Automotive heads-up display market to reach over US$10 billion by 2034 with CAGR of 24%.

Heads-up Displays 2024-2034: Technologies, Players, Opportunities

Combiner, windshield, augmented reality (AR) HUDs, TFT-LCDs, DLP, Laser-scanned MEMS, MicroLEDs, CGH, TFEL. Windshield coatings, holographic optical elements. Technology landscapes, market forecast by technology and type

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Automotive heads-up displays (HUDs) are set to revolutionize the automotive display sector. The potential to positively impact road safety, increase vehicle customization as well as enhance the communication between the front seat passengers and the vehicle. The rise in vehicle autonomy is being a shift in focus from OEMs in delivering solutions emphasizing on passenger experience rather than solely the driving experience and while heads-up displays can help with the latter, it can in the future greatly introduce a more immersive entertainment experience to driving.
IDTechEx's new report on heads-up displays follows previous work carried out on automotive displays and specializes on the more immersive type of interaction. This report includes a more in-depth analysis of the different display technologies used as well as the various types of heads-up displays and key distinctions between these. Interviews with key players in the market helped shape this forecast with the market expected to reach over US$10 billion by 2034 with a CAGR of 24%.
IDTechEx forecast for HUDs market value in next decade. Source: IDTechEx
The previous automotive displays report was fundamental in obtaining an overall understanding of how automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are envisioning the future of displays within their vehicles. However, with the growing interest in HUDs it is important to delve into this topic in a more detailed manner. For this reason, this report not only covers technology and HUD types, but also how these displays are manufactured, along with key challenges. It also investigates how key components such as the windshield must adapt to conform with this growing trend. Furthermore, various coatings are now of increased importance to ensure this technology's optimal performance.
The current dominant technology in this space is the TFT-LCD but unlike other applications, HUDs require much higher brightness levels as well as durability and resilience. Brightness must be very high since images may be projected to areas where the ambient lighting conditions are very elevated, i.e. under direct sunlight, and HUDs must suitably display these images under any environment. Often these images are projected directly to the windshield, and while the virtual images could still be visible under dark or overcast conditions, seeing these could be a challenge on very bright days. In addition, the increasing adoption and popularity of autonomous vehicles and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) require HUDs with larger or even varied field of view (FOV) and depth. For these reasons, there could be an opportunity for alternative technologies that could perform such as digital light processing (DLP), computer-generated holography (CGH), laser-scanned MEMS and MicroLEDs. CGH, in particular, has been gaining a lot of traction with companies set to release products into vehicles in the coming years. Its coherent light source requirement, i.e. a laser means that this technique is very bright, and the possibility of projecting three-dimensional virtual images without a loss in resolution means a more comfortable driving experience is possible with images highlighting key obstacles on the road with true depth cues. Drivers can seamlessly focus and defocus on virtual objects as they do with everyday objects, and this creates a more enjoyable driving experience.
Drivers can seamlessly focus and defocus on virtual objects. Source: IDTechEx
While these are notable benefits to adopting holography into HUDs, there are two key reasons why this technology has so far remained unsuccessful in challenging TFT-LCDs: cost, and form factor. TFT-LCDs are significantly more mature and have many more suppliers competing to provide the best price. CGH cannot compete with this technology when it comes to cost. Secondly, form factor is another key differentiator. There are a lot of optics and additional components required to assemble a holographic heads-up display. Currently, large premium vehicles are most suited to adopt this technology. However, as technologies matures, and the cost as well as its form factor decreases, it is expected holography will start being adopted to a wider range of vehicles, i.e. smaller and more inexpensive alternatives.
Furthermore, this report looks at the main types of HUDs from dedicated combiner and windshield HUDs to the more immersive augmented reality (AR) HUD. It is believed one of the main drivers for these types of displays is the potential to improve road safety. The number of accidents caused by driver distractions has been rising and often these distractions are caused by technology. It is believed that by displaying key driving information directly to the driver's line of sight, some level of distraction can be mitigated since drivers no longer have to deviate their gaze from the road to obtain key driving information from the dashboard or center information displays. On the other hand, too many annotations and virtual images could hinder the visibility of the road and could be detrimental to passenger safety. There must be moderation in the level of immersiveness, as this technology must aid drivers and not hinder visibility.
This report also assesses key players in the market, as well as forecasts into the next decade covering 2024-2034. The forecasts are broken down by HUD technology and type of HUD. A regional breakdown is provided covering display type volumes.
Drivers and constraints are considered throughout the report, as well as technology maturity, competitive landscape, and ongoing trends in the market. Interviews to numerous players in this space both display manufacturers and their suppliers are conducted, and findings are presented giving the reader insight into where the market is placed and where it is moving. The progress of individual companies is outlined in the report and their product lines assessed and compared with similar competition.
Key aspects of the automotive displays market report
The research in this report has been compiled by IDTechEx analysts following our existing expertise in displays and photonics to electric vehicles and vehicle autonomy. Primary and secondary research was fundamental when putting together this report, speaking to multiple stakeholders in the sector with both a commercial and academic focus on the subject. IDTechEx has attended conferences and tradeshows, to understand the market and validate some hypotheses. The information and data gathered was helpful when conceiving this uniquely comprehensive report.
This report provides an overall assessment of the automotive display landscape and covers fundamental technologies, product lines, applications, and key players. Key features of this report include:
  • An introduction to different types of automotive display technologies and types of displays.
  • Discussion of key trends and sector movements.
  • Industry analysis from multiple interviews conducted and conferences attended.
  • Several SWOT analyses covering key technologies.
  • Analysis into technologies beyond display technologies. An understanding of key manufacturing requirements, and adaptation of key components such as the windshield, with the addition of novel coatings.
  • 10-year market forecast, across multiple display types and technologies. Includes annual market value and display volume forecasts. Key regions covered:
• Europe
• America
• Asia/Middle East/Oceania
• Africa
• Central and South America
• China
• India
• Japan
• South Korea
  • Evaluation into individual technologies' current technical and commercial feasibility.
  • Company profiles, covering key technologies and product lines. The information gathered follows extensive interviews conducted to multiple stakeholders.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2019 - 2023
CAGRGlobal market value to reach over US$ 10 billion by 2034 with CAGR of 24%.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsVolume (number of displays)
Regions CoveredWorldwide, Europe, All Asia-Pacific, United States, China, Japan, Korea, India
Segments CoveredBy HUD technology and type
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Table of Contents
1.1.Generic description of heads-up displays
1.2.Historical overview of heads-up displays
1.3.HUD requirements
1.4.Evolution of automotive HUDs
1.5.Why automotive heads-up displays?
1.6.HUD key requirements
1.7.Classifications of various HUD technologies and types
1.8.Major PGU technology comparison
1.9.HUD technology readiness level
1.10.Key benefits and drawbacks of various PGU technologies
1.11.HUD development trend
1.12.Summary of HUD application
1.13.European key players
1.14.North American key players
1.15.Asia/Middle East key players
1.16.A selection of automotive with HUDs
1.17.Automotive HUD supplier chain
2.1.Forecasting methodology
2.2.Visualizing product and technology trend curves
2.3.Global volume forecast by HUD type
2.4.Global volume forecast by HUD technology
2.5.Global HUD market value forecast
2.6.Europe volume forecast by HUD type
2.7.America volume forecast by HUD type
2.8.Asia/Middle East/Oceania volume forecast by HUD type
2.9.Africa volume forecast by HUD type
2.10.Central & South America volume forecast by HUD type
2.11.US volume forecast by HUD type
2.12.China volume forecast by HUD type
2.13.Japan volume forecast by HUD type
2.14.South Korea volume forecast by HUD type
2.15.India volume forecast by HUD type
2.16.Forecast explanation
3.1.HUD types and technologies
3.2.HUD working principle
3.3.What is a projection heads-up display (HUD)
3.4.How does a HUD system work? 1
3.5.How does a HUD system work? 2
3.6.Main HUD specification illustration
4.1.1.The picture generation unit (PGU) setup
4.2.Laser-Scanned MEMS
4.2.1.Introduction to laser-scanned MEMS
4.2.2.What can laser-scanned MEMS bring to HUDs
4.3.1.Overview of TFT-LCD
4.3.2.The rise of thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs)
4.3.3.The legacy variant - twisted nematic liquid crystal
4.3.4.TFT-based in-plane switching (IPS) technology
4.3.5.Vertical alignment (VA) LCDs
4.3.6.TN vs IPS vs VA
4.3.7.TFT-LCD automotive display value propositions
4.3.8.Automotive display component assembly
4.3.9.Typical TFT-LCD based display component layout
4.3.10.Effects of Polarized Sunglasses
4.3.11.TFT-LCDs key features
4.3.12.TFT-LCD PGUs
4.3.13.What do LCDs offer to the automotive sector?
4.3.15.Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) For Displays
4.3.16.History of solid-state lighting
4.3.17.What is an LED?
4.3.18.How does an LED work?
4.3.19.Homojunction vs heterojunction
4.3.20.LED size definitions
4.3.22.Comparisons of LEDs for displays
4.3.23.LED comparison
4.3.24.MiniLED - Moving past LED and towards full-array local dimming
4.3.25.MiniLEDs are facilitating local dimming in LCDs to achieve HDR and higher image contrasts
4.3.26.Back-lit dimming
4.3.27.Edge-lit local dimming
4.3.28.Full-array local dimming
4.4.1.Use of DLP in combiner HUDs
4.4.2.Deformable Mirrors
4.4.3.Basic working principle of DMD
4.4.4.DMD light interactions
4.4.5.DMD: Light efficiency
4.4.6.Pros and cons of DLP
4.4.7.Do 3D PGUs make sense for combiner HUDs?
4.4.8.Amplitude holography challenges
4.4.9.Why is a diffuser in a DLP not suitable for 3D imaging?
4.4.10.DLP SWOT analysis
4.5.MicroLED Displays
4.5.1.From traditional LEDs... Micro-LEDs
4.5.3.Mini-LEDs and Micro-LEDs
4.5.4.Micro-LED displays: Size is an important feature
4.5.5.Micro LED displays: Beyond the size
4.5.6.A better definition?
4.5.7.Micro-LED display panel structure
4.5.8.Advantages of AM micro-LED micro-displays
4.5.9.Micro-LED value proposition list
4.5.10.Micro-LED's core value proposition: Long lifetime
4.5.11.Micro-LED's core value proposition: High luminance
4.5.12.Micro-LED's core value proposition: Transparency
4.5.13.Micro-LED's core value proposition: Seamless connection
4.5.14.Transparent display examples
4.5.15.MicroLED PGUs for the future?
4.5.16.What do microLEDs bring to the automotive sector?
4.6.Light Field Displays (LFDs)
4.6.1.Near-eye light field displays
4.6.2.Constructing the near-field LFD
4.6.3.Light field acquisition
4.6.4.Light field display
4.6.5.Types of light field displays
4.6.6.Spatial light field displays
4.6.7.Sequential light field displays
4.6.8.Light field displays is growing in the display sector as a viable mechanism to generate true 3D images
4.6.9.Why adopt spatial LFDs
4.7.Computer-generated holography (CGH)
4.7.1.Computer-generated holography shows no loss in resolution but has poorer image quality
4.7.2.Holography recreates the process of visualizing objects from first principles
4.7.3.Holography relies in diffraction - moving further from Young's double slit experiment
4.7.4.Why full 3D displays?
4.7.5.Diffraction - Wavefront approximations
4.7.6.Computer-generated holography does not require the recording stage and holograms computed digitally
4.7.7.Digital holographic HUDs
4.7.8.Computer-generated holography use in heads-up displays (HUDs)
4.7.9.What CGH brings to displays
4.8.Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS)
4.8.1.Introduction to spatial light modulator
4.8.2.Structure of LCOS devices
4.8.3.Reflective LCOS panel
4.8.4.LCOS SLM performance factors
4.8.5.Manufacturing Methods: LCoS
4.8.6.Planarization for LCOS
4.8.7.LCOS SLMs for HUD applications
4.8.8.Dynamic phase only holography
4.8.9.Advantages of phase-only holography
4.8.10.LCOS for automotive HUDs
4.9.Thin-Film Electroluminescent (TFEL) Displays
4.9.1.Thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) displays
4.9.2.TFELs key benefits and drawbacks
4.9.3.Thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) displays are niche compared to alternatives in automotive displays
4.9.4.How is TFEL competing in the display market
5.1.Introduction to AR-HUD
5.1.1.What is an Augmented Reality heads-up display (AR-HUD)?
5.1.2.Major differentiations provided by AR-HUDs
5.1.3.Key benefits in AR-HUDs
5.1.4.HUD selling factors - Enhanced situational awareness
5.1.5.Why is greater immersion important in HUDs?
5.1.6.Challenges with traditional HUDs
5.1.7.Drawbacks in using AR-HUDs
5.1.8.AR-HUD sustainability implications
5.1.9.Comparison between traditional- and AR-HUDs
5.2.AR-HUD Key Players
5.2.1.Envisics bring CGH to HUDs
5.2.2.Envisics' HUD
5.2.3.WayRay using CGH
5.2.4.WayRay's offering
5.2.5.Ceres Holographics scaling thin-film HOEs and further enabling AR-HUDs
5.2.6.Continental paired with DigiLens
5.2.7.FUTURUS brings LFDs to AR-HUDs
5.2.8.Valeo's AR-HUD
5.2.10.Huawei AR HUD
6.1.1.HUD types by display media
6.2.Dedicated Combiner
6.2.1.Combiner HUD - projecting images on a semi-reflective glass
6.2.2.Combiner HUDs offer limited immersion to the driving experience
6.2.3.Combiner glass or glass-like screen
6.2.4.Combiners anti-reflection coatings
6.2.5.Index-matching AR coating
6.2.6.Single-layer AR coating
6.2.7.Multi-layered AR coatings
6.2.8.Moth-eye AR coating
6.2.9.Conventional screens - Additional coatings and films's thin film solution protecting PGU and optical unit
6.2.11.Conventional combiner screens - going beyond anti-reflection coatings
6.3.Key Players of Dedicated Combiner HUD
6.3.1.Nippon Seiki - Reflecting LCD displays to a combiner glass
6.3.2.Valeo is emphasizing on compactivity and applicability to wide range of vehicle designs
6.3.3.Continental's product portfolio includes combiner HUDs - although they emphasize more on AR-HUDs
6.3.5.HUDWAY Drive - New user-mountable combiner HUD
6.3.6.HUDWAY App - An effective way to pair your phone with the combiner unit
6.3.7.Visteon combiner HUDs
6.3.8.Unimax has also released a combiner HUD
6.4.Windshield Combiner
6.4.1.What is a windshield heads-up display (HUD)?
6.4.2.Windshield HUDs - Unique Selling Points
6.4.3.Windshield HUDs main drawbacks
6.4.4.Windshield HUDs - Optimizing the windshield and the relay optics
6.5.Windshield Glass
6.5.1.Windshield HUDs architecture
6.5.2.Windshield HUD coatings
6.5.3.Rugate coatings
6.5.4.Challenges in applying thin film coatings to windshields
6.5.5.Manufacturing and recycling the windshield glass
6.5.6.Optical clarity challenges for modern windshields
6.5.7.Re-enforcing windshield strength and durability
6.5.8.Windshield manufacturing process 1
6.5.9.Windshield manufacturing process 2
6.5.10.Windshield manufacturing process 3
6.5.11.Windshield technology example: Corning Gorilla glass for vehicle exterior
6.5.12.Corning Fusion technology for exterior glass
6.5.13.Corning's Auto-Grade Gorilla Glass - For interior displays
6.5.14.Manufacturing and forming of Corning's auto-grade Gorilla glass - for interior automotive displays
6.5.15.Corning's ColdForm glass moulding technology
6.5.16.Saint-Gobain's Sekurit windshield is optimized for next-generation HUDs's windscreen combiner film
6.6.Key Players of Windshield HUD
6.6.1.Continental are invested in making windshield HUDs available
6.6.2.Continental's scenic view windshield HUD
6.6.3.Futurus has also released LCD-based windshield HUDs
6.6.4.FUTURUS windshield HUD specs
6.6.5.LG Display's windshield HUD solution
6.6.6.Lumineq is invested in windshield HUDs as well as other more niche automotive display applications
6.6.7.Lumineq's ICEBrite technology
6.6.8.Nippon Seiki's approach to windshield HUDs
6.6.9.Denso's windshield HUD
7.1.1.Post PGU optics
7.2.Post PGU Optics
7.2.1.Relay optics and imaging optics
7.2.2.Optical Aberrations
7.2.3.Experimental examples of optical aberrations
7.2.4.Spherical Aberrations
7.2.5.Comatic Aberrations
7.2.6.Astigmatism aberrations
7.2.7.Defocus aberrations
7.2.8.Use of Zernike polynomials to mitigate effect of aberrations
7.2.9.Types of optical distortions
7.2.10.Different designs of free space optics - using freeform mirrors for more compact HUD unit
7.2.11.Different designs of free space optics - use of cylindrical lens over freeform mirror
7.2.12.Corning is looking at optimizing the heads-up display mirrors
7.3.Holographic Optical Elements
7.3.1.Replacement of traditional mirrors for reduced package volume of a HUD
7.3.2.Holographic optical element (HOE) combiners
7.3.3.Printing HOEs within windshields to enable AR-HUDs
7.3.4.How are these HOEs scaled and implemented within windshields
7.3.5.Challenges with manufacturing windshields with HOEs
7.4.1.Waveguide technology
7.4.2.Refractive index for waveguide substrate materials
7.4.3.Waveguide substrate materials: glass vs polymers
7.4.4.Matching substrates with waveguide designs
7.4.5.Comparing glass suppliers for waveguide substrates
7.4.6.Common waveguide architectures - operating principle
7.4.7.Introduction: Diffractive waveguides
7.4.8.Diffractive waveguides: Method of operation
7.4.9.Surface relief grating waveguides
7.4.10.Holographic grating waveguides
7.4.11.Reflective waveguides
7.4.12.Exit pupil expansion in waveguides
7.4.13.Continental's demo
7.4.14.Modern optics pairing HOEs with waveguides
8.1.Introduction to sustainability
8.2.Social impacts of HUDs
8.3.Economic impacts of HUDs
8.4.Environmental impact of HUDs

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Slides 267
Forecasts to 2034
Published Feb 2024
ISBN 9781835700204

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