Supercapacitor Materials and Formats 2020-2040: IDTechEx

Key enabler in automotive & healthcare with advanced materials part $6bn in 2040

Supercapacitor Materials and Formats 2020-2040

Including graphene, CNT, MOF, CNF, electrolytes. Formats include structural, flexible, wearable


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New IDTechEx report, "Supercapacitor Materials and Formats 2020-2040" reveals why Toyota, Volkswagen, the $100bn CRRC in China and other giants now see supercapacitors as a potentially large market and key enabling technology in their cars, buses and so on. Materials will control supercapacitor performance and cost.
 
Supercapacitors will have formats such as stretchable, where batteries struggle. They also meet batteries head on, promising energy density of lithium-ion batteries 12 years ago with most other parameters magnitudes better than even future batteries. Imagine a supercapacitor bus, that only needs to charge at the depot, doing it in seconds with no end-of-life disposal costs.
 
The trick is pivoting of supercapacitor research from flammable carcinogenic liquids touching burnt coconut shells to such things as solid ionogels matched to graphene and carbon nanotube composites. That takes life beyond the current three times that of a lithium-ion battery to much more. An electric vehicle will have energy storage taking no weight or space because it has supercapacitor smart vehicle bodywork by Lamborghini, Geely, MIT, Imperial College London, a Japanese electronics giant and others optimising, integrating and shaping the new materials. Add non-toxic flexible and stretchable medical implants and patches, some using supercapacitor feedstock cut to shape as needed.
 
Only this report appraises and forecasts those advanced materials in supercapacitors and derivatives. Analysis by multi-lingual, PhD level IDTechEx staff includes much from 2020. See percentage of new research on hierarchical vs exohedral electrodes, graphene vs CNT vs metal-oxide-framework MOF electrodes. Understand challenges and opportunities of battery-supercapacitor-hybrid BSH vs pseudocapacitors, scope for increasing energy density, trade-offs of other parameters, with appraisal from university professors and IDTechEx experts deeply involved.
 
This 220 page report is sister to the IDTechEx report, "Supercapacitors: Applications, Players, Markets 2020-2040". It covers present and future and how new materials and formats will create large new business. The 19 page executive summary and conclusions is sufficient in itself for those in a hurry - mainly new infograms, technology comparisons, summary of commercially significant research, 20 year technology roadmap, materials value market forecast and gaps in the materials market.
 
The introduction explains cost and weight split, power density and frequency compromises to increase energy density. Understand the toolkit available in supercapacitor, BSH and pseudocapacitance optimisation, research methodologies, parameters to be improved to create large business and production processes emerging.
 
Chapter 3 focusses on how pure supercapacitor energy density is being improved by both hierarchical and exohedral electrodes. Chapter 4 does that for the less commercially-impactful improvement of power density. Chapter 5 explains the strongly-desired improvement of self-leakage and, given the huge increase in research on the subject, Chapter 6 is a pseudocapacitance deep dive.
 
Chapter 7 goes into the supercapacitor electrolytes vitally important in any of the above options. Many charts compare parameters and formulations, solvent-solute vs ionic, aqueous vs non-aqueous, toxicology, adoption trends and more. Chapter 8 covers graphene being applied in its many variants of composite, morphology and purity, including some in production supercapacitors. Chapter 9 extends this to MOF and other 2D materials in supercapacitors and Chapter 10 does the same for carbon nanotubes all with reasons why, progress and plans. Chapter 10 takes us to carbon nanofibers CNF, aerogel and hydrogel often prioritising load-bearing, flexible and other formats over energy density.
 
Chapter 11 focuses just on supercapacitor vehicle bodywork, tires and cables and Chapter 12 on materials for flexible, transparent, wearable, stretchable, paper and micro forms. The appendix gives materials used in commercial supercapacitors 2010-2020. IDTechEx report, "Supercapacitor Materials and Formats 2020-2040" references the best research throughout. Advanced materials companies can see substantial new opportunities for their capabilities.
 
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Purpose and methodology of this report
1.2.Definition and positioning
1.3.Device active structures and gaps in the market
1.4.Overall materials choices
1.5.Voltage vs capacitance offered
1.6.Emerging W/kg vs Wh/kg
1.7.The frequency compromise
1.8.Improvements that will create large new markets 2020-2040
1.9.Primary conclusions
1.10.Commercially significant research
1.11.Why biggest supercapacitor orders were placed/ will be placed
1.12.Most promising routes to most important desired improvements
1.13.Technology roadmap 2020-2040
1.14.Active materials market forecast for supercapacitors and derivatives $ billion 2020-2040
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Supercapacitor assembly and manufacturing process
2.2.Cost and mass breakdown
2.3.The spectrum from capacitors to batteries
2.4.Options for supercapacitor manufacture
2.5.What are we trying to do? Gaps in the market
2.6.Area often beats efficiency
2.7.Poisons and disposal: taking the high ground
3.HOW EDLC ENERGY DENSITY IS BEING IMPROVED
3.1.Overview
3.2.Hierarchical active electrodes
3.3.Exohedral active electrodes
4.HOW EDLC POWER DENSITY IS BEING IMPROVED
4.1.Power density for Internet of Things
4.2.NAWA Technologies
4.3.Nano onions
5.HOW EDLC SELF-DISCHARGE IS BEING REDUCED
5.1.Overview
5.2.Best research
6.PSEUDOCAPACITANCE DEEP DIVE
6.1.Basics
6.2.Inseparable
6.3.From electrode and electrolyte
6.4.Example: Candy cane pseudocapacitor
6.5.Example: Maximising pseudocapacitance
6.6.Spray on Pseudocapacitance
6.7.Load-bearing pseudocapacitors
7.SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTROLYTES
7.1.Comparison of properties influenced by electrolyte
7.2.Capacitance density of various electrolytes
7.3.Electrolytes by manufacturer are changing: examples
7.4.Reconciling parameters
7.5.Liquid vs solid state
7.6.Solvent-solute vs ionic
7.7.Radically new options: SuperCapacitor Materials
7.8.Aqueous and non aqueous
7.9.Example: Evans Capacitor
7.10.Ionic electrolytes
7.11.Acetonitrile
8.GRAPHENE
8.1.Overview
8.2.Example: Prosthetic hand
8.3.Many advances in 2020
8.4.Example: Skeleton Technologies
8.5.Some graphene supercapacitors players
8.6.Graphene ink printing
8.7.Graphene mesosponge
8.8.Graphene supercapacitor Ragone plots
8.9.Graphene research results CNSI, UCLA Tsinghua Univ.
8.10.Example: Curved graphene: Nanotek
8.11.Vertically aligned graphene University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS
8.12.Aqueous stacked graphene
8.13.Graphene aerogel
9.MXENES, METAL ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS MOF, OTHER 2D
9.1.Overview
9.2.MXenes
9.3.Metal Organic Frameworks MOF
9.4.3D MOF
10.CARBON NANOTUBES
10.1.CNT + lithium titanate
10.2.Tightly packed arrays
10.3.Vertically aligned CNT
10.4.Flexible, foldable, paper
10.5.CNT fiber supercapacitors
10.6.CNT graphene leaf structure
11.CARBON NANOFIBERS CNF, AEROGEL, HYDROGEL
11.1.The CNF option
11.2.Carbon aerogel
11.3.Graphene hydrogels and aerogels
11.4.Different fiber geometries
12.VEHICLE BODYWORK, TIRES AND CABLES
12.1.Load-bearing structural supercapacitor materials: Lamborghini MIT
12.2.Imperial College "Massless energy" car body
12.3.ZapGo vehicle bodywork
12.4.Cars: Queensland University of Technology, Rice University, TU Dublin
12.5.Cars: Vanderbilt University USA
12.6.Cables as supercapacitors
13.FLEXIBLE, TRANSPARENT, WEARABLE, STRETCHABLE, PAPER, MICRO
13.1.Flexible, transparent
13.2.Tubular flexible wearable
13.3.Flexible example: Institute of Nano Science and Technology (INST), Mohali, India
13.4.Fabric
13.5.Wearable fiber
13.6.Stretchable wearable
13.7.Example:+ Nanyang TU Singapore
13.8.Paper supercapacitors
13.9.Flexible printed circuits
13.10.Micro-supercapacitors
APPENDIX: MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL SUPERCAPACITORS 2010-2020
 

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