Durable, engineered, carbon dioxide removal capacity to exceed 630 megatonnes per annum in 2044.

Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) 2024-2044: Technologies, Players, Carbon Credit Markets, and Forecasts

Carbon dioxide removal technologies including DACCS (direct air carbon capture and storage), BECCS, biochar, afforestation/reforestation, mineralization, ocean-based CDR, with trends, forecasts, and carbon credit markets (voluntary and compliance).


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Meeting net-zero emissions targets will, above all, require swift and meaningful emissions reductions, which are expected to come from efforts such as fossil fuel replacement and efficiency improvement. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that removing carbon dioxide (CO₂) from the atmosphere will be needed to avoid global warming beyond 1.5-2°C. Estimates vary, but climate scenarios suggest that it will be almost impossible to meet the targets set out by the Paris Agreement without leveraging carbon dioxide removal (CDR) solutions. For this reason, negative emissions technologies (NETs) have been receiving increased attention from researchers, governments, investors, entrepreneurs, and various corporations with ambitious climate goals.
 
"Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) 2024-2044: Technologies, Players, Carbon Credit Markets, and Forecasts" provides a comprehensive outlook of the emerging CDR industry and carbon credit markets, with an in-depth analysis of the technological, economic, regulatory, and environmental aspects that are shaping this market. In it, IDTechEx focuses on technologies that actively draw CO₂ from the atmosphere and sequester it into carbon sinks, namely:
1. Direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS), which leverages chemical processes to capture CO₂ directly from the air and sequester it in geologic formations or durable products.
2. Biomass with carbon removal and storage (BiCRS), which involves strategies that use biomass to remove CO₂ from the atmosphere and store it underground or in long-lived products. It includes approaches such as BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage), biochar, biomass burial, and bio-oil underground injection.
3. Land-based CDR methods that leverage biological processes to increase carbon stocks in soils, forests, and other terrestrial ecosystems, i.e. afforestation and reforestation and soil carbon sequestration techniques.
4. Mineralization NETs that enhance natural mineral processes that permanently bind CO₂ from the atmosphere with rocks through enhanced rock weathering, carbonation of mineral wastes, and oxide looping.
5. Ocean-based CDR methods that strengthen the ocean carbon pump through ocean alkalinity enhancement, direct ocean capture, artificial upwelling/downwelling, coastal blue carbon, algae cultivation/marine seaweed sinking, and ocean fertilization.
 
 
TRL (technology readiness level) chart of carbon dioxide removal technologies covered in the IDTechEx report. Source: IDTechEx
 
These CDR technologies are at vastly different stages of readiness. Some are nearly ready for large-scale deployment, whilst others require basic scientific research and further field trials.
 
Durable engineered removals versus nature-based CDR solutions
Nature-based solutions, particularly land-based, have dominated the supply of CDR historically due to their low cost and high maturity. However, demand for this type of removal carbon credit has been dropping in voluntary markets over the past few years due to several high-profile scandals, and the low durability and low permanence associated with nature-based CDR. Corporate buyers have instead increasingly turned towards highly durable engineered carbon removal credits generated from approaches such as DACCS and BECCS. These removals offer credible climate action, but have a high price tag and are in short supply. Most durable engineered approaches are yet to be included in compliance markets, and therefore rely on pre-purchases from corporate buyers for early-stage commercial development, with this report examining the status of CDR in both voluntary and compliance carbon markets.
 
The report provides insights into the most promising technologies being developed in CDR, highlighting the pros and cons of each method, examining key drivers and barriers for growth, and comparing the removal potential, capture cost, and durability of all technologies. Despite limited current capacity, there has been much interest in DACCS as a solution to permanently remove CO₂ from the atmosphere and reverse climate change. DACCS is immediate, measurable, allows for permanent storage, can be located practically anywhere, is likely to cause minimal ecosystem impacts, and can achieve large-scale removals.
 
However, the rate at which DACCS can be scaled-up is likely a limiting factor. The challenges of deploying DACCS analysed in this report include the large energy inputs (requiring substantial low-carbon energy resources), the high cost, and the sorbent requirements. The industry is aiming for the ambitious target of gigatonne-scale of DACCS removals by 2050. To make this happen, corporate action, investments, policy shapers, and regulatory guidelines need to come together to bring down the costs.
 
Although BECCS is currently the most mature and widely deployed durable engineered CDR technology, scale-up has historically been slow, and planned capacity is modest. Despite the technologies behind BECCS being relatively mature, there is a risk that using biomass for CO₂ removal and storage may compete with agricultural land and water or negatively impact biodiversity and conservation. IDTechEx analysis has indicated that BECCS has a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation, though not at the scale assumed in some models due to economic and environmental risk factors.
 
Is carbon dioxide removal deferring the problem?
There are growing concerns that valuable resources will be allocated to drawing down CO₂ from the air as opposed to preventing emissions from reaching the atmosphere in the first place. Indeed, although most of the world's mitigation efforts will need to be done by reducing emissions, there is evidence that deploying certain NETs may be more cost-effective and less disruptive than reducing some hard-to-abate emissions.
 
Incremental reductions in anthropogenic emissions will likely become more expensive once they reach very low levels, whilst the cost of effective NETs will likely reduce with deployment. In such a scenario, methods for reduction and removal of emissions may become competitors for an extended period. Nevertheless, a competitive scenario can be desirable as it can improve the world's ability to manage unexpected risks inherent to mitigation actions. The vast availability of low-cost mitigation solutions will only become a reality if both CDR and emission abatement solutions are developed in tandem and act as complementary components of a diverse mitigation portfolio.
 
Comprehensive analysis and market forecasts
This IDTechEx report assesses the CDR carbon credit market in detail, evaluating the different technologies, latest advancements, and potential adoption drivers and barriers. The report also includes a granular forecast until 2044 for the deployment of nine NET categories (DACCS, BECCS, biochar, biomass burial, direct ocean capture, ocean alkalinity enhancement, seaweed sinking, enhanced rock weathering, and carbonation of minerals), alongside exclusive analysis and interview-based company profiles.
 
Some of the key questions answered in this report:
  • What are the requirements (energy, land, water, feedstocks, supply chain) for the deployment of CDR methods?
  • What is the climate impact of implementing CDR on a large scale?
  • Which gaps (technological, regulatory, business model) need to be addressed to enable each NET?
  • What is the status of CDR within compliance markets and voluntary carbon credit markets and what is the market potential?
  • What are the key drivers and hurdles for CDR market growth?
  • How much do CDR solutions cost today and may cost in the future?
  • Who are the key players in the CDR space?
  • What is needed to further develop the CDR sector?
 
Key aspects
This report provides the following information:
 
Technology and market analysis:
  • Data and context on each type of NET (negative emission technology).
  • Analysis of the challenges and opportunities in the nascent CDR (carbon dioxide removal) carbon credit markets.
  • State of the art and innovation in the field.
  • Detailed overview of CDR technologies: land-based, mineralization-based, ocean-based, DACCS (direct air carbon capture with storage), and BiCRS (biomass with carbon capture and storage).
  • Market potential (both voluntary and compliance) of CDR carbon offsets.
  • Key strategies for scaling long-term CDR technologies.
  • The economics of scaling up CDR operations.
  • Assessment of requirements (infrastructure, energy, supply chain, etc) for CDR market uptake.
  • Climate benefit potential of main CDR solutions.
  • Benchmarking based on factors such as technology readiness level (TRL), cost, and scale potential.
  • Key regulations and policies influencing the CDR market.
 
Player analysis and trends:
  • Primary information from key CDR-related companies.
  • Analysis of CDR players' latest developments, observing projects announced, funding, trends, partnerships, and key patents.
 
Market forecasts and analysis:
  • Granular market forecasts until 2044 for durable, engineered CDR solutions, subdivided into nine technological areas.
Report MetricsDetails
CAGRDurable, engineered, carbon dioxide removal capacity to exceed 630 megatonnes per annum in 2044. This corresponds to a CAGR of 28.8% (2024-2044).
Forecast Period2024 - 2044
Forecast UnitsRemoval capacity:million tonnes of CO₂ per annum (Mtpa), Annual revenue for CDR carbon credits: US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredDACCS, BiCRS (BECCS, biochar, biomass burial), Ocean-based durable CDR (direct ocean capture, ocean alkalinity enhancement, seaweed sinking), Mineralization-based CDR (enhanced rock weathering, other ex-situ mineralization).
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Why carbon dioxide removal (CDR)?
1.2.What is CDR and how is it different from CCUS?
1.3.The CDR technologies covered in this report (1/2)
1.4.The CDR technologies covered in this report (2/2)
1.5.Carbon dioxide removal technology benchmarking
1.6.The CDR business model and its challenges: carbon credits
1.7.Prices of CDR credits
1.8.The state of CDR in the voluntary carbon market
1.9.Shifting buyer preferences for durable CDR in carbon credit markets
1.10.Carbon credit market sizes
1.11.What is needed to further develop the CDR sector?
1.12.The potential of DACCS as a CDR solution
1.13.The DACCS market is nascent but growing
1.14.CO₂ capture/separation mechanisms in DAC
1.15.Challenges associated with DAC technology
1.16.DACCS: key takeaways
1.17.Biomass with carbon removal and storage (BiCRS)
1.18.The status and outlook of BECCS
1.19.The challenges of BECCS
1.20.Biochar: key takeaways
1.21.Afforestation and reforestation: key takeaways
1.22.Mineralization: key takeaways
1.23.Ocean-based NETs
1.24.Ocean-based CDR: key takeaways
1.25.Carbon dioxide removal capacity forecast by technology (million metric tons of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
1.26.Carbon dioxide removal annual revenue forecast by technology (billion US$), 2024-2044
1.27.Carbon dioxide removal market forecast, 2024-2044: discussion
1.28.Carbon dioxide removal: key takeaways
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Introduction and general analysis
2.1.1.What is carbon dioxide removal (CDR)?
2.1.2.Description of the main CDR methods
2.1.3.Why carbon dioxide removal (CDR)?
2.1.4.What is the difference between CDR and CCUS?
2.1.5.High-quality carbon removals: durability, permanence, additionality
2.1.6.Technology Readiness Level (TRL): Carbon dioxide removal methods
2.1.7.Carbon dioxide removal technology benchmarking
2.1.8.Status and potential of CDR technologies
2.1.9.Alternative revenue streams improve economic viability of CDR technologies
2.1.10.Geological storage is not the only permanent destination for CO₂
2.1.11.Engineered carbon dioxide removal value chain
2.1.12.Monitoring, reporting, and verification of CDR
2.1.13.Potential role of policy in CDR deployment
2.1.14.CDR: deferring the problem?
2.1.15.What is needed to further develop the CDR sector?
2.1.16.CDR market traction in 2023
2.1.17.The Xprize Carbon Removal
2.2.Carbon credit markets and the status of CDR credits
2.2.1.Carbon pricing and carbon markets
2.2.2.Compliance carbon pricing mechanisms across the globe
2.2.3.What is the price of CO₂ in global carbon pricing mechanisms?
2.2.4.What is a carbon credit?
2.2.5.Carbon removal vs carbon avoidance offsetting
2.2.6.Carbon removal vs emission reduction offsets (2/2)
2.2.7.How are carbon credits certified?
2.2.8.Carbon crediting programs
2.2.9.The role of carbon registries in the credit market
2.2.10.Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) of Carbon Credits
2.2.11.Quality of carbon credits
2.2.12.How are voluntary carbon credits purchased?
2.2.13.Advanced market commitment in CDR
2.2.14.Interaction between compliance markets and voluntary markets (geographical)
2.2.15.Interaction between compliance markets and voluntary markets (sectoral)
2.2.16.The state of CDR in compliance markets
2.2.17.The state of CDR in the voluntary carbon market
2.2.18.Shifting buyer preferences for durable CDR in carbon credit markets
2.2.19.Biggest durable carbon removal buyers
2.2.20.Pre-purchases still dominate the durable CDR space
2.2.21.Prices of CDR credits
2.2.22.How expensive were durable carbon removals in 2023?
2.2.23.Current carbon credit prices by company and technology
2.2.24.Carbon market sizes
2.2.25.Which durable CDR technologies had the largest market share in 2023?
2.2.26.The carbon removal market players
2.2.27.Challenges in today's carbon market
2.2.28.CDR technologies: key takeaways
3.DIRECT AIR CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (DACCS)
3.1.Introduction to direct air capture (DAC)
3.1.1.What is direct air capture (DAC)?
3.1.2.Why DACCS as a CDR solution?
3.1.3.Current status of DACCS
3.1.4.Momentum: private investments in DAC
3.1.5.Momentum: public investment and policy support for DAC
3.1.6.Momentum: DAC-specific regulation
3.1.7.DAC land requirement is an advantage
3.1.8.DAC vs point-source carbon capture
3.2.DAC technologies
3.2.1.CO₂ capture/separation mechanisms in DAC
3.2.2.Direct air capture technologies
3.2.3.DAC solid sorbent swing adsorption processes (1/2)
3.2.4.DAC solid sorbent swing adsorption processes (2/2)
3.2.5.Electro-swing adsorption of CO₂ for DAC
3.2.6.Solid sorbents in DAC
3.2.7.Emerging solid sorbent materials for DAC
3.2.8.Liquid solvent-based DAC
3.2.9.Process flow diagram of S-DAC
3.2.10.Process flow diagram of L-DAC
3.2.11.Process flow diagram of CaO looping
3.2.12.Solid sorbent- vs liquid solvent-based DAC
3.2.13.Electricity and heat sources
3.2.14.Requirements to capture 1 Mt of CO₂ per year
3.3.DAC companies
3.3.1.DAC companies by country
3.3.2.Direct air capture company landscape
3.3.3.A comparison of the three DAC pioneers
3.3.4.TRLs of direct air capture players
3.3.5.Climeworks
3.3.6.Carbon Engineering
3.3.7.Global Thermostat
3.3.8.Heirloom
3.3.9.DACCS carbon credit sales by company
3.4.DAC challenges
3.4.1.Challenges associated with DAC technology (1/2)
3.4.2.Challenges associated with DAC technology (2/2)
3.4.3.Oil and gas sector involvement in DAC
3.4.4.DACCS co-location with geothermal energy
3.4.5.Will DAC be deployed in time to make a difference?
3.4.6.What can DAC learn from the wind and solar industries' scale-up?
3.4.7.What is needed for DAC to achieve the gigatonne capacity by 2050?
3.5.DAC economics
3.5.1.The economics of DAC
3.5.2.The CAPEX of DAC
3.5.3.The CAPEX of DAC: sub-system contribution
3.5.4.The OPEX of DAC
3.5.5.Overall capture cost of DAC (1/2)
3.5.6.Overall capture cost of DAC (2/2)
3.5.7.Component specific capture cost contributions for DACCS
3.5.8.Financing DAC
3.5.9.DACCS SWOT analysis
3.5.10.DACCS: summary
3.5.11.DACCS: key takeaways
4.BIOMASS WITH CARBON REMOVAL AND STORAGE (BICRS)
4.1.Introduction
4.1.1.Biomass with carbon removal and storage (BiCRS)
4.1.2.BiCRS possible feedstocks
4.1.3.BiCRS conversion pathways
4.1.4.CO₂ capture technologies for BECCS
4.1.5.The potential for BiCRS goes beyond BECCS
4.1.6.TRL of biomass conversion processes and products by feedstock
4.1.7.TRL of biomass conversion by feedstock: lignocellulose
4.1.8.TRL of biomass conversion by feedstock: organic wastes and oil crops/waste
4.1.9.TRL of biomass conversion by feedstock: algae and sugar/starch
4.1.10.TRL of biomass conversion: discussion
4.1.11.BiCRS Technological Challenges
4.1.12.The cost of BiCRS as it scales
4.1.13.Considerations in large-scale BiCRS deployment
4.2.Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
4.2.1.Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
4.2.2.Point source capture technologies
4.2.3.The economics of BECCS
4.2.4.Opportunities in BECCS: heat generation
4.2.5.Opportunities in BECCS: waste-to-energy
4.2.6.BECCS current status
4.2.7.Trends in BECCUS projects (1/2)
4.2.8.Trends in BECCUS projects (2/2)
4.2.9.The challenges of BECCS
4.2.10.What is the business model for BECCS?
4.2.11.BECCS carbon credits
4.2.12.The energy and carbon efficiency of BECCS
4.2.13.Importance of regrowth rates on carbon accounting for biogenic emissions
4.2.14.Consideration of land-use change casts doubt on sustainability of BECCS
4.2.15.Is BECCS sustainable?
4.2.16.Network connecting bioethanol plants for BECCS
4.2.17.BECCS for blue hydrogen production with carbon removal
4.2.18.Hydrogen from biomass gasification: Mote case study
4.2.19.BECCS Outlook: Government support and large-scale demonstrations needed
4.3.Biochar
4.3.1.What is biochar?
4.3.2.How is biochar produced? (1/2)
4.3.3.How is biochar produced? (2/2)
4.3.4.Biochar feedstocks
4.3.5.Permanence of biochar carbon removal
4.3.6.Biochar applications
4.3.7.Economic considerations in biochar production (1)
4.3.8.Economic considerations in biochar production (2)
4.3.9.Biochar: market and business model
4.3.10.The state of the biochar market
4.3.11.The state of the biochar CDR market
4.3.12.Key players in biochar by technology readiness level
4.3.13.Biochar legislation and certification
4.3.14.Drivers and barriers to biochar market uptake
4.3.15.Biomass pyrolysis: combining H2 production with biochar production
4.3.16.Additionality of biochar carbon removal
4.3.17.Biochar: key takeaways
4.4.Emerging BiCRS solutions
4.4.1.Emerging biocarbon sequestration: steel and concrete
4.4.2.Bio-oil geological storage for CDR
4.4.3.Bio-oil-based CDR: pros and cons
4.4.4.Biomass burial for CO₂ removal
4.4.5.Graphyte
4.4.6.Bio-based construction materials as a CDR tool
4.4.7.BiCRS Value Chain
4.4.8.BiCRS: key takeaways
5.AFFORESTATION/REFORESTATION
5.1.What are nature-based CDR approaches?
5.2.Why land-based carbon dioxide removal?
5.3.The CDR potential of afforestation and reforestation
5.4.The case for and against A/R for climate mitigation
5.5.Technologies in A/R: remote sensing
5.6.Robotics: forestry mapping with drones
5.7.Company landscape: robotics in afforestation/reforestation
5.8.Automation in forest fire detection
5.9.Status of forest carbon removal projects
5.10."Just plant more trees!" - sustainability and greenwashing considerations
5.11.Comparing A/R and BECCS solutions
5.12.Afforestation and reforestation: key takeaways
6.SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION
6.1.What is soil carbon sequestration (SCS)?
6.2.The soil carbon sequestration potential is vast
6.3.Agricultural management practices to improve soil carbon sequestration
6.4.Companies using microbial inoculation for soil carbon sequestration
6.5.Additionality, measurement, and permanency of soil carbon is in doubt
6.6.Challenges in SCS deployment
6.7.The soil carbon sequestration value chain
6.8.The soil carbon sequestration value chain: the roles
6.9.Marketplaces for SCS-based CDR credits
6.10.Soil carbon sequestration pros and cons
6.11.Soil carbon sequestration: key takeaways
7.MINERALIZATION-BASED CDR
7.1.CO₂ mineralization is key for CDR
7.2.Ex situ mineralization CDR methods
7.3.Source materials for ex situ mineralization
7.4.Ex situ carbonation of mineral wastes
7.5.Carbon dioxide storage in CO₂-derived concrete
7.6.CO₂-derived concrete: commercial landscape
7.7.R&D developments in ex situ carbonation of mining wastes
7.8.Oxide looping: Mineralization in DAC
7.9.Enhanced weathering
7.10.Enhanced weathering attributes
7.11.MRV in Enhanced Rock Weathering
7.12.Enhanced weathering commercial landscape
7.13.Enhanced rock weathering CDR market
7.14.Mineralization: key takeaways
8.OCEAN-BASED CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL
8.1.Introduction
8.1.1.Ocean pumps continuously pull CO₂ from the atmosphere into the ocean
8.1.2.Ocean-based CDR methods
8.1.3.Definitions of ocean-based CDR technologies
8.1.4.Why ocean-based CDR?
8.1.5.Technology Readiness Level (TRL) chart for ocean-based CDR
8.1.6.Benchmarking of ocean-based CDR methods
8.1.7.Key players in ocean-based CDR
8.2.Ocean-based CDR: abiotic methods
8.2.1.Ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE)
8.2.2.Electrochemical ocean alkalinity enhancement
8.2.3.Ocean alkalinity enhancement status
8.2.4.Direct ocean capture
8.2.5.State of technology in direct ocean capture
8.2.6.Future direct ocean capture technologies
8.2.7.Artificial downwelling
8.3.Ocean-based CDR: biotic methods
8.3.1.Coastal blue carbon
8.3.2.Status of coastal blue carbon credits in the voluntary carbon markets
8.3.3.Algal cultivation
8.3.4.Ocean fertilization
8.3.5.Several ocean fertilization start-ups have failed
8.3.6.Artificial upwelling
8.3.7.The governance challenge in large-scale deployment of ocean CDR
8.3.8.MRV for marine CDR
8.3.9.Ocean-based CDR Funding
8.3.10.Price of ocean-based CDR carbon credits
8.3.11.Ocean-based CDR: key takeaways
9.CDR MARKET FORECASTS
9.1.Forecast scope: durable, engineered removals
9.2.Forecast scope: nature-based approaches
9.3.Overall Carbon Dioxide Removal Forecast Methodology/Scope
9.4.Carbon dioxide removal capacity forecast by technology (million metric tons of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
9.5.Data table for carbon dioxide removal capacity forecast by technology (million metric tons of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
9.6.Carbon dioxide removal annual revenue forecast by technology (billion US$), 2024-2044
9.7.Data table for carbon dioxide removal annual revenue forecast by technology (million US$), 2024-2044
9.8.Carbon dioxide removal market forecast, 2024-2044: discussion
9.9.The evolution of the durable CDR market
9.10.Changes since the previous IDTechEx CDR forecasts (1/2)
9.11.Changes since the previous IDTechEx CDR forecasts (1/2)
9.12.DACCS: Forecast methodology
9.13.DACCS carbon removal capacity forecast (million metric tons of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044, base case
9.14.DACCS carbon removal capacity forecast (million metric tons of CO₂ per year), 2030-2044, optimistic case
9.15.DACCS carbon credit revenue forecast (million US$), 2024-2044
9.16.DACCS: Forecast discussion
9.17.BECCS: Forecast methodology
9.18.Biochar, bio-oil, and biomass burial: Forecast methodology
9.19.BECCS carbon removal capacity forecast (million metric tons of CO₂ per year) 2024-2044
9.20.Biochar and biomass burial carbon removal capacity forecast (million metric tons of CO₂ per year) 2024-2044
9.21.BiCRS carbon credit revenue forecast (million US$), 2024-2044
9.22.BECCS: Forecast discussion
9.23.Biochar and biomass burial: Forecast discussion
9.24.Mineralization carbon removal capacity forecast (million metric tons of CO₂ per year) 2024-2044
9.25.Mineralization carbon credit revenue forecast (million US$), 2024-2044
9.26.Mineralization CDR: Forecast methodology and discussion
9.27.Ocean-based CDR: Forecast methodology
9.28.Ocean-based carbon removal capacity forecast (million metric tons of CO₂ per year) 2024-2044
9.29.Ocean-based carbon credit revenue forecast (million US$), 2024-2044
9.30.Ocean-based CDR: Forecast discussion
10.APPENDIX
10.1.Direct air capture companies
10.2.Biochar companies (1/2)
10.3.Biochar companies (2/2)
10.4.Large-scale DACCS Projects (announced and operational)
10.5.Large-scale BECCS Projects announced and operational (1/5)
10.6.Large-scale BECCS Projects announced and operational (2/5)
10.7.Large-scale BECCS Projects announced and operational (3/5)
10.8.Large-scale BECCS Projects announced and operational (4/5)
10.9.Large-scale BECCS Projects announced and operational (5/5)
11.LIST OF COMPANY PROFILES
11.1.3R-BioPhosphate
11.2.8 Rivers
11.3.Airex Energy
11.4.AspiraDAC: MOF-Based DAC Technology Using Solar Power
11.5.BC Biocarbon
11.6.Cambridge Carbon Capture
11.7.CapChar
11.8.Carbo Culture
11.9.Carbofex
11.10.Carbogenics
11.11.Carbon Engineering
11.12.CarbonBlue
11.13.CarbonCapture Inc.
11.14.CarbonCure
11.15.Carbyon
11.16.Charm Industrial
11.17.Climeworks
11.18.Equatic
11.19.Global Thermostat
11.20.Graphyte
11.21.Grassroots Biochar
11.22.GreenCap Solutions
11.23.Heirloom
11.24.Mercurius Biorefining
11.25.Mission Zero Technologies
11.26.Mosaic Materials: MOF-Based DAC Technology
11.27.Myno Carbon
11.28.NeoCarbon
11.29.neustark
11.30.NovoMOF
11.31.Noya
11.32.O.C.O Technology
11.33.PyroCCS
11.34.Seaweed Generation
11.35.Skytree
11.36.Soletair Power
11.37.Sustaera
11.38.Svante
11.39.Svante: MOF-Based Carbon Capture
11.40.Takachar
11.41.Verdox
11.42.Vycarb
11.43.WasteX
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 314
Companies 43
Forecasts to 2044
Published Apr 2024
ISBN 9781835700358
 

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