Electric Vehicles in Construction, Agriculture and Mining 2020-2030: IDTechEx

Fast growing CAM vehicle market of $149 billion in 2030

Electric Vehicles in Construction, Agriculture and Mining 2020-2030

Earth moving, agribots, forestry, turf, hybrid, battery, microgrid charging


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The new IDTechEx report, "Electric Vehicles in Construction, Agriculture and Mining 2020-2030" uniquely addresses a huge opportunity. Vehicles for construction, agriculture and mining have become one industry served by giants such as Caterpillar, CNH Industrial, John Deere and Komatsu but also small businesses making the new requirements such as drones and weeding and mine survey robots.
 
Raghu Das, CEO of IDTechEx advises, "The giants in CAM are cautiously going electric but they should learn from the start ups and the Tier One suppliers rushing into the world of precision farming, drones, swarming robots and moveable zero emission microgrids to charge them. Parts and systems suppliers Cummins and Dana Corporation are making a string of shrewd acquisitions and shutting or divesting past technologies.
 
Coping with tougher locations, tougher pollution regulation and lack of staff are part of the new reality but it is faced by plenty of investment, radically new technology and strongly increasing product demand for both new vehicles and moveable zero-emission microgrids to charge them, both addressed in the report. This is the opposite of the perfect storm faced by the car industry. This is an "idea whose time has come".
 
The 40 page Executive Summary and Conclusions is sufficient in itself for those in a hurry. Mainly infograms such as the construction site, farm and mine of the future timelines and forecasts, it also gives 22 primary conclusions split into Industry, Regional and Technology related. Primary areas of development are revealed by application and technology and heroic advances from deep mining to vertical farming each without people. Solar driven agribots will replace poisons. The forecasts 2020-2030 are for no less than 19 vehicle categories each by number, price and market value. Price parity with diesel is predicted by type and year. See the patent trends and market outlook for key categories and for autonomy with all of them, with adoption timeline 2020-2030.
 
The Introduction looks at industry and technology commonalities, the pollution issues, the many drivers of electrification, powertrain types and trends, including how hybrids are sometimes needed as an interim stage. Many examples bring it alive, and challenges such as crop yields no longer increasing are introduced together with many solutions from precision farming to swarming robots and how deep mines become unmanned.
 
The next three chapters look in detail at where we are today and where we are going in Construction, Agriculture and Mining vehicles that are pure electric or hybrid, respectively. Each starts with an overview of needs and actions, then case studies are grouped by type, with the agriculture section even including the new forestry and turf care EVs. Drones are covered but, as befits the market potential, nearly all the text concerns land vehicles. That involves 52 company/product analyses.
 
Chapter 6 gives a thorough treatment of what are now the key enabling technologies of CAM EVs - electric motors/ motor-generators, traction battery systems, supercapacitors, power electronics, solar bodywork and zero emission transportable microgrids for charging. Add to that autonomy, a subject now so important that Chapter 7 covers autonomy in action with CAM vehicles and Chapter 8 covers the robotic technology in detail. It all adds up to over 350 pages of distilled information all of which is about the present and future and based on ongoing global travel, event attendance and interviewing by multi-lingual PhD level analysts from IDTechEx. We even have drill down reports on most aspects for those wanting to delve deeper - from LIDAR to supercapacitor construction, lightweighting, thermal materials, zero emission microgrids. Before that, the new report, "Electric Vehicles in Construction, Agriculture and Mining 2020-2030" is the big eye-opener.
 
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Purpose and scope of this report
1.2.Where we are headed
1.3.Why we need electric CAM vehicles
1.4.Construction site of the future: electric vehicles/ robots charged by movable zero emission gensets
1.5.Farm of the future arriving now
1.5.1.Robots and drones charge from on-board solar and mobile "zero gensets"
1.5.2.Robot data scouts, precision drilling and planting robots: pure electric
1.5.3.Precision farming
1.6.Types of mine emerging beyond open pit
1.6.1.Deep mines, block caving and sea floor
1.6.2.Open pit (open cast) all-electric mine of the future
1.6.3.Electric land and air deep pit vehicles charging from zero emission microgrids
1.7.Primary conclusions of this report: industry
1.8.Major suppliers' coverage
1.9.Supplier appraisal Caterpillar
1.10.Supplier appraisal CNH Industrial
1.11.Supplier appraisal John Deere
1.12.Supplier appraisal Komatsu
1.13.Primary conclusions of this report: regional
1.14.Primary conclusions of this report: technical
1.15.Progress towards the end game: all electric CAM vehicles
1.16.CAM electric vehicle value market share % in 2020 and EV CAM % 2030
1.16.1.Market forecasts number k of CAM electric land vehicles 2020-2030
1.16.2.Market forecasts CAM electric land vehicles 2020-2030 - unit price $k
1.16.3.Market forecasts CAM electric land vehicles 2020-2030 - market value $ billion
1.16.4.Market value of CAM electric land vehicles 2020 and 2030 - $ billion
1.16.5.Number of CAM electric vehicles 2020-2030 - all categories
1.16.6.Unit price of CAM electric vehicles $k 2020-2030 - all categories
1.16.7.Market value of CAM electric vehicles 2020-2030 - all categories
1.17.Predicting when CAM pure electric vehicles have lower up-front price vs diesel 2020-2040
1.17.1.Evidence of the price parity/ size trend
1.18.CAM vehicle market outlook
1.19.Adoption timeline for CAM vehicles and infrastructure 2020-2030
1.20.Patent analysis
1.21.Here comes the mine of the future - IDTechEx gives the detail
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Some CAM vehicle commonalities
2.1.1.Equipment definitions: market player landscape
2.1.2.Some equipment definitions: by function
2.2.CAM goes electric
2.2.1.Powertrain trends - options: electric motor size up to 100kW
2.2.2.Electric vehicles EV vs non-electric vehicles
2.2.3.Powertrain trends by type of CAM vehicle
2.2.4.Other CAM power trends
2.3.Simplification
2.3.1.Reduce diesel CAM vehicle parts by 90% with electrics: learning from cars
2.4.CAM EV examples today
2.5.Pollution control
2.5.1.Carbon dioxide emissions from mobile machinery
2.5.2.Emission push for pure electric equipment
2.6.Hybrids as interim stage
2.6.1.Hybrid CAM vehicles Bosch
2.6.2.Dana Oerlikon
2.7.Introduction to construction
2.8.Agriculture worldwide and its future
2.8.1.Overview: Needs and emissions
2.8.2.Growing population and growing demand for food
2.8.3.Agriculture by region
2.8.4.Major crop yields are plateauing
2.8.5.Greenhouse and local emissions in agriculture
2.8.6.Aging farmer population and urban migration
2.8.7.Economics of agricultural machines
2.8.8.Towards ultra precision agriculture: variable rate technology
2.8.9.Transition towards to swarms of small, slow, cheap robots
2.8.10.Agricultural robotics and ultra precision = value chain upheaval
2.8.11.Business models between RaaS and equipment sales
2.9.Here come mines electrified then unmanned
2.9.1.Overview
2.9.2.Goldcorp Chapleau unmanned electric mine 2020
2.10.First zero emission construction site
3.CONSTRUCTION
3.1.Drones in construction
3.2.Overview of land EVs for CAM
3.2.1.Quieter, cleaner, lower cost of ownership
3.2.2.Autonomy
3.2.3.Pure electric or hybrid construction excavators?
3.3.Mini excavators
3.3.1.Mini excavator market shares
3.3.2.Caterpillar
3.3.3.Hyundai
3.3.4.JCB
3.3.5.Komatsu
3.3.6.Mecalac
3.3.7.Suncar
3.3.8.Verkooyen Machines BV
3.3.9.Volvo Construction Equipment
3.3.10.Wacker Neuson
3.3.11.Yanmar
3.4.Mainstream excavators
3.4.1.Overview: hybrid electric drive and some pure electric coming in
3.4.2.Caterpillar
3.4.3.Hidromec
3.4.4.Hitachi
3.4.5.Komatsu
3.5.Wheel and backhoe loaders
3.5.1.Avant Tecno
3.5.2.Case Construction
3.5.3.Huddig
3.5.4.Kramer-Werke
3.5.5.Volvo CE
3.6.Telehandlers, boom lifts, AWPs
3.6.1.JLG (Oshkosh)
3.6.2.Leibherr
3.6.3.Manitou
3.7.Dumpers
3.7.1.Ausa
3.7.2.Wacker Neuson
3.7.3.Zhengzhou Lianke Machinery Manufacture Co., Ltd.
3.8.Heavy trucks
3.8.1.Volvo Group
3.8.2.CNH Industrial with Nikola
4.AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, TURF
4.1.Overview: drones, land EVs and swarming
4.1.1.Swarming robots: land and air
4.1.2.Low cost standard software
4.1.3.Hopping drones: Crop Hopper
4.2.Land based EVs for agriculture: overview
4.3.Electric robot weeders
4.4.Tractors
4.4.1.Overview
4.4.2.Electrification of tractors: efficiency, new functions, solar
4.4.3.Solar assistance
4.4.4.Autonxt
4.4.5.Belarus Tractors
4.4.6.CNH Industrial
4.4.7.Farmtrac
4.4.8.Fendt (AGCO)
4.4.9.John Deere
4.4.10.STW
4.5.Planters
4.5.1.AGCO (Fendt) Xaver
4.6.Transporters
4.6.1.Alke
4.6.2.Nelson Mandela University
4.7.Forestry and turf
4.7.1.Overview
4.7.2.Forestry: hybrids and supercapacitors
5.MINING
5.1.Sustainable mining
5.1.1.Mining by use of self-produced zero emission electricity
5.2.Future of quarrying
5.3.Future of underground mining
5.4.Some electrification timelines and models involved
5.5.Mining EV manufacturers by type and maturity
5.6.EVs in operation by mine: examples
5.7.Examples of EVs for mines
5.8.Examples: load haul dump LHD
5.9.Artisan Vehicle Systems
5.10.Atlas Copco
5.11.BYD
5.12.Caterpillar
5.13.Epiroc
5.14.GE
5.15.Hitachi
5.16.Komatsu Joy Global
5.17.Kuhn Schweiz AG - Komatsu
5.18.LuiGong
5.19.Maclean Engineering
5.20.Normet
5.21.Partisan Motors
5.22.Sandvik
6.ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
6.1.Seven key EV enabling technologies for CAM EVs
6.2.Here come moveable, minimal energy storage microgrids
6.3.Progress to CAM electrics with off-grid zero emission
6.4.Overview of electrics in CAM vehicles
6.5.Traction motors
6.5.1.Overview
6.5.2.Operating principles for EV use
6.5.3.Electric motor choices in EVs for CAM applications
6.5.4.Example: Le Tourneau and others
6.5.5.Choices of motor position
6.5.6.Example: Dana Corp. including TM4
6.5.7.Example: Saminco
6.5.8.Example: Siemens
6.5.9.Motor trends: Protean Electric, Lightyear, YASA
6.5.10.Possible long term trend
6.6.Batteries and supercapacitors
6.6.1.Overview
6.6.2.Battery requirements for CAM electric vehicles
6.6.3.Example: JCB excavators
6.6.4.Future W/kg vs Wh/kg 2020-2030
6.6.5.Energy density 2020-2030
6.6.6.Disadvantages of Li-ion batteries
6.6.7.Forecast of Li-ion battery cost (industrial) $/kWh)
6.6.8.Battery packs
6.6.9.BYD
6.6.10.Akasol
6.6.11.Lithium storage GmbH
6.6.12.Battery Packs - Saminco
6.7.How to charge CAM vehicles
6.7.1.The challenge
6.7.2.The answer to CAM EV charging
6.7.3.Solar bodywork
6.7.4.Solar gensets
6.7.5.Floatovoltaics and mining
6.7.6.Solar vs diesel cost analysis
6.7.7.Zero emission microgrids: solar, water, wind reinvented
6.7.8.New options beyond solar: relocatable, much less intermittent
6.7.9.New power generating technology kVA comparison
6.7.10.Airborne Wind Energy developers
6.7.11.Open sea wave power technologies
6.8.Fuel cell and other hybrids
7.CAM VEHICLE AUTONOMY IN ACTION
7.1.Construction example: Built Robotics
7.2.Agriculture autonomy by application
7.2.1.Market and technology readiness by agricultural activity
7.2.2.Driverless tractors: AGCO, ATC, Kubota, Yanmar, Kinze, CNH
7.2.3.Robotic fresh fruit harvesting
7.2.4.Autonomous, ultra precision weeding
7.3.Mining examples
7.3.1.Gemini Scout, Julius
7.3.2.UNEXMiN, Simba, Komatsu
7.3.3.GMG mining robot guidelines
8.AUTONOMY COMPONENTS AND INTEGRATION
8.1.Overview
8.2.Lidars
8.3.Radars
8.4.AI software and computing platform
8.5.High-definition (HD) map
 

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