Automotive & Electric Vehicles Report

Electric Buses 2017-2027

Forecasts, Technology Roadmap, Company Assessment

The market for medium and large hybrid and pure electric buses will be over $165 billion in 2027
Industrial and commercial electric vehicles will be a similar market to cars but innovating faster and frequently more profitable for all in the value chain. The most important sector is buses, where innovation often comes before cars because they are less price sensitive.
In this report we show how the Chinese are now dominating the league table, buying the most buses and innovating rapidly already creating the lowest cost base by far. We examine the different power trains and the move from chassis to integrated manufacture often with no chassis and later structural electronics as bodywork will come. Technological roadmaps show the rapid innovation coming in the next decade and regional and technology sales are forecasted to 2027. Well over 100 hybrid and pure electric bus manufacturers are appraised and regional trends revealed. Based on extensive interviews, conferences and searches in 2015-6 this unique report is the only up-to-date in-depth appraisal of the issues and trends. It includes a detailed look at fuel cell buses over nearly three decades, identifying why further delays are risking the window of opportunity for them closing as the greener, more efficient pure electric buses prove fit for prime time and over a quarter of a million e-buses will be purchased in 2026 due to both legal push and market pull.
Forecasts are for number, unit price and market value 2017-2027 by region, powertrain and pure electric vs hybrid. Over 8t and under 8t are analysed in the 265+ pages of original summary and analysis, easily grasped by those with limited time. The information has been appraised by our PhD level analysts with long experience and an intensive program of travel to check out the facts. Worldwide, over 100 manufacturers and many recent interviews are covered including EV events in Japan, Taiwan, the USA, UK and Germany in the last few months. This is essential because the subject is moving so fast with the strong technologies, regions, manufacturers etc changing rapidly.
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Table of Contents
1.2.Summary of technical preferences
1.3.Statistics issues
1.4.Successful pure electric buses vs addressable market
1.5.Chinese price/performance
1.6.IDTechEx projection with key orders, technology timelines
1.7.Electric bus forecasts 2017-2027, number, unit value, market value
1.8.Forecast by territory for buses for APAC, NA, Europe, other
1.9.Cost trends - China ready to pounce
1.10.Market drivers and impediments
1.11.Regional differences
1.12.China, India and cities
1.13.Radical change
1.14.Truly global market for similar buses
1.15.Large pure electric buses: first big orders 2014/5
1.16.Weak trend to larger buses but not in China
1.17.Value chain and powertrain
1.18.Hybrids becoming pure electric
1.19.Relative importance of technical options
1.20.Technology disagreement
1.21.Fuel cell buses: progress and potential
1.21.1.Use of solar on hybrid fuel cell shuttle buses
1.22.Background statistics: automotive industry and buses in general
1.22.1.Automotive industry
1.22.1.Autonomous shuttles in Switzerland - June 2016
1.22.2.School buses
1.22.2.Disruptive new bus concepts in 2016
1.22.3.Largest bus manufacturers
1.23.Buses will be taxis will be buses
1.23.1.Huge impact of autonomous car as bus is calculated in 2017
1.24.The bus of the future
1.25.Death of conventional buses: 2017 assessment
1.26.New pollution horrors boost pure electric bus adoption
2.1.Urban logistics trends
2.2.The move to electric
2.3.Motor technology by type of vehicle
2.3.2.Switched reluctance motors a disruptive traction motor technology?
2.3.3.Three ways that traction motor makers race to escape rare earths
2.4.Choice of lithium-ion batteries lithium battery manufacturers: chemistry, format, sales successes
2.5.Global situation: some recent highlights
2.6.North America
2.6.1.Proterra E2 logs over 600miles on a single charge - September 2016
2.7.3.Sweden, Switzerland
2.7.4.ABB intermittent overhead charging
2.8.Asia Pacific
2.9.Latin America
2.10.Africa/Middle East
2.11.Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles
2.13.Drivers of change
2.14.Another supercapacitor bus stop charging system
2.15.Bus that travels above traffic - August 2016
2.16.Nine reasons why electric buses and trucks make sense for California
2.17.Huge impact of pure electric buses
3.1.China automotive industry
3.2.Leapfrogging technology
3.3.IDTechEx assessment of Chinese bus technology
3.3.1.Advanced technology in latest e-buses
3.3.3.China and rare earths
3.4.Chinese fuel cell activity: 35 organisations profiled
4.2.Analysis of hybrid bus manufacturers by location
4.3.86 hybrid bus manufacturers compared: HQ, bus and e-bus output range, images, examples and assessment.
5.2.Analysis of pure electric bus manufacturers by location
5.3.80 manufacturers of pure electric buses by HQ, bus and e-bus output range, images, examples and assessment
6.2.Fuel cell bus rollout as planned by Daimler in 2010 but delayed
6.3.Reasons for failure to launch
6.4.Third decade of trials
6.5.Ballard Pyrrhic victory
6.6.Fuel cell cars in trouble, holding back buses
6.7.New competitor
6.8.Window of opportunity closing
6.9.Catalog of shortcomings
6.11.Ballard approach
6.12.Fuel cell size reduces, fewer trials, no rollouts
6.13.Program slippage
6.14.US Targets
6.15.US evaluations
6.16.Key observation
6.17.Daimler program today
6.18.Justified scepticism
6.19.Hyundai progress
6.20.Fuel cell bus trials 1990-2015
6.21.Fuel cell bus trials 2011-2015
6.22.Commitment in Europe
6.23.Commitment in the USA
6.23.1.Some of the fuel cell buses currently in transit service in the US
6.23.2.Flint MTA testing Proterra hydrogen fuel cell bus prototype for one year - October 2016
6.24.Commitment in China
7.1.ALABC/ILA London January 2016
7.2.Acal Energy UK
7.3.Aleees Taiwan
7.4.Bombardier Germany and Qualcomm USA
7.5.Ebusco Netherlands
7.6.EV Roadmap 8 USA
7.7.Green GT France
7.8.Hyundai Korea
7.9.IFEVS Italy
7.10.ITRI Taiwan
7.11.Nippon ChemiCon Japan
7.12.PowerHydrant USA
7.13.Proton Power Systems PLC, Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH Germany
7.14.Taiyo Yuden and JM Energy Japan
7.15.University of California Davis USA
1.1.Market for conventional diesel buses, hybrid and pure electric buses > 8t by rationale, end game in green
1.2.Hybrid and pure electric bus orders, intentions and manufacturing initiatives by year by region 2016-2027
1.3.Market for electric buses >8t by powertrain number K 2015-2027
1.4.Market for electric buses average unit price $K 2015-2027
1.5.Market value for electric buses $ billion 2015-2027
1.6.Market by territory number % 2017-2027 for electric buses >8t. Major high cost markets in blue.
1.7.Price spread $K of buses >8t by region and technology 2012 and 2015, with exceptional prices excluded. High priced market red. Low priced market green. Significant price decrease bright green.
1.8.Market drivers and impediments are summarised below.
1.9.Advantages of pure electric buses, enjoyed to some extent by hybrid electric buses
1.10.Market drivers of future purchasing of buses by region and % growth. Green shows strongest market drivers
1.11.League table of EV traction battery manufacturers mWh
1.12.The typical chassis-plus-body value chain of hybrid buses 2015. Main added value shown in green
1.13.Trend of pure electric bus value chain - integral bus
1.14.Trend of pure electric bus value chain - integral bus with structural electronics
1.15.Some of the main technological options compared
1.16.Examples of very different bus and freight solutions for essentially the same types of vehicle and some of the relative benefits and challenges. Commonalities highlighted in color.
1.17.Some of the factors increasing pure electric bus range 2017-2027
1.18.e-bus drive train technology options compared, with commercially problematic issues highlighted
1.19.2012 and 2013 production of heavy buses by country from OICA correspondents' survey
1.20.Second quarter YTD 2014 and 2013 production of heavy buses by country
1.21.School bus statistics for USA and China 2015
1.22.First half sales by country for commercial vehicles CV 2013/3/4
1.23.Top five bus manufacturers 2005, 2011, 2015, Chinese in red, with output number of buses >8t
1.24.Domestic bus sales in China in October 2014
1.25.Rank of automotive manufacturers by production in 2013. LCV includes Minibuses," derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat a
2.1.Summary of preferences of traction motor technology for vehicles
2.2.142 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries with country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology, case type, applicational priorities and customer relationships, if any, in sel
2.3.TOSA bus specification
2.4.TOSA charging infrastructure specification
4.1.Manufacturers of hybrid electric buses and powertrains "chassis", country of headquarters, bus output, e-bus output 2015 (red under 1,000 yearly, blue 1,000-10,000 yearly, green over 10,000), images, successes, assessment
5.1.Manufacturers of pure electric buses, country of headquarters, bus output, e-bus output 2015 (red under 1,000 yearly, blue 1,000-10,000 yearly, green over 10,000), images, successes, assessment
6.1.Fuel cell bus trials 1991-2014 showing power kW by project. Record year shown green; largest power shown brown.
6.2.Examples of PEM fuel cell buses 2011-2015
1.1.Tata Motors CNG hybrid bus in India left and BYD K9 pure electric bus from China right that is the most widely trialled and adopted of its type
1.2.Market for electric buses number K 2015-2027
1.3.Market for electric buses average unit price $K 2015-2027
1.4.Market for electric buses $ billion 2015-2027
1.5.Market by territory number % 2015-2026 for electric buses >8t
1.6.Ex-factory lowest price range of diesel, hybrid and pure electric 35-90 seat urban buses in China vs North America/ Europe 2012 and 2015. Chinese cost reduction of hybrids is obscured by move to more expensive hybrids (long range
1.7.Passenger travel by bus by region in England.
1.8.Bus size vs fuel consumption
1.9.BYD articulated pure electric Lancaster bus for 120 passengers with 170 km range announced late 2014
1.10.The value chain is changing radically due to vehicle design being changed as summarized below. Ladder type hybrid bus chassis top
1.11.Structural supercapacitor as car or bus bodywork, experimental
1.12.UITP summary of technological options for buses
1.13.MAN Lion urban bus with supercapacitors and no traction battery, the favoured practice in China
1.14.EV powertrain technology roadmap
1.15.Percentage share of 92 fuel cell bus trials 1990-2015 by fuel cell manufacturer
1.16.North American sales of school buses 2000-2009, total buses sold
1.17.Top five sales volume of light bus manufacturers in November 2013
1.18.Top five sales volume of medium bus manufacturers in November 2013
1.19.Top five sales volume of large bus manufacturers in November 2013
1.20.Autonomous shuttle in Switzerland
1.21.Autonomous electric bus Olli
1.22.Selection of IDTechEx images taken at Barclays event London September 2016
2.1.Trend of freight transport urban vs long haulage 2010-2025
2.2.Transport of people 2010-2025
2.3.LCV and urban bus usage hours
2.4.Proterra EcoRide
2.5.Rapid battery charging takes place at every third or fourth bus stop along the pilot project's route, which runs between Geneva airport and the city's exhibition center.
2.6.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by applicational category in 2014
2.7.The approximate number of Chinese manufacturers of electric vehicles by applicational category in 2014
2.8.Fuel and energy current fleet.
2.9.Past to present
2.10.Drivers for the development of propulsion systems for bus transport systems
2.11.Program leading to zero emission urban bus systems in Europe
2.12.Transit Elevated Bus
3.1.China automotive market 1999-2020
3.2.Breakdown of automotive market in China 2009-2014
3.3.Overcapacity in China
3.4.Primary foreign competition in China
4.1.Manufacturers of hybrid electric buses by geographical location
5.1.Manufacturers of pure electric buses by geographical location
6.1.Fuel cell electric bus schematic
6.2.Daimler's technology roadmap for launching new bus technologies to 2015
6.3.The positioning of the planned Toyota fuel cell hybrid bus FCHV-BUS now delayed
6.4.Daimler fuel cell bus status
6.5.Technical advances past and future of Daimler fuel cell vehicles
6.6.Cost potential of fuel cell technology
6.7.Modular fuel cell strategy of Daimler
6.8.Hydrogen infrastructure in Germany
6.9.Ballard presentation
6.10.Percentage interest in different powertrains by bus operators
6.11.Fuel cell powered Hyundai bus on trial in Australia
6.12.Fuel cell bus trials 1990-2010
6.13.Daimler Citaro bus
6.14.Van Hool bus with UTC Power fuel cell
6.15.New Flyer/Bluways bus with Ballard fuel cell
6.16.Proterra bus with Hydrogenics fuel cell (plug-in, battery dominant)
7.1.Aleees bus showing position of two of the battery pack locations and the rollers on which they reside.
7.2.Ebusco publicity
7.3.WAVE bus system
7.4.Range difficulties with pure electric industrial vehicles
7.5.Proterra view on wireless charging vs other charging of buses today

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