.a., Belgium
5.68.NanoIntegris, USA
5.69.NanoLab, Inc., USA
5.70.NanoMas Technologies, USA
5.71.Nano-Proprietary, Inc., USA
5.72.Nanoshel, Korea
5.73.Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Inc., USA
5.74.Nanothinx S.A. , Greece
5.75.Nantero, USA
5.76.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan
5.77.National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), USA
5.78.NEC Corporation, Japan
5.80.New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), USA
5.81.NineSigma Inc., USA
5.82.Nissha Printing, Japan
5.83.Noritake Co., Japan
5.84.North Carolina State University, USA
5.85.North Dakota State University (NDSU), USA
5.86.Northeastern University, Boston, USA
5.87.Optomec, USA
5.88.PARU, Korea
5.89.Pennsylvania State University, USA
5.90.PETEC (Printable Electronics Technology Centre), UK
5.91.Purdue University, USA
5.92.Pyrograf Products, Inc., USA
5.93.Quantum Materials Corp
5.94.Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), USA
5.95.Rice University, USA
5.96.Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, USA
5.97.Samsung Electronics, Korea
5.98.Sang Bo Corporation (SBK), Korea
5.99.SES Research, USA
5.100.Shenzhen Nanotechnologies Co. Ltd. (NTP)
5.101.Showa Denko Carbon, Inc. (SDK), USA
5.102.ST Microelectronics, Switzerland
5.103.SouthWest NanoTechnologies (SWeNT), USA
5.104.Sunchon National University, Korea
5.105.Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea
5.106.Sun Nanotech Co, Ltd., China
5.107.Surrey NanoSystems, UK
5.108.Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd., UK
5.109.Toray Industries, Japan
5.110.Tsinghua University, China
5.111.Unidym, Inc., USA
5.112.University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), USA
5.113.University of California, San Diego, USA
5.114.University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), USA
5.115.University of Central Florida, USA
5.116.University of Cincinnati (UC), USA
5.117.University of Manchester, UK
5.118.University of Michigan, USA
5.119.University of Pittsburgh, USA
5.120.University of Southern California (USC), USA
5.121.University of Stanford, USA
5.122.University of Stuttgart, Germany
5.123.University of Surrey, UK
5.124.University of Texas at Austin, USA
5.125.University of Texas at Dallas, USA
5.126.University of Tokyo, Japan
5.127.University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
5.128.Vorbeck Materials Corp, USA
5.129.Wisepower Co., Ltd., Korea
5.130.XG Sciences, USA
5.131.XinNano Materials, Inc., Taiwan
5.133.XP Nano Material
5.135.Zoz GmbH, Germany
5.136.Zyvex, Inc., USA
6.3.National Technology Research Association (NTRA)
6.4.TRAMS - Tera-scale reliable Adaptive Memory Systems
7.1.Market Opportunity and roadmap for Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene
7.2.Costs comparison
7.3.New focus for Printed Electronics - the importance of flexible electronics
7.4.Focus on invisible electronics
7.5.Shakeout in organics
7.6.Market pull
2.1.Charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes compared with alternatives
2.2.Typical Sheet Resistivity figures for conductors
2.3.Comparison of the main options for semiconductors
2.4.Properties of carbon nanotubes compared with graphene
4.1.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
4.2.Main applications of conductive inks and some major suppliers today
4.3.Comparison of some of the main options for the semiconductors in printed and potentially printed transistors
4.4.Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy.
5.1.Main Suppliers of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Related Materials
5.2.Baytubes product specifications
5.3.Results of pulse-heat CVD
5.4.Characteristics of the CNT-FED compared with LEDs
7.1.Market forecast by component type for 2012-2022 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
7.2.Costs Comparison of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Related Materials
1.1.Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes
1.2.The chiral vector is represented by a pair of indices (n, m). T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space
2.1.Atomic Force Microscope image of carbon nanotubes before and after processing.
2.2.Potential applications are flexible solar cells, displays and touch screens.
2.3.Targeted applications for carbon nanotubes by Eikos
2.4.Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials, at typical thicknesses used, compared with bulk metal
3.1.Traditional CNT film processes are complex
4.1.New printable elastic conductors made of carbon nanotubes are used to connect OLEDs in a stretchable display that can be spread over a curved surface
4.2.Stretchable mesh of transistors connected by elastic conductors
4.3.Hybrid graphene-carbon nanotube G-CNT conductors
4.4.Anti tamper / theft packaging thanks to graphene based ink
4.5.Traditional geometry for a field effect transistor
4.6.CNT Transistors through Specialized Printing Processes from NEC Corporation
4.7.IBM has patterned graphene transistors with a metal top-gate architecture (top) fabricate on 2-inch wafers (bottom) created by the thermal decomposition of silicon carbide.
4.8.Carbon nanotube Field Effect transistors
4.9.Epitaxial graphene FETs on a two-inch wafer scale
4.10.An enlarged photo of a several-millimeter square chip with graphene transistors. The graphene transistors can be seen in the enlarged photo of the tips of the two electrodes
4.11.An LSI mounted on a flexible substrate by using CNT bumps
4.12.Two types of OLED construction
4.13.CNT networks for flexible displays
4.14.Surface mediated cells
4.15.ANI: proof of concept CNT lamp
4.16.Internal structure of Power Paper Battery.
4.17.Proposed battery design from UCLA
4.18.Energy density vs power density for storage devices
4.19.The carbon nanotube supercapacitor versus batteries and traditional capacitors
4.20.The process. The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency
4.21.Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) scientists have demonstrated an ability to precisely grow "towers" composed of carbon nanotubes atop silicon wafers. The work could be the basis for more efficient solar power for soldiers in
4.22.Flinders University prototype CNT solar cell
4.23.A three-terminal memory cell based on suspended carbon nanotubes: (a) nonconducting state '0', (b) conducting state '1', and (c) Nantero's NRAM™.
4.24.Stanford ultra-stretchy skin-like pressure sensor
4.25.The main options for organic sensors
4.26.Four scanning electron microscope images of the spinning of carbon nanotube fibres
4.27.Photographs of CNT-cotton yarn. (a) Comparison of the original and surface modified yarn. (b) 1 meter long piece as made. (c) Demonstration of LED emission with the current passing through the yarn.
4.28.Thin, almost transparent sheets of multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source, which rapidly heats the nanotubes causing a pressure wave in the surrounding air to produce sound.
4.29.The CNT thin film was put on a flag to make a flexible flag loudspeaker
4.30.Carbon nanotube thin film loudspeakers
4.31.Seoul National University Graphene-PVDF loudspeaker
4.32.An electron microscope image of a hybrid electrode developed at Rice University shows solid connections after 500 bends. The transparent material combines single-atom-thick sheets of graphene and a fine mesh of aluminum nanowire o
4.33.Left: A transparent graphene film transferred on a 35-inch PET sheet. Right: A graphene-based touchscreen panel connected to a computer
5.1.Hormone Sensing using CNT Printed Integrated Circuits
5.2.ANI: proof of concept CNT lamp
5.3.Fully printed CNT FET-based switch
5.4.Fully printed TFT device schematic
5.5.Transparent conductive material roadmap: Gen 1 at the moment; Gen 2 is the goal for end of 2010, Gen 3 is the long term target
5.6.Directly produced prepatterned films
5.7.Cap-XX supercapacitor technology with carbon coating.
5.8.Layout of CNT-FE BLU fabricated through pulse
5.9.Schematic illustration of experimental setup
5.10.Illustrations of micro-patterned cathodes
5.11.SEM images of CNTs on Samples C, D and E
5.12.Field emission properties of CNT-emitters patterned on a glass substrate by pulse-heat CVD. Luminescence images from the backsides of the cathode at various applied voltages are indicated in inset.
5.13.SEM images of CNTs on the micro-patterned electrodes with interline spacing (a) 20, (b) 50, (c) 100 and (d)200 !m (top view).
5.14.CNT Ink Production Process
5.15.Target application areas of Eikos
5.16.IBM has patterned graphene transistors with a metal top-gate architecture (top) fabricate on 2-inch wafers (bottom) created by the thermal decomposition of silicon carbide.
5.17.The graphene microchip mostly based on relatively standard chip processing technology
5.18.Cncept version of the photoelectrochemical cell
5.19.This filament containing about 30 million carbon nanotubes absorbs energy from the sun
5.20.Density gradient ultracentrifugation
5.21.Color pixel; 3mm, display area; 48mm x480mm
5.22.Color pixel; 1.8mm, display area; 57.6mm x 460.8mm.
5.23.A prototype display of digital signage.
5.24.Application images of public displays.
5.25.Schematic structure of CNT-FED using line rib spacer.
5.26.Phosphor-dot pattern and conductive black-matrix pattern.
5.27.An application on the information desk. The color pixel pitch were 3mm(left) and 1.8mm (right).
5.28.A photograph of a displayed color character pattern in two lines. The color pixel pitch was 1.8mm.
5.29.SEM images of CNT deposited metal electrode.(a) A photograph of the CNT deposited metal frame. (b) SEM image; boundary of barrier area. (c) SEM image; surface of the CNT layer. (d) SEM image; a surface morphology of CNT.
5.30.One of prototype displays on the vending machine. The display was under field-testing in out-door. The CNT-FED and display module were under testing continuously during ca.15months in Osaka-city up to date, and they were still con
5.31.A photograph of driving system. A solar cell and the charging controller, yellow small battery and CNT-FED module.
5.32.A photograph of a displayed color character which was driven by solar cell and small battery. The color pixel pitch was 1.8mm.
5.33.High density SWCNT structures on wafer-scale flexible substrate.
5.34.SEM micrographs of assembled SWNT structures on a soft polymer surface. (a) Patterned SWNT arrays on parylene-C substrate; (b) high magnification view of a typical central area; (c) SWNT micro-arrays that are 4 μm wide with 5 μm s
5.35.A new method for using water to tune the band gap of the nanomaterial graphene
5.36.A mesh of carbon nanotubes supports one-atom-thick sheets of graphene that were produced with a new fluid-processing technique.
5.37.A three-terminal single-transistor amplifier made of graphene
5.38.CNT films from Rutgers University
5.39.Printed CNT transistor
5.40.A 16 bit HF RFID inlay
5.41.The one bit commercial display tag
5.42.Graphene OPV
5.43.The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency
5.44.Fabrication steps, leading to regular arrays of single-wall nanotubes (bottom)
5.45.The colourless disk with a lattice of more than 20,000 nanotube transistors in front of the USC sign
5.46.Thin, almost transparent sheets of multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source
7.2.Market forecast by component type for 2012-2022 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
7.3.Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials, at typical thicknesses used, compared with bulk metal
7.4.The percentage of printed and partly printed electronics that is flexible 2012-2022
7.5.Evolution of printed electronics structures

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