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Infraestructura de carga para vehículos y flotas eléctricas 2022-2032

Carga pública, carga privada, carga rápida de CC de alta potencia, carga de flota. Panorama tecnológico, estándares de conectores, actores del mercado, modelos de negocio y previsiones regionales granulares.

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The Importance of Charging Infrastructure
Electric vehicles have the potential to reshape the transportation sector globally, drastically cutting carbon emissions and clearing the way for significant climate progress. Many EV owners charge their cars at home using a wall-mounted charger. This arrangement works for most people, because the average EV use is well within the range of today's electric vehicles. However, two major difficulties arise. First, for drivers who live in apartments, parking garages are rarely equipped with charging infrastructure, and installing such infrastructure may be cost prohibitive for building managers. Second, expanded charging infrastructure is needed for EVs to make long-distance trips that require multiple stops for charging. When it comes to longer trips, EV owners can experience "range anxiety," the fear that the car will run out of power before reaching a suitable (and functioning) charging station. Hence, building a robust public "fuelling" network of charging stations is the key to a successful EV market. At home - followed by the workplace - remains the most favourable location for EV charging. Which means that the market for public charging stations is in DC fast charging targeted at on-the-go, cross-country (long-range) driving, and in emergencies.
It's a classic chicken-versus-egg scenario. Do public charging stations help drive EV adoption, or does greater EV adoption demand a more comprehensive public charging infrastructure? In what has been equivalent to a land-grab, some charging providers are competing for space at libraries, museums, parks, retailers, municipal parking garages and anywhere else that is willing to install a station. Stakeholders need to abandon the current model of using public funds and grants to install stations. Historically, such large projects have tended to be unprofitable due to high upfront costs; electric car use will need to become more widespread before they can turn a profit. The ideal end state is a sustainable, market-driven industry. It will never reach that status unless it unlocks a real value proposition. This report provides an analysis into how electric power utilities, private charging companies, automakers, and property owners each have roles in developing the charging infrastructure network.
Managing the potential incremental energy demand that EV charging could put on the grid is crucial. Expert assessments vary on how much electricity demand will increase with widespread EV use. The US Department of Energy predicts a 38% increase in electricity consumption by 2050, mostly due to a high penetration of electric vehicles. Smart charging technology and off-grid charging solutions, which are covered in this report, will become more favourable where grids do not have the available excess capacity to generate increased amounts of power with existing infrastructure.
At IDTechEx, we believe the electric vehicle industry will not be derailed and will continue with its staggering momentum. Over the coming decade, demand for charging infrastructure will be driven by over 175 million BEV + PHEV vehicles in-use globally including passenger cars, buses, trucks, and vans. The benefits of the electric vehicle transition are at least an order of magnitude greater than charging infrastructure costs, making charging infrastructure a modest down payment to decarbonize the transport sector.
Technology overview of electric vehicle charging infrastructure
Efforts to improve fast charging performance
Regional Analysis
The report provides analysis and forecasts for charging infrastructure deployments in key regions including China, Europe (UK, Netherlands, France, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Rest of Europe) and the US. The penetration rate of both private and public charging infrastructure in each region and the market share of key players is presented.
Players and Technologies
We provide a technological overview of the major charging infrastructure types including conductive charging and alternative solutions such as battery swapping and wireless charging. Emerging charging technologies are also covered such as high-power DC fast charging, robotic and autonomous charging, off-grid charging, mobile charging, and vehicle-to-home/grid (V2H/V2G).
High-power charging (HPC)
High power charging refers to Level 3 DC fast charging at a rate of 50 kW or more. To bring charging times down to those of conventional refuelling, such technology will play a vital role. Due to high capital costs and large installation areas needed, such chargers will only be used publicly. For new EV owners, this means remarkably faster charging times, often cutting down the time needed for nearly full recharge by 30% to even 70%. With the charging power of the HPC, chargers can deliver all the power the new 800 V architecture based EVs of the market can utilize. This report covers the infrastructure for HPC installations, benchmarks commercially available chargers by power, voltage and current levels and includes details about cooling technologies and total cost of ownership for a site host.
Fleet Charging
Electric vehicle fleets such as buses and trucks require very different charging infrastructure solutions to passenger cars, from multiple mega-watt depot charging to overhead catenaries and battery swapping, covered in this report. Although electric fleet charging represents less than 10% of the total charging infrastructure in volume, it constitutes over 15% of the total market value due to the added cost associated with the high-power requirements.
Looking into the future, shared autonomous mobility is expected to eventually dominate the passenger-miles in the urban environment. As nobody is available to plug-in those robo-taxis to charge, mobility service companies are going to need broadly deploy automatic charging so the autonomous vehicles can extend their range without extra labour costs. This report also covers future charging trends and solutions that are being developed by various players.
Summary of Report Contents and Forecasts:
  • Comprehensive overview of various charging technologies and standards globally, including fast charging, inductive and capacitive charging, mobile charging, robotic and autonomous charging, battery swapping as well as dedicated charging for fleet EVs; evaluations on the key charging technologies are provided.
  • Analysis of the electric vehicle charging value chain and business models of key market players.
  • Detailed ten-year market forecast on electric vehicle charging infrastructure in both unit numbers and market value (revenues); granular market forecasts are provided by major regions, sectors (passenger cars and fleet EVs), applications (private and public) and power levels (AC and DC).
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Table of Contents
1.1.Overview of charging levels
1.2.DC fast charging levels
1.3.High power charging (HPC) will be the new premium public charging solution
1.4.Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2032
1.5.Plug-in EVs and the demand for charging infrastructure
1.6.Historic regional data
1.7.Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2032
1.8.New charging installations by power class 2015-2032
1.9.Level 2 AC charging speeds are on the rise
1.10.High power DC fast charging deployment
1.11.Total charging installations by region 2015-2032
1.12.EV charging market value 2015-2032 ($ billion)
1.13.Evaluation of the different charging infrastructure
1.14.Harmonisation of connector standards
1.15.Smart charging will be vital
1.16.Key market players
1.17.The landscape for charging infrastructure is getting competitive
1.18.Access to IDTechEx Portal Profiles
2.1.Charging levels
2.2.Charging modes
2.3.Basics of electric vehicle charging mechanisms
2.4.How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle?
2.5.Factors that affect charging speed
2.6.The trend towards DC fast charging
2.7.Range and charging power roadmap
2.8.Charging methods
2.9.Charging infrastructure coverage and demand
2.10.Number of public chargers required for plug-in EVs?
2.11.Private versus public charging
2.12.Charger infrastructure terminology
3.1.Charging Infrastructure by Region - U.S.
3.1.1.Best-selling plug-in car models in US
3.1.2.Growth of EV charging infrastructure in US
3.1.3.The state of public charging stations in US
3.1.4.Private and public charging penetration in US
3.2.Charging Infrastructure by Region - Europe
3.2.1.Best-selling plug-in car models in Europe
3.2.2.The status of public charging in Europe
3.2.3.Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2032
3.2.4.Private and public charging penetration in Europe
3.2.5.European countries have wide variation in public charger availability
3.3.Charging Infrastructure by Region - China
3.3.1.Best-selling plug-in car models in China
3.3.2.The status of public charging in China
3.3.3.Total public charging installations in China 2015-2032
3.3.4.Public charging installations in China by province and municipalities
3.3.5.Private and public charging penetration in China
3.4.Regional Market Summary
3.4.1.Summary of regional markets and concentration per capita
3.4.2.Ratio of public chargers per EV globally
4.1.1.Overview of EV charging connector standards
4.1.2.EV charging infrastructure standard organizations
4.1.3.Development of charging connector standards
4.1.4.EV charging infrastructure standards: ISO/IEC
4.1.5.EV charging infrastructure standards: SAE
4.1.6.DC charging standard: CCS
4.1.7.DC charging standard: CHAdeMO
4.1.8.EV charging infrastructure standard in China: GB
4.1.9.Why EV connectors will not use household outlets
4.1.10.Types of EV charging plugs
4.1.11.EV charging systems comparison
4.1.12.Summary of charging levels and regional standards
4.1.13.Tesla proprietary plug
4.1.14.Tesla charging connectors
4.1.15.Overview of EV charging standards by region
4.1.16.Charge connector types globally
4.1.17.Is CHAdeMO phasing out?
4.2.Harmonisation of Charging Connector Standards
4.2.1.The dilemma of charging connectors
4.2.2.Choosing the right connector
4.2.3.Will OEMs adapt one standard?
4.2.4.ChaoJi and the current charging standards
4.2.5.Achieving harmonisation of standards
4.2.6.Harmonisation of standards will be key
4.3.Communication Protocols
4.3.1.What are communication protocols?
4.3.2.Communication protocols and standards
4.3.3.Communication systems for EV charging
4.3.4.Communication interfaces
4.3.5.Types of communication protocols
4.3.6.Overview: OCPP versions and benefits
4.4.Plug and Charge
4.4.1.The next big step in EV fast charging is Plug and Charge
4.4.2.What is Plug and Charge? What are the benefits?
4.4.3.How does Plug and Charge work?
4.4.4.Public key infrastructure is the basis of Plug and Charge
4.4.5.Functionalities enabled by ISO 15118
4.4.6.Plug and charge aims to be more customer centric than the Tesla ecosystem
4.4.8.For Ionity, Plug and Charge is a reality - others to follow?
4.4.9.EVs supporting Plug and Charge capability
4.4.10.Concerns around the standard
4.4.11.Plug and Charge SWOT
5.1.Overview of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure
5.1.1.EV charging infrastructure: technology overview
5.1.2.Different types of EV charging infrastructure
5.1.3.Architecture of EV charging infrastructure
5.1.4.EV charging technologies by application
5.2.Conductive Charging
5.2.1.Conductive charging technologies by application
5.2.2.AC charging versus DC charging
5.2.3.Conductive charging at Level 1
5.2.4.Conductive charging at Level 2
5.2.5.Conductive charging at Level 3
5.2.6.Summary of charging levels
5.2.7.Residential charging
5.2.8.Workplace charging - an essential complement to residential charging
5.2.9.How workplace charging can help alleviate grid pressure
5.3.High Power Conductive Charging
5.3.1.Current charging needs
5.3.2.CHAdeMO is preparing for 900 kW high power charging
5.3.3.Is 350 kW needed?
5.3.4.High power charging is the new premium
5.3.5.The trend towards DC fast charging
5.3.6.Benefits of high power charging
5.3.7.High power charging infrastructure
5.3.8.Technical specification of HPCs by equipment manufacturer
5.3.9.Do HPCs require a large installation footprint?
5.3.10.Solving the installation issue
5.3.11.Commercial charger benchmark: power and voltage levels
5.3.12.Commercial charger benchmark: voltage and current levels
5.3.13.Commercial charger benchmark: cooling technology
5.3.14.Estimated total cost of ownership
5.3.15.Challenges for high power charging
5.3.16.Impacts of fast charging on battery lifespan
5.3.17.Efforts to improve fast charging performance
5.3.18.Why preheat batteries?
5.3.19.Intelligent battery management to enable fast charging
5.3.20.Cable cooling to achieve high power charging
5.3.21.Leoni's liquid cooled cables for fast charging
5.3.22.Liquid-cooled connector for ultra fast charging
5.3.23.Tesla adopts liquid-cooled cable for its Supercharger
5.3.24.ITT Cannon's liquid-cooled HPC solution
5.3.25.High power charging roadmap
5.3.26.High power charging SWOT
5.3.27.Summary: DC charging standards and power levels
5.4.Innovations in Conductive Charging
5.4.1.Continental turns electric powertrain into 'universal charger'
5.4.2.Off-grid electric vehicle charging
5.4.3.Electrify America deploying solar-powered electric vehicle charging
5.4.4.Off-grid charging without batteries: direct solar V2G charger
5.4.5.A single converter for solar-powered charging
5.4.6.AFC Energy presenting hydrogen-powered electric vehicle charging
5.4.7.Mobile charging - a new business model for electric vehicle charging
5.4.8.Mobi - FreeWire's mobile charger
5.4.9.Modular mobile charger by SparkCharge
5.4.10.Electric vehicle Charge Mobile for Level 2 and DC charging
5.4.11.Mobile charging station installed in cargo vans
5.4.12.Power Mobile charging service by NIOPower
5.4.13.Tesla's Megapack-powered mobile Superchargers
5.4.14.Chargery's mobile charger on bicycle
5.4.15.Charging without a grid connection - the launch of Infrastructure-as-a-service
5.4.16.How will autonomous EVs refuel?
5.4.17.Autonomous charging: conductive robotic charging
5.4.18.VW's mobile charging robots
5.4.19.Electrify America to deploy robotic chargers
5.4.20.Easelink's autonomous conductive charging system
5.5.Wireless Charging
5.5.1.An overview of wireless charging - ditching the cable?
5.5.2.SAE J2954 wireless electric vehicle charging standard
5.5.3.Inductive Wireless Charging
5.5.4.Inductive charging
5.5.5.Magnetic resonance: wireless charging for EVs
5.5.6.Inductive charging of EVs: parked
5.5.7.Inductive charging of EVs: on road
5.5.8.WiTricity goes all-in on wireless charging for EVs
5.5.9.WiTricity's park-and-charge wireless charging solution
5.5.10.Plugless is selling wireless chargers for EVs
5.5.11.Qualcomm's Halo wireless electric vehicle charging platform
5.5.12.Dynamic electric vehicle charging demonstrated by Qualcomm
5.5.13.WiTricity acquires Qualcomm's wireless charging unit
5.5.14.BMW 530e pilots wireless charging
5.6.Capacitive Wireless Charging
5.6.1.Capacitive charging
5.6.2.Capacitive charging: principle
5.6.3.Capacitive charging: current projects
5.7.Battery Swapping
5.7.1.An overview of battery swapping
5.7.2.The case of Better Place
5.7.3.Battery swapping: Tesla
5.7.4.Battery swapping: Ample
5.7.5.Battery swapping development in China
5.7.6.Battery swapping: NIO
5.7.7.Battery swapping: BAIC
5.7.8.Battery swapping: Gogoro network
5.8.Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Fleets
5.8.1.The rising demand for fleet charging
5.8.2.The rising population of electric vehicle fleets
5.8.3.Charging infrastructure for electric buses
5.8.4.Charging electric buses: depot versus opportunity charging
5.8.5.Heliox: public transport and heavy-duty vehicle charging
5.8.6.Heliox's 13 MW charging network for electric buses
5.8.7.SprintCharge: battery-buffered opportunity charging for electric buses
5.8.8.ABB's smart depot charging solution for large fleets
5.8.9.ABB: opportunity charging for electric buses
5.8.10.ABB's 600 kW TOSA flash-charging for e-buses
5.8.11.Siemens: electric bus charging infrastructure
5.8.12.Siemens autonomous charging system
5.8.13.Daimler Truck opens a charging park for commercial EVs
5.8.14.Momentum Dynamics: high-power wireless charging for electric vehicle fleets
5.8.15.Case study: wireless charging for public transit
5.8.16.Inductive supercharging for electric commercial vehicles
5.8.17.The emergence of 'Megawatt chargers'
5.8.18.CharIN is working on charging standards for commercial electric vehicles
5.8.19.Researchers put megawatt charging systems for electric trucks to the test
5.8.20.MEDUSA project - developing 3 megawatt charging solutions
5.9.Electric Road Systems for Electric Vehicle Charging
5.9.1.Types of electric road systems
5.9.2.Electric road systems: conductive versus inductive
5.9.3.Configuration of ERS infrastructure
5.9.4.Benefits of ERS
5.9.5.Electric road systems: Korea
5.9.6.Electric road systems: Sweden
5.9.7.Germany tests its first electric highway for trucks
5.9.8.Real world testing
5.9.9.Electric road systems: market and challenges
6.1.Market players summary
6.3.ABB's heavy commercial vehicle charging product portfolio
6.4.ABB is deploying infrastructure globally
6.6.Bosch Mobility Solutions
6.7.Bosch does away with the "charging brick"
6.8.BP Pulse
6.10.ChargePoint product series
6.11.ChargePoint as a Service
6.13.Efacec Electric Mobility: full-range electric vehicle charging solutions
6.14.Efacec's private and public charging solution
6.15.Efacec's fast charging solution
6.16.Efacec's wireless charging solution
6.17.Electrify America
6.18.Electrify America is extending its charging network
6.19.Electrify America to double its charging infrastructure
6.21.EVBox forms partnerships across Europe
6.23.Green Motion
6.24.Integrating electric vehicle charger in home energy storage
6.25.Green Motion's urban air mobility charging
6.26.IONITY's high-power charging network across Europe
6.28.Pod Point
6.31.Swarco acts as key partner for rapid-charger roll-out
6.33.Tesla Supercharger network
6.34.Tesla Destination Charging network
6.35.Tritium - the DC charging solution provider
6.36.Tritium Veefil - DC fast charger specifications
6.37.Tritium is rolling out its DC high-power chargers
6.38.Tritium launches modular scalable charging (MSC) and support for plug and charge
6.40.Wallbox's bi-directional residential electric vehicle charger
6.41.Wallbox enters ultra-rapid charging with Hypernova column
6.43.Manufacturers by region
7.1.1.The emergence of electric vehicle charging value chain
7.1.2.The electric vehicle charging value chain
7.1.3.Entering the high power charging value chain
7.1.4.Utility led EV incentive programs in the US
7.1.5.Key market players along the EV charging value chain
7.1.6.Barriers to entry for commercial charging
7.1.7.Chargepoint operators (CPO) / charging network operators
7.1.8.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: China
7.1.9.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: Europe
7.1.10.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: US
7.1.11.Market share of DC fast charging by network operator: US
7.1.12.Comparison of chargepoint operators
7.1.13.EV charging billing models
7.1.14.Supply chain
7.1.15.The electric vehicle charging value chain
7.1.16.Business models of charging network operators
7.1.17.Current business models
7.1.18.Future business models and revenue streams
7.1.19.Emerging new business models for commercialization of battery-swapping in China
7.2.Smart Charging
7.2.1.Smart charging: A (load) balancing act
7.2.2.Emerging business models for new services: V2X
7.2.3.Nissan energy share: vehicle to home/building
7.2.4.V2H initiative by Nissan
7.2.5.V2G: Nuvve
7.2.6.The V2G architecture
7.2.7.Nuvve targets electric school buses for V2G
7.2.8.V2G: OVO Energy
7.2.9.OVO Energy to advance V2G and second-life batteries
7.2.10.V2G accelerates battery degradation?
7.2.11.V2G can extend the longevity of the electric vehicle battery
7.2.12.Summary of smart charging implementations
8.1.Forecast methodology
8.2.Forecast assumptions
8.3.Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2032
8.4.Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2032
8.5.New car and fleet charging outlets installed 2015-2032
8.6.New charging installations by power class 2015-2032
8.7.Total public charging installations in China (AC & DC)
8.8.Total public charging installations in Europe (AC & DC)
8.9.Total public charging installations in USA (AC & DC)
8.10.AC charging installations by power split
8.11.Average battery capacity by region 2015-2032
8.12.DC charging installations by power split
8.13.EV charging market value 2015-2032 ($ billion)
8.14.Total charging installations by region 2015-2032
8.15.New charging installations by region 2015-2032
8.16.Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2032
8.17.Total private charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2032

Report Statistics

Slides 334
Forecasts to 2032
ISBN 9781913899790

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