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Displays and Lighting: OLED, e-paper, electroluminescent and beyond

Market Forecasts 2008-2028

New in Q4 2008
"This report analyses the technologies, players and first products, giving ten year forecasts."
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Description

Electronics will never be the same
A revolution is in the making. Electronics will never be the same as new applications are spawned. Invisible, origami, edible electronics, low cost materials and manufacturing will lead to the use of electronics in spaces traditionally bare of their functionality.
 
The research and growth of new technologies, along with new materials and processing methods, is resulting in the increasing penetration of innovative electronics and the emergence of new products in the competitive fields of displays and lighting. Eye-catching, animated billboards; large-area, thin, flexible displays with amazing colour contrasts; windows that are converted into surface lighting elements at night.
 
IDTechEx has been following this market closely and has compiled a new comprehensive report on the technologies that are promising to be a "visual feast", a challenge to the senses.
 
IDTechEx Associate Dr Bruce Kahn and Technology Analyst Dr Harry Zervos are offering insight in the markets for innovation in displays and lighting in the next decade. The report is divided into four main parts.
Analysis of the emerging technologies
An analysis of some of the most promising emerging technologies, explaining the underlying technical principles, materials and processing techniques as well as challenges and hurdles to be overcome.
 
Technologies covered include emissive and non emissive displays with a particular focus on flexible and printed technologies:
 
  • Inorganic & Organic Electroluminescence (OLED)
  • Electrophoretic & Electrochromic devices
  • Liquid crystal, plasma and field emission displays
Company and research institute profiling
Company and research institute profiling: A comprehensive list of companies, university research centres and research institutes involved with the research and development of one or more of these technologies. The most active ones are profiled in more detail, with information that detail activities, developments, successes and future plans.
Applications
Applications. New applications and products that are helping innovators find their niche markets and establish their competitive advantage.
Patterning techniques
An overview of printing technologies that lend themselves to mass production and to the low-cost progression from lab scale development to full production.
 
The new electronics are predicted to be worth US$47 Billion by 2018, with the market share for innovative display and lighting technologies being a big part of the overall market. The IDTechEx forecasts included in this report, give a detailed view of the predicted growth in the next decade by technology, application and display size.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at Research@IDTechEx.com or +44 (0) 1223 813 703 (UK) / +1 617 577 7890 (US).
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.INTRODUCTION
2.BACKPLANES
3.DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES
3.1.Non Emissive
3.1.1.Electrochromic (EC)
3.1.2.Liquid Crystal (LCD)
3.1.3.Electrophoretic (EP)
3.1.4.Electrowetting (EW)
3.1.5.Thermochromic
3.2.Emissive
3.2.1.Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
3.2.2.Field Emission Display (FED)
3.2.3.Plasma Display (PDP)
3.2.4.Electroluminescent (EL)
3.2.5.Organic Light Emitting (OLED)
4.MATERIALS
4.1.1.Substrates
4.1.2.Metals
4.1.3.Polymer films
4.1.4.Paper
4.1.5.Fabric or textiles
4.2.Encapsulation
4.2.2.Vitex
4.2.3.GE
4.2.4.3M
4.2.5.Others
5.APPLICATIONS
5.1.(Smart) Cards
5.1.1.Secure financial cards
5.1.2.Stored value cards
5.1.3.Novelty
5.2.Mobile Devices/Consumer Electronics
5.2.1.Electronic Readers
5.2.2.Mobile Telephone
5.2.3.Dynamic Keypads
5.2.4.Watches
5.2.5.Storage
5.2.6.Wearable/conformable
5.2.7.Medical
5.2.8.Skins for mobile devices
5.2.9.Greeting Cards
5.2.10.Electronic Tablets
5.2.11.Others
5.3.Digital Signage
5.3.2.Smart Labels
5.4.Others
5.4.1.Military/Security
5.4.2.Automotive
5.4.3.High quality displays
5.4.4.Transparent
6.PATTERNING TECHNIQUES
6.1.Physical phenomena
6.2.Printing/patterning process taxonomy
6.3.Printing process considerations
6.3.1.Physical (size) requirements
6.3.2.Material requirements
6.3.3.Economic considerations
6.3.4.Other considerations
6.4.Printing Processes
6.4.1.Flexography
6.4.2.Letterpress
6.4.3.Soft Lithography
6.4.4.Gravure
6.4.5.Gravure Offset (Pad)
6.4.6.Offset Lithography
6.4.7.Screen
6.4.8.Ink-jet
6.4.9.Thermal/ablation
6.4.10.Aerosol Jet
6.4.11.Liquid dispensing
7.COMPANIES
7.1.OLED: Materials & Licensing
7.1.1.Cambridge Display Technology (CDT) - Sumation™
7.1.2.DuPont
7.1.3.Kodak
7.1.4.Novaled
7.1.5.OLED-T
7.2.OLED Displays
7.2.1.LG
7.2.2.Pioneer
7.2.3.RiTdisplay
7.2.4.Samsung SDI
7.2.5.Seiko Epson
7.2.6.SONY
7.2.7.TDK
7.2.8.Toshiba Matsushita Display Technology (TMD)
7.2.9.Universal Display Corporation
7.2.10.Beijing Visionox Technology Company ltd.
7.3.OLED lighting
7.3.1.Add-vision Inc. (AVI)
7.3.2.General Electric (GE)
7.3.3.Lumiotec Inc.
7.3.4.OSRAM Opto Semiconductors
7.3.5.PHILIPS
7.4.E-paper displays
7.4.2.LG
7.4.3.Nemoptic
7.4.4.Plastic Logic
7.4.5.Polymer Vision
7.4.6.The four basic steps in making Polymer Vision's rollable display
7.5.Inorganic Electroluminescent (EL)
7.5.1.Elumin8
7.5.2.Luminous Media
7.5.3.Pelikon
7.5.4.Rogers Corporation
7.5.5.Schreiner VarioLight
7.6.Research groups
7.6.1.USA
7.6.2.Asia
7.6.3.Europe
7.7.Manufacturers
7.8.Chemicals
8APPENDIX 1: REFERENCES
9APPENDIX 2: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS
TABLES
3.1.Selected electrical properties of metals
4.1.Dimensional stability of selected substrate materials
4.2.Properties of polymer films
4.3.Summary of properties for heat stabilized PET and PEN
4.4.Water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of various materials
4.5.Requirements of barrier materials
4.6.Oxygen transmission rates of polypropylene with various coatings
5.1.Quotes from major book publishers about electronic publishing
5.2.Performance characteristics of SiPix E-book media
5.3.Automotive display requirements
6.1.Printing processes and the physical phenomena they are based upon
6.2.Printing process parameter and issue comparison
6.3.Advantages and disadvantages of flexographic printing for functional materials.
6.4.Advantages and disadvantages of microcontact printing
6.5.Comparison of flexography with microcontact printing
6.6.Summary of gravure printing features.
6.7.Summary of pad printing characteristics
6.8.Offset lithography capability summary
6.9.Screen printing capability comparison
6.10.Summary of ink-jet printing features
6.11.Thermal transfer printing feature summary
FIGURES
2.1.Pelikon remote control with iconic displays
2.2.Primero 6 Digit, 7-segment printed display module from Aveso.
2.3.Optical micrograph of TFT array processed using Digital Lithography.12
2.4.Cross sectional view of printed multilayer pixel architechture from Plastic Logic.17
2.5.All additive OTFT AM backplane on PEN
2.6.Readius rollable display by Polymer Vision
3.1.Acreo electrochromic display and structure
3.2.Custom displays, using Aveso electrochromic technology
3.3.Side view of Aveso display
3.4.Chemistry of Aveso electrochromic display
3.5.Aveso inlays, showing battery, display, and switch
3.6.Siemens Electrochromic display
3.7.Structure of NTERA electrochromic display
3.8.Diagram of the construction and operation of a twisted nematic liquid crystal display (TN-LCD)
3.9.Structure of TFT-LCD
3.10.Structure and example of Printed OTFT TN LCD from Plastic Logic
3.11.30 µm droplets of spacer ball droplets (3.1-4.5 µm diameter) before drying, deposited by ink jet
3.12.ChLC droplets prepared by membrane emulsification
3.13.Comparison of ChLC stacking structures a) Shared electrode b) conventional
3.14.ChLC displays produced by PIPS
3.15.Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Displays
3.16.Schematic cross section of FLC display pixel
3.17.Image of 3" FLC display from Dai Nippon Printing
3.18.Diagram of 1 and 2 particle electrophoretic display types
3.19.Diagram of EP display using 2 particles
3.20.Micrograph of E-ink display showing subcapsule addressing
3.21.Micrograph of RGBW pixel layout, and two color E-ink images
3.22.SiPix EP display
3.23.Optical micrograph of SiPix display showing sub microcup addressing
3.24.Grayscale rendition of SiPix EPD
3.25.SiPix display production process
3.26.Microcup filling and sealing processes
3.27.Dual Mode microcup operation and micrograph of color MicrocupTM array
3.28.Bridgestone liquid powder display
3.29.Operating principle of Liquid Powder display
3.30.Diagram of transmissive electrowetting display in the dark (a) and light (b) state
3.31.Step and wedge shaped Duracell thermochromic battery testers
3.32.Comparison of CRT and FED displays
3.33.SEM image of a) conventional metal (Spindt) tip and b) printable cathode FED
3.34.Cross section of a) first screen printed CNT FED, and diode FED (PED)
3.35.SEM images of CNT paste
3.36.Morphology of printed graphite cathode
3.37.Operation of Plasma Display
3.38.Typical EL lamp construction (not to scale)
3.39.Pelikon EL technologies
3.40.Pixellated EL matrix display from Pelikon
3.41.Cross sectional diagram of Quantum Paper (Nth Degree) EL display on paper
3.42.Production process (flowchart) for Quantum Paper (Nth degree) printed EL displays
3.43.Construction of iFire TDEL panels
3.44.Radisson SAS London Stansted Wine Tower
3.45.100 m long printed EL poster for IBM at Heathrow airport
3.46.Over 100 m long advertising display (BNP Paribas) at London (Waterloo) train station
3.47.Interest in OLEDs
3.48.Typical structures of Small Molecule and Polymer OLEDs
3.49.Structure of Add-Vision's printed P-OLED
4.1.Surface smoothness of PEN substrates
4.2.Chemical structures of PET and PEN
4.3.Chemical structures of bisphenol A (monomer) and polycarbonate.
4.4.Schematic view of inkjet deposition of PEDOT:PSS along polyimide strip, and AFM image
4.5.MVA fabrication process
4.6.Schematic cross section of a) MVA and b) transflective LCD's
4.7.Chemical structure of Polyethersulfone
4.8.Chemical structure of fluorene polyester
4.9.Optical transmission spectra of DuPont "Clear Plastic" and Kapton® E
4.10.Cross sectional structure of top emitting OLED on paper
4.11.ChLC displays on textiles
4.12.Preparation process and cross section of ChLC display on textiles
4.13.Schematic diagram showing electronic paper display made of hollow fibers
4.14.Schematic diagrams for encapsulated structures a) conventional b) laminated c) deposited in situ
4.15.Examples of PML surface planarization a) OLED cathode separator structure b) high aspect ratio test structure
4.16.Vitex multilayer deposition process
4.17.SEM cross section of Vitex Barix material with 4 dyads
4.18.Optical transmission of Vitex Barix coating
4.19.Edge seal barrier formation by deposition through shadow masks
4.20.Three dimensional barrier structure. Polymer is shown in red, and oxide (barrier) shown in blue
4.21.Schematic of cross section of graded barrier coating and complete barrier film structure
5.1.RSA SecurID one time password token
5.2.Token and software system for generating a One Time Password
5.3.Schematic diagram of the construction of a smart card (SiPix)
5.4.Concepts of smart cards which incorporate a printed display
5.5.Business card prototype with emissive scrolling logo display
5.6.Estimated annual sales of E-readers
5.7.E-book readers
5.8.Printed EL display backlight for a mobile telephone
5.9.Motorola Motofone with electrophoretic main display
5.10.Mobile telephone with ReadiusTM rollable electronic display
5.11.Printed OLED displays for mobile telephones
5.12.NTT DoCoMo Dynamic keypad using electrophoretic display
5.13.DD101 watch with printed EL display
5.14.o.d.m. watch using SiPix electrophoretic display.
5.15.The Seiko Electronic Ink watch
5.16.Art Technology digital watch using E-Ink electrophoretic display technology
5.17.Lexar JumpDrive Mercury and Secure II Plus flash drives with electrophoretic "gas gauge"
5.18.SmartDisk Firelite Xpress portable USB hard drive
5.19.Hypercolor T-shirt incorporating thermochromic dye
5.20.Jay Maynard, a.k.a. "The TRON guy" wearing EL display
5.21.Concept of a diagnostic temperature sensing patch with display
5.22.Concept of eGo color changing skins
5.23.Greeting card produced for Marks & Spencer with electrochromic display
5.24.Electronic tablets from Kent Displays
5.25.Q2 remote from Qwizdom
5.26.Examples of printed electrophoretic displays for digital signage (courtesy SiPix)
5.27.Smart label with printed electronic display showing suitability for product use
5.28.Digital Alert Display Device with printed electrochromic display (Aveso)
5.29.Printed P-OLED wearable patch
5.30.Integrated display with solar-assisted power
5.31.Automotive dashboard printed with DuPont Luxprint® EL ink
5.32.Automotive dashboard with printed OLED display
5.33.Automotive application for low information content display
5.34.Active matrix display image
5.35.Transparent display from PolyDisplay
6.1.Schematic diagram of different types of printing processes
6.2.Taxonomy of printing processes
6.3.Throughput vs. Resolution of Different Kinds of Printing Processes
6.4.Illustration of how flexible printing plates conform to substrate surfaces
6.5.Diagram of flexographic printing process
6.6.Flexographic printing process.
6.7.Diagram of anilox roller.
6.8.Image of text printed with flexographic printing.
6.9.Letterpress printing process.
6.10.Diagram of the microcontact printing process.
6.11.Microcontact printing stamping process
6.12.Microcontact printing processes using cylindrical stamps
6.13.Gravure printing process
6.14.Micrograph of gravure printing cylinder
6.15.Pad printing process
6.16.Offset lithographic printing.
6.17.Screen printing process
6.18.Rotary screen printing process
6.19.Ink-jet deposition mechanisms. Thermal (left), piezo (right)
6.20.Drop placement errors at 1 mm standoff distance for Dimatix SX-128 print head
6.21.3D profile of a coffee-stain formed by ink-jet printing
6.22.The effect of drying condition on thickness and photoluminescence
6.23.Surface energy patterning to constrain spreading of ink-jet drops, cross sectional structure of printed transistor, and AFM image of channel region
6.24.Schematic diagram of self-aligned printing process
6.25.Schematic diagram of thermal transfer printing process
6.26.Image of Graciela Blanchet holding an array organic transistors, printed using thermal transfer
6.27.Atomization (aerosol) generation techniques. (a) Ultrasonic (b) Pneumatic
6.28.(a) Diagram of aerosol jet focusing (b) Image of actual aerosol jet
6.29.Writing a bar code on a curved surface
6.30.Ohmcraft's Micropen system, and image of writing a 75 μm line
6.31.3D profile and cross sections of lines patterned using MicroPen
7.1.Solution Processing for OLED Fabrication
7.2.KODAK Elite Vision AMOLED TV
7.3.Novaled's PIN OLEDTM structure
7.4.LG.Philips 4-inch flexible active matrix OLED
7.5.Manufacturing process for small molecule OLEDs and polymer OLEDs at RiTdisplay
7.6.1.5inch 128xRGBx128 OLED display by RiTdisplay
7.7.Samsung 31'' active matrix flat screen TV
7.8.Inkjet-printing of an OLED display
7.9.Epson's 40 inch full-color OLED display
7.10.Epson's "ultimate black" OLED display
7.11.SONY's 11'' 3mm thick OLED TV
7.12.SONY 2.5 inch flexible display featuring a resolution of 120×RGB×160 pixel and 0.3mm thickness of the panel.
7.13.Structural comparison between an LCD and an OLED display
7.14.PHOLED™
7.15.TOLED®
7.16.General Electric's roll of OLED panels
7.17.Lumiotec white OLEDs
7.18.Transparent white OLED
7.19.In the OLLA project, this 15 cm x 15 cm demonstrator based on light-emitting polymer materials was produced jointly with Siemens and other partners
7.20."Flying Future" and "Early Future" by Ingo Mauer
7.21.Siemens mobile phone with an OLED display
7.22.White OLED developed by PHILIPS
7.23.e-book readers currently available
7.24.e-paper displays by Samsung and EPSON, showcased at SID 2008
7.25.A4 size Flexible Color e-paper
7.26.Cross section of LG's e-paper display
7.27.BiNem® Modules
7.28.BiNem® principle of operation
7.29.Plastic Logic "take anywhere, read anywhere" display using E Ink® Imaging Film
7.30.The Readius ® by Polymer Vision
7.31.Display Procesisng Steps
7.32.The interior lighting design of the Ford Iosis and the Jaguar CFX, by elumin8
7.33.EL lamps from Rogers Corporation
7.34.Schreiner VarioLight's EL systems for the automotive industry

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Report Statistics

-Pages248
-Tables24
-Figures185
-Companies40+
-Forecasts to2019
-Last updateQ4 2008
 

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