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Hybrid & Pure Electric Vehicles for Land, Water & Air 2013-2023: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

Cars, buses, two wheelers, industrial, commercial, mobility for disabled, military, marine, aircraft, other

Updated in September 2013
"A $294 billion opportunity in 2023"
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Description

IDTechEx provides forecasts and analysis of all electric vehicles, land, water and air. IDTechEx has studied this sector for 13 years so far extensively interviewing organizations throughout the supply chain. IDTechEx finds that the total market for hybrid and pure electric vehicles will grow from 38.8 million vehicles (of all types) in 2013 to 116 million vehicles in 2023 - a $294 Billion market.
 
Pure electric car sales in 2013 will be just 70,000 vehicles rising to 2 million in 2023, versus 2 million hybrid vehicles this year rising to 7.6 million in 2023. Of course, the big unit numbers come at the small end - most of the unit volume in 2013 will be for two wheeled vehicles - 32 million vehicles in 2013 rising to 94 million in 2023, albeit at far lower average price points.
 
If we look at the figures by the value of each sector - including industrial, marine, buses and others - we find that hybrid and pure electric cars will be almost half the total value of all electric vehicles in 2023, but less profitable than other vehicle types - as shown below.
 
Ex-factory value of EV sales in 2023 by applicational sector
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
Electric vehicles are also very unusual in having almost all their electrical, electronic and mechanical components and systems subject to disruptive rather than incremental change creating absorbing opportunities for researchers, start-ups and others. There are also new types of electric vehicles being launched at a frenetic rate from amphibious aircraft, flying jet skis and swarming robot flies to personal mobile robots, heavy earthmovers and new autonomous underwater vehicles. Many will be best produced by small and medium-sized companies, so the whole structure of the automotive, marine and aircraft industry is placed under review. The components industry is forced into new forms of product integration including smart skin, structural components and motors with integral gearing and electronics, so seeing the big picture of what markets are and will be out there, becomes essential.
 
IDTechEx sales forecast for some volume sectors of electric vehicles*
 
*For the full forecast data please purchase this report
 
Source: IDTechEx
10 year forecasts across all EV sectors
This report gives the unit numbers, average vehicle prices, and total value for ten years for the following vehicle types:
  • Hybrid cars
  • Pure electric cars
  • Heavy industrial
  • Buses
  • Lighting industrial/commercial
  • Micro EV/quadricycle
  • Golf car and motorized gold caddy
  • Mobility for the disabled
  • Two-wheel and allied
  • Military
  • Marine
  • Other
Comprehensive applicational and geographic spread
This report is uniquely comprehensive in applicational and geographical spread. Primarily it presents statistics and forecasts including back up data such as conventional vehicle sales and market drivers. There is even comparative data such as statistics and forecasts by other analysts and by regional trade associations. There is some coverage of technology trends and considerable tabulation of manufacturers and by type of vehicle made and which are world leaders in value sales and why. There is little anecdotal text and information already available on the web, the illustrations and tables being largely original and deriving from IDTechEx analysis and private sources as well as extensive interviews carries out in 2013.
Who should buy this report?
All those funding, researching, making, operating, analysing or regulating electric vehicles and those contemplating doing so plus the whole automotive industry and its ecosystem. Those making components and systems for all forms of electric vehicle land, water and air, hybrid and pure electric. Governments, and others interested in the subject. The manufacturing and purchasing companies and universities involved are listed or profiled in our 22 reports on the subject. The large and medium-sized ones should have preference.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at or call Clare on +44 (0) 1223 813 703 for queries based in EMEA or Raoul on +1 617 577 7890 for queries based in the Americas, Spain or ROW.
 
Mobility vehicles for the disabled and golf cars are among the very profitable vehicles today but for specialist component and system suppliers, marine, aircraft and military EVs are worth a look, for example. Then again, certain EV markets are recession proof and others very recession prone. Some markets are almost entirely in developing countries over the next decade and others hugely concentrated in one developed country. It is therefore essential that those anywhere in the hybrid and pure electric vehicle supply chain and other interested parties look at the whole picture of this burgeoning, largely profitable, disruptive business and that can best be done by reading the IDTechEx reports on the subject and consulting the PhD level IDTechEx consulting team. This is the IDTechEx master report, replete with figures and forecasts for the whole business. The other reports drill down to the vehicle, component and system sectors involved.
Free Electric Vehicle Encyclopedia when you purchase this report
Electric Vehicle experts IDTechEx have encapsulated over ten years of research and analysis into an easy to digest electric vehicle encyclopedia. All the technologies are covered and supported with over 100 tables and illustrations and over 200 acronyms and terms are explained. This encyclopedia, worth $1,500, is given as a free PDF download when you buy this report.
Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.The value market for electric vehicles EVs of all types
1.2.Market sectors and technology trends
1.3.Small and Medium Enterprises SME come to the fore
1.4.Numbers of manufacturers
1.5.Stronger value growth, hybrids gain value share
1.6.Mark ups through the value chain
1.7.Electric cars - the most unpredictable market
1.7.1.Pure electric cars
1.7.2.Car-like vehicles not homologated as cars
1.7.3.The most unpredictable market
1.7.4.Market drivers
1.8.Market by territory
1.8.1.Global
1.8.2.China
1.8.3.Pure electric vehicles in Europe
1.8.4.USA
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Definitions and scope of this report
2.1.1.Learning from the past
2.1.2.Organisations involved in the EV industry value chain
2.1.3.Commonality
2.1.4.Key components and systems
2.2.Pure electric vehicles
2.3.Hybrid electric vehicles
2.3.1.Largest sector by value
2.3.2.Here come range extenders
2.3.3.Hybrids at no price penalty
2.4.Born electric - in-wheel electric motors
2.5.Born Electric - smart skin
2.6.Objectives
2.7.Benefits
2.8.Electric vehicles become less poisonous
2.8.1.How green are electric vehicles really?
2.8.2.Contrast global automotive production 2012: major polluter
3.HEAVY INDUSTRIAL EVS
3.1.What is included
3.2.Challenges
3.3.Listing of manufacturers
3.3.1.Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
3.3.2.Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs
3.4.Market size
3.5.Market forecasts 2012-2023
4.LIGHT INDUSTRIAL, BUSES AND OTHER COMMERCIAL EVS
4.1.What is included
4.1.1.Sub categories
4.1.2.Buses
4.1.3.Trucks
4.2.Market drivers
4.2.1.Governments get involved
4.3.Important initiatives
4.4.EVs for local services
4.5.Airport EVs: Ground Support Equipment GSE
4.6.Small people-movers
4.7.Light industrial aids
4.8.Listing of manufacturers
4.9.Market forecasts 2012-2023
5.MOBILITY FOR THE DISABLED
5.1.Compelling and enduring need
5.2.The demographic time-bomb
5.2.1.Ageing population, obesity and the dependent elderly
5.2.2.Laws make mobility easier
5.3.Types of mobility vehicle
5.3.1.Growth by new market segments
5.3.2.Interchina Industry Group China
5.4.Market drivers
5.4.1.Geographical distribution
5.4.2.Needs creating new segments
5.4.3.What is driving regional differences?
5.4.4.Zhejiang R&P Industry China
5.4.5.Pride Mobility, USA
5.5.Listing of manufacturers
5.6.Market forecasts 2012-2023
5.6.1.Growth by creating new markets
6.TWO WHEELED EVS AND ALLIED VEHICLES
6.1.What is included
6.1.1.China - unprecedented growth of electric two wheelers
6.1.2.Other countries
6.2.Prices and performances compared
6.3.Electric two wheeler companies
6.3.1.Yamaha Japan
6.3.2.Eko Vehicles hybrid scooters India
6.3.3.Interchina Industry Group foldable electric bike China
6.3.4.Honda Japan
6.3.5.Suzuki fuel cell bike Japan
6.4.Market drivers
6.4.1.Bicycles and electric bicycles
6.4.2.Hybrid motorcycles
6.5.Statistics for all bicycles
6.6.Listing of manufacturers
6.6.1.China
6.7.Market forecasts 2012-2023
7.CAR-LIKE VEHICLES NOT HOMOLOGATED AS CARS: MICROEV, QUADRICYCLE, E TRIKE, NEV, GOLF CAR
7.1.Many names, common factors
7.2.Car-like vehicles that evade restrictions, taxes and other costs
7.3.Philippines: big new commitments to e trikes
7.4.Listing of manufacturers beyond golf cars
7.5.Golf cars
7.5.1.What is included
7.5.2.Market drivers
7.5.3.Listing of manufacturers
7.5.4.Market forecasts 2012-2023
8.CARS
8.1.Adoption of electric cars
8.2.Rapid increase in number of manufacturers
8.3.Providing charging infrastructure
8.3.1.Recharging points
8.3.2.Battery changing points
8.3.3.Can the grid cope?
8.4.Market 2012-2023
8.5.National targets for plug-in (PHEV, BEV) on road vehicle sales 2010-2020
8.5.1.United Kingdom
9.PURE ELECTRIC CARS
9.1.Déjà Vu
9.1.1.Pure electric cars are a necessary part of the range?
9.2.Examples of pure EV cars
9.2.1.Renault-Nissan Alliance France, Japan
9.2.2.China
9.2.3.High performance pure EVs - Tesla USA
9.2.4.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar France, Italy
9.2.5.REVA India
9.2.6.Club Car USA
9.2.7.Toyota Japan
10.HYBRID CARS
10.1.Construction and advantages of hybrids
10.2.Evolution
10.3.Chevrolet Volt USA
10.4.Ford hybrids USA
10.5.Market drivers
10.5.1.Leading indicators
10.6.History of hybrids and planned models
11.MILITARY
11.1.Examples of military EVs
11.1.1.Hummer USA / China
11.1.2.Quantum Technologies USA Aggressor AMV
11.1.3.US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
11.1.4.Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
11.1.5.Plug-in trucks - BAE Systems UK
11.1.6.Electric robot vehicles USA
11.1.7.UQM unmanned combat vehicle USA
11.1.8.Balqon Corporation
11.2.Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
11.2.1.Small electrical UAVs
11.2.2.SUAV batteries
11.2.3.The most successful electric UAV
11.2.4.Micro nano air vehicles
11.2.5.Large electrical UAVs
11.2.6.COM-BAT robot bat USA
11.3.Examples of military EVs - in the water
11.3.1.US Naval Undersea Warfare Center
11.4.Manufacturers of military EVs
11.5.Market forecasts 2012-2023
12.MARINE
12.1.1.Hybrid and pure electric tugboats
12.2.Market segments
12.2.1.Total market
12.2.2.Underwater
12.2.3.On the water
12.3.Commonality with land EVs
12.3.1.Grants for land and water
12.3.2.Effect of land EV manufacturers entering marine
12.4.Market drivers
12.4.1.Pollution laws back electric boats - India, Europe, USA
12.4.2.Energy harvesting superyacht UK
12.4.3.Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) - Europe, USA
12.5.Manufacturers by country and product
12.6.Selling prices
12.7.Market forecasts 2012-2023
12.7.1.Outboard motor market size
13.AIRCRAFT, MOBILE ROBOTS AND OTHER EVS
13.1.Definition
13.2.Market drivers
13.3.Listing of other manufacturers by country and product
13.4.Market size and trends
13.4.1.Aircraft - Renault, Piccard
13.4.2.Solar Impulse
13.4.3.Non-military mobile robots - USA, UK, Japan
13.4.4.The Electrolux Automower Sweden
13.4.5.Rescue robots in Germany
13.4.6.Robots on Mars
13.4.7.Leisure on land
13.4.8.Research and hobbyist
13.4.9.Electric aircraft for civil use
13.4.10.Robotic lawn mowers
13.5.Market forecasts 2012-2023
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
TABLES
1.1.Categories of electric vehicle, saturating and growth subsectors within these categories and technology trends by size/ duty cycle.
1.2.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
1.3.Explanation of trends in market numbers by sector and background statistics and forecasts by other analysts of future numbers by sector and country
1.4.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.5.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.6.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2013 by application with numbers for China
1.7.Global sales of pure electric cars by country in 2012 including Chinese cars not homologated as cars in the West.
1.8.Pure electric on-road cars sold by type in 2012 K numbers excluding delivery vans and car-like vehicles not homologated as cars in the West such as cars sold in China and the Renault Twizy
1.9.Pure electric cars sold in China in 2012
1.10.Main market drivers 2013-2023
1.11.The value of the electric vehicle market by territory % East Asia, Europe, North America, Other 2013 and 2023 %
1.12.NEV output in China for 2011 and 2012 including exports
2.1.Energy, number of riders and energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
2.2.Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
2.3.Global automotive production by country 2012
3.1.27 examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
3.2.Percentage split of global manufacture of heavy industrial trucks
3.3.Global sales of heavy industrial (heavy lifting, eg forklift and heavy earthmoving/pulling) EVs by numbers, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
3.4.Sales of heavy electric vehicles by region by percentage of units
4.1.150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
4.2.Global sales of buses, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
4.3.Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs excluding buses by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
4.4.Approximate number of light industrial and commercial vehicles by type in 2013 in thousands excluding buses
4.5.Sales of light electric/commercial vehicles by region 2013 and 2023 by percentage of units
5.1.Statistics relevant to the challenge to society caused by ageing population
5.2.Evolution of three families of powered vehicles for the disabled to 2013
5.3.Evolution of power chairs 1980 to 2013
5.4.Evolution of scooters for the disabled 1980 to 2013
5.5.The continental percentage split of markets for vehicles for the disabled by value in 2013
5.6.The percentage split of market for vehicles for the disabled by country within Europe
5.7.The numbers in thousands of scooters plus power chairs that were and will be sold in Europe 2005 to 2015
5.8.Features of mobility vehicles that may hold up the price by offering more in future
5.9.The percentage distribution of manufacture between Taiwan and Mainland China by value of vehicles for the disabled 2005, 2010 and 2015
5.10.Market for EVs for the disabled by geographical region, ex works pricing and percentage split in 2005, 2010 and 2020
5.11.82 examples of manufacturers of EVs for the disabled by country
5.12.Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2012-2023, rounded
6.1.Prices and performance of electric two wheelers
6.2.70 examples of manufacturers of two wheel EVs and electric quad bikes
6.3.Largest suppliers of electric bicycles by number (not in order)
6.4.34 sources of two wheelers in China by brand, region and battery chemistry
6.5.Listing of light electric scooter makers in China. Most use lead-acid battery chemistry but there is a move to lithium-ion batteries
6.6.Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
6.7.Sales of Light Electric Vehicles LEVs (two wheelers and allied eg electric quad bikes and on road three wheel micro cars) by region by percentage of units2013 and 2023
7.1.Listing of manufacturers beyond golf cars
7.2.MicroEV quadricycle forecasts 2012-2023
7.3.19 examples of golf EV manufacturers
7.4.Global sales of electric golf cars and motorised caddies in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
7.5.Geographical split of golf EV sales by value 2010, 2015 and 2020
8.1.Global stimulus for fuel efficient cars in 2009
8.2.121 examples of manufacturers of EV cars
8.3.Global sales of car hybrid number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
8.4.Global sales of car pure electric number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
8.5.Global sales of micro EV quadricycle number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
10.1.Major market drivers for growth in hybrid sales
10.2.Hybrid electric vehicles and associated events 1876-2013
11.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
11.2.27 suppliers of military EVs
11.3.Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
11.4.Military electric vehicle sales by region 2013 and 2023 in percentage units
12.1.44 examples of manufacturers of EV electric water craft
12.2.Leading manufacturers of remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles for sale
12.3.Indicative prices for marine EVs in 2013
12.4.Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
12.5.Forecast for trolling electric outboard motors 2013-2023, numbers k, $k ex-factory price, $million market value
12.6.Forecast for medium sized electric outboard motors (500W-10kW) 2013-2023, numbers k, $k ex factory price, $ million market value
12.7.Forecast for large sized electric outboard motors (10kW-150kW ) 2013-2023, numbers k, $k ex factory price, $ million market value
13.1.36 examples of manufacturers of mobile robots, toy, leisure, research or hobbyist EVs by country and product
13.2.Global sales of other electric vehicles (including civil aircraft and robot) in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
FIGURES
1.1.Breakdown of the electric vehicle market in 2023, land water and airborne, hybrid and pure electric
1.2.Basic schematic of pure EV power train
1.3.Size of vehicle, broadly indicated by price and battery kWh, related to when up-front cost becomes competitive with a conventional version
1.4.SMEs have more opportunity
1.5.FlyNano pure electric flying jet ski Finland
1.6.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
1.7.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.8.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.9.Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2013, percentage by applicational sector
1.10.Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2023, percentage by applicational sector
1.11.The various types of car, the precise definitions, regulations and user preferences varying greatly between countries
1.12.kWh per passenger for conventional or electric on-road vehicles related to type of vehicle and showing cars to be uniquely inefficient
1.13.The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
1.14.Renault Twizy quadricycle which is selling over ten thousand within two years from launch. The standard model has no windows
1.15.Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
1.16.Cumulative and monthly plug-in on-road vehicle sales in the USA through 2012 according to trade association EDTA
1.17.The tiny sales of pure electric on-road vehicle sales in Europe showing carrier goods EVs/ light industrial and commercial vehicles outselling pure electric passenger EVs, according to trade association AVERE
1.18.Adoption of different car power trains past and present
1.19.Unit sales in China 2008-2012: total autos, total passenger cars and buses and BEV and HEV/PHEV
1.20.Distribution of electric vehicles in circulation according to model
1.21.Number of electric 4-wheelers in Europe
1.22.Number of electric 2-wheelers in Europe
1.23.Monthly New PHEV and AEV Sales by Model
1.24.Yearly New HEV Sales by Model
1.25.Electric Drive Vehicle Share of New Vehicle Sales
1.26.Monthly New EDV Sales and Gasoline Price
2.1.EV sectors with the largest gross sales value and profits over the years
2.2.Electric vehicle value chain
2.3.Increasing inefficiency of private vehicles with size, even when fully occupied
2.4.Increasing efficiency of buses with size when fully occupied
2.5.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
2.6.The Bladon Jets microturbine range extender is the size of two cans of beans
2.7.Boeing fuel cell plane trial
2.8.Principle of a PEM fuel cell
2.9.Toyota hybrid fork lift for heavy outdoor duty
2.10.Tyrano Big Rig
2.11.Ford MKZ Hybrid
2.12.The Lohner-Porsche electric vehicle of 1898 showing its two in-wheel electric motors. Another version had four
2.13.Mitsubishi in-wheel motor
2.14.Mine resistant ambush protected - All Terrain Vehicle MATV
2.15.MATV structure
2.16.Volvo ReCharge concept hybrid
2.17.Fraunhofer in-wheel motor on an Artega GT
2.18.SIM Drive in wheel traction
2.19.EMRAX 222 Duplex Motor
2.20.The dream of smart skin for land, sea and air vehicles
2.21.Competing electric drive train technologies and their targets by market sector
2.22.Carbon Intensity CO2 kg/kWh and % Fossil fuel in power sector
2.23.LCA greenhouse emissions of a compact car with different drive trains
2.24.Carbon emissions, in grams CO2 per km, of a selection of cars for sale in the UK
3.1.Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
3.2.Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
3.3.Top 20 industrial lift truck suppliers in 2011
3.4.Lift truck market demand increase in 2012
3.5.World industrial truck statistics/orders and shipments
4.1.The tiny sales of pure electric on-road vehicle sales in Europe showing carrier goods EVs/ light industrial and commercial vehicles outselling passenger EVs, according to trade association AVERE
4.2.Orion VII hybrid electric bus USA
4.3.Nova RTS hybrid electric bus USA
4.4.Gillig low floor hybrid bus in USA
4.5.Two buses in Brazil using the locally made Eletra hybrid power trains
4.6.Kent electric city bus from China
4.7.Hino Blue Ribbon hybrid diesel electric bus in China
4.8.Balqon Pure Electric Trucks and Bus Drive
4.9.PG&E and VIA Motors displayed a new SUV version of its extended-range electric vehicle at the Detroit auto show
4.10.The full-size pickup and a cargo van introduced by VIA Motors in 2012, in use by PGE
4.11.Electric bus in Nepal
4.12.Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
4.13.Garbage collecting electric car
4.14.Sales of light electric/commercial vehicles by region 2013 by percentage of units
4.15.Sales of light electric/commercial vehicles by region 2023 by percentage of units
5.1.Percentage of dependent elderly 1970 to 2040
5.2.New Pihsiang Shoprider pure electric mobility vehicle for the disabled
5.3.The Electric Car (INEC-KARO) for the disabled from Interchina Industry Group
5.4.Zhejiang R&P Industry ES 413
5.5.Pride Jazzy - making new things possible
6.1.Gasoline two wheelers G2W and electric two wheelers E2W sales compared to passenger vehicles 1991-2006 in China
6.2.Yamaha EC-f and EC-fs concept electric scooters
6.3.Yamaha EC03
6.4.Eko Vehicles ET-120 hybrid scooter
6.5.Foldable Electric Bike (LNEB-9601
6.6.Honda EV Cub sports twin, front and rear electric drive motors.
6.7.Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter powered by Intelligent Energy
6.8.e-bikes parked in Yangzhou China
6.9.Electric mopeds parked in Cheghdu China
6.10.World bicycle and automoblie production, 1950-2007
7.1.IMAs "Colibri" Micro EV presented at the Geneva Motorshow 2013.
7.2.Car-like vehicles not homologated as cars, in the context of two wheelers and Europe. Love them or hate them?
7.3.The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
7.4.Renault Twizy quadricycle which is selling over ten thousand within two years from launch. The standard model has no windows
7.5.Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
7.6.E-trikes
7.7.Tonaro golf and general purpose vehicle from China
7.8.Suzhou Eagle two and four seat golf cars from China
7.9.Yongkang Fourstar golf vehicles from China
7.10.Shadong Wuzheng golf cars from China
7.11.Jinhua Ryder golf car from China
8.1.Features of leading electric cars in 2012
8.2.Projections of lithium-ion traction battery price
8.3.A summary of the theoretical energy density of advanced rechargeable battery chemistries compared with theoretical graphene supercapacitor
8.4.Distribution of cars made in Europe
8.5.Detailed breakdown of car parameters by type
8.6.Geographical distribution of 120 companies making or intending to make electric cars in 2013
8.7.Number (thousands) of hybrid cars, pure electric cars and MicroEV/Quadricycles 2013-2023
8.8.Total market value (US$ billion) of hybrid cars, pure electric cars and MicroEV/Quadricycles 2013-2023
8.9.National targets for plug-in on road vehicle sales of EVI members in number of vehicles purchased yearly
8.10.Planned PEV vehicle stock by year 2010-2020 in national targets
8.11.Government targets and sales by company of PEV (PHEV/BEV on-road vehicles)
8.12.Early sales of new EVs by year superimposed showing comparative early adoption
9.1.Trouvé pure EV car in 1881
9.2.Red Bug pure EV in 1930
9.3.Sinclair C5
9.4.Aptera
9.5.Gemcars
9.6.Tesla Motors Roadster pure EV performance car
9.7.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar showing solar panels on roof and hood
9.8.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar cross section
9.9.REVA pure EV car
9.10.The Club Car street legal car
9.11.Toyota pure EV city car
10.1.Evolution of EV design for on-road and many non-road vehicles
10.2.Chevrolet Volt battery, generator and drive unit positioning
11.1.Oshkosh truck
11.2.Balqon Mule M150
11.3.SPI electrical SUAV
11.4.Examples of SUAV rechargeable lithium batteries. Top: Flight Power "EVO 20" Lithium Polymer battery. Bottom: Sion Power lithium sulfur
11.5.AeroVironment Raven
11.6.AeroVironment Aqua Puma UAV completes Royal Australian Navy Sea trials in 2007
11.7.AeroVironment Helios
11.8.Aurora Flight Sciences solar plane that takes off in parts and self-assembles at altitude
11.9.COM-BAT
11.10.Robotic Bat
11.11.Large autonomous robot jellyfish
12.1.Hybrid tugboat
12.2.Engine room of the hybrid tugboat
12.3.Bratt electric tugboat
12.4.Electric deck boat by Leisure Life
12.5.Electric launch
12.6.Solar powered boats for tourism cruising at 12 kph on Lake Geneva
12.7.The rigid-wing superyacht concept called 'Soliloquy'
13.1."Zep'lin"s
13.2."Zep'lin" photovoltaic sail adjustment
13.3.Solar Impulse
13.4.The Electrolux Automower
13.5.Robots for Mars
13.6.LawnBott

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-Pages244
-Tables68
-Figures145
-Forecasts to2023
-Last updateSep 2013
 

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Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2015-2025
Hybrid and pure electric vehicles for land, water and air

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