Los mercados de pilas de combustible marítimas crecerán rápidamente a una tasa compuesta anual del 35%, impulsados por las estrictas regulaciones de emisiones

Barcos y barcos de pila de combustible 2023-2033: PEMFC, SOFC, hidrógeno, amoníaco, GNL

Pilas de combustible de membrana de intercambio de protones (PEMFC), pilas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFC), materiales para pilas de combustible, proveedores, hidrógeno verde, amoníaco verde, infraestructura de búnkers, GNL

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Most consumer goods are transported by sea, placing great pressure on the maritime sector to decarbonize to meet broader climate goals set out in recent years. While there is 'no silver bullet', multiple low carbon solutions are emerging. Pure battery-electric ships are the best solution where possible. They tend to result in the lowest carbon footprint and be economical, either by reducing or eliminating fuel consumption and engine use/maintenance. However, large vessel types, such as sea-going cargo vessels, are not practical to convert to pure battery electric due to range and weight requirements - the problem is they contribute the most to maritime emissions.
Indeed, the energy needs of large sea-going vessels span into the hundreds of mega-watt hours, beyond the capabilities of batteries for the foreseeable future. The result is that maritime battery markets are beginning to saturate in early adopter segments, such as ferries, and reach their limitations in others, such as the short and deep-sea vessels. To reduce carbon emissions in these hard-to-abate sectors, ultimately, the industry must turn to low carbon or green fuels. Some of the most promising fuels include e-methanol, e-methane, green hydrogen, and green ammonia.
There are multiple methods to convert the chemical energy held in green fuels into mechanical energy, including combustion, but fuel cells (FC) offer one of the most efficient solutions, and, most importantly, a true pathway to zero-emissions. The IDTechEx report 'Fuel Cell Boats & Ships 2023-2033: PEMFC, SOFC, Hydrogen, Ammonia, LNG' shows the current deployment and use of onboard fuel cells in the maritime sector alongside the emerging technology options. Below is a summary of key chapters from the report.
Fuel Cell Technology, Materials & Fuels
The report benchmarks different fuel cell technologies for the marine environment. The two main options are proton exchange membrane FC (PEMFC) and solid-oxide FC (SOFC). Neither solution is perfect. PEMFC are commercially available today, with huge projects up to 3.2MW being landed and a large pipeline of orders underway. This is being driven by the potential for zero emissions and the huge amounts of funding being made available for the development of a 'hydrogen economy'.
However, PEMFC use expensive materials such as platinum, and hydrogen is difficult to transport and store. As a liquid, the chart shows how hydrogen requires much more space than alternative fuels whilst also requiring a storage temperature of minus 253C. This makes it difficult for PEMFC, which can only be powered by high-purity hydrogen, to fully decarbonize the marine sector. Nonetheless, IDTechEx expects applications to grow rapidly in inland or coastal sectors where there will be more frequent refueling opportunities.
Source: IDTechEx
Ammonia-powered SOFCs have the most potential to create zero-emission long range vessels. SOFC are fuel-flexible, allowing for use of ammonia, hydrogen, LNG, LPG, methanol, ethanol and more. They also use relatively low cost and abundant materials, creating potential for greater cost reduction than PEMFC at high volumes. Moreover, SOFC can achieve the highest efficiencies of >80% when recycling heat, due to their high temperature operation of 800C. This results in less ammonia or hydrogen consumption per mile compared to an ammonia combustion engine or PEMFC, respectively.
Long start-up times and poor dynamic response are often cited as SOFC drawbacks, but this is manageable if paired with a battery system and a use-case of long voyages out at sea. The main disadvantage is simply that SOFC technology and the green ammonia as fuel is not readily available - few FC suppliers exist, creating a bottleneck and driving costs, and demonstrator projects for green ammonia are in their infancy. The 2MW SOFC system being delivered to the Viking Energy in 2023 will make it the first ammonia SOFC vessel in the world and it will run on green ammonia from Yara.
Source: IDTechEx
Maritime Fuel Cell Suppliers
The report reveals supply chain information, providing market shares of maritime fuel cell suppliers (by kW installation base), project lists and regional installation market shares. The report also shares primary interviews with the top five fuel cell suppliers. No company started out supplying fuel cells to the marine sector, coming from stationary power markets, the automotive sector or even the maritime battery industry. Yet, all have begun to diversify into marine as opportunities have been created by upcoming emissions regulation and funding. Recent fuel cell systems released in the last year have improved power densities and removed the need for an open deck installation, innovations which IDTechEx expects to become key market drivers in the following years.
Policy Drivers
The report details policy drivers for marine fuel cell technologies. Policy focus is shifting from localized emissions to greenhouse gases with new technical and operational ship requirements coming in from 2023. Upcoming IMO policy includes an 'Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI)' and the Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII). EEXI ensures a ship is taking technical steps, in terms of how it is equipped and retrofitted, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. CII is a measure of the carbon emissions per amount of cargo carried per mile and targets reducing emissions operationally. The measures are expected to become mandatory from 2023 with the first ship ratings given in 2024. It will be difficult to meet new regulations without fundamental technical and operational changes, creating a strong driver for fuel cell solutions.
Bunker Infrastructure
Incumbent fossil fuels such as marine gasoil and heavy fuel oil currently have a worldwide, efficient, and flexible bunkering network. This is the challenge for the adoption of new green fuels which will mostly require new bunkering infrastructure. For ammonia and hydrogen there are either no or very limited bunkering hubs today, driving high distribution costs and weak supply security. Developing new standards to aid development of technical solutions, scalability and operating procedures is one of the key challenges.
Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has a head start. Ammonia is much easier to store and transport than liquid hydrogen, and liquid (fossil) ammonia is already transported in large volumes by sea at minus 33C (for use in the agriculture and mining industries). The report shows that while some bunker infrastructure facilities are currently in operation for ammonia, none yet exist for hydrogen.
IDTechEx forecasts maritime fuel cell installations onboard vessels in rated capacity ('watts') and market size (US$) through to 2033. The report takes a bottom-up approach, analysing the current deliveries, pipeline and production capacity of maritime fuel cell suppliers. Primary research was gathered by interviewing and attending in-person presentations from suppliers. IDTechEx used this information to curate a list of over 30 completed, current and future fuel cell vessel projects from over 12 marine fuel cell suppliers. Up to 2024, the forecast reflects projects which have been announced and have a high degree of completion certainty.
Key Aspects
The main contents covered in this report:
  • Executive summary & conclusions
  • Marine PEMFC & SOFC market size, market outlook, market forecast
  • PEMFC & SOFC current and future materials
  • Full company profile interviews across fuel cell suppliers and OEMs
  • Benchmarking of fuel cell suppliers and market leaders
  • Fuel cell ship project list & analysis by region and vessel type
  • Green and e-fuels benchmarking
  • Policy drivers for marine fuel cells
  • Funding for fuel cell projects in marine
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Table of Contents
1.1.Report Introduction
1.2.Alternative Fuels by Technology & Vessel
1.3.Solutions for Greenhouse Gas Regulations
1.4.Fuel Cells Technologies for Ships
1.5.Fuel Cell Deliveries for Vessels 2020 - 2033 (MW)
1.6.Marine Fuel Cell System Cost Outlook 2022 - 2033 ($/kW)
1.7.Fuel Cell Deliveries for Vessels 2020 - 2033 ($)
1.8.Average Power of FC Deliveries 2019 - 2024
1.9.Fuel Cell Suppliers: Leaders & Challengers
1.10.Fuel Cell Supplier Market Share 2019 - 2024
1.11.Fuel Cell Deliveries by Vessel Type 2019 - 2024
1.12.Low Carbon Fuels for Fuel Cells
1.13.Quantitative Benchmarking of Low Carbon Fuels
1.14.Qualitative Benchmarking of Low Carbon Fuels
1.15.Efficiency Comparison: Battery, PEMFC, SOFC
1.16.Global Bunker Infrastructure in 2022: Ammonia, LNG, Hydrogen
1.17.Global Green Hydrogen Production
1.18.Green Hydrogen & Ammonia Production 2022-2030 (mn tonnes)
1.19.Green Ammonia Production Requirements in Marine
1.20.Green Hydrogen & Ammonia Bunker Price
1.21.Maritime Fuel Cell Funding
1.22.Fuel Cell Vessels Need Batteries
1.23.Company Profile Access - IDTechEx Online Portal
2.1.Chapter Summary
2.2.The International Maritime Organization (IMO)
2.3.Emission Control Areas
2.4.Sulphur and Nitrous Oxide Emissions
2.5.Traditional Solutions: Scrubbers & Speed Reduction
2.6.Shifting Emission Policy Focus
2.7.Marine CO₂ Emissions and Targets
2.8.Reducing Greenhouse Gases: EEXI & CII
2.9.EU 'Fit for 55'
2.10.EU-Specific Policy
2.11.Solutions for Greenhouse Gas Regulations
3.1.Overview of Fuel Cell Types
3.2.Fuel Cells Technologies for Ships
4.1.PEMFC Working Principle
4.2.PEMFC Assembly and Materials
4.3.High-temperature (HT) PEMFC
4.4.Role of the Gas Diffusion Layer
4.5.Hydrophobic coating for GDLs
4.6.GDL manufacturing process
4.7.Cellulosic fiber GDL: No MPL required
4.8.GDL Latest Research: Dual Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Behaviour
4.9.Bipolar Plates Overview
4.10.Bipolar Plate Assembly (BPA)
4.11.BPP Flow Fields
4.12.BPP Flow Field Selection
4.13.Important material parameters for BPPs
4.14.Materials for BPPs: Graphite vs metal
4.15.Coatings for metal BPPs
4.16.Coating choices for metal BPPs
4.17.Cost progression of BPAs
4.18.Toyota Fuel Cell
4.19.Water management in the FC
4.20.Latest trends for BPPs
4.21.Latest developments for BPPs: Loop Energy
4.22.Latest developments for BPPs: CoBiP project
4.23.Additional early-stage commercial developments for BPPs
4.24.Latest academic research for BPPs
4.25.Balance of plant for PEM fuel cells
4.26.Membrane: Purpose and form factor
4.27.Form factor of the membrane
4.28.Property benchmarking of proton exchange membranes
4.29.Market leading membrane material: Nafion
4.30.Synthesis of Nafion
4.31.Alternative membrane materials to Nafion
4.32.Gore manufacture MEAs
4.33.Metal-organic frameworks for membranes
4.34.Metal-organic frameworks for membranes: Academic research
4.35.Graphene in the membrane
4.36.Catalyst: Purpose and form factor
4.37.Trends for fuel cell catalysts
4.38.Increasing catalytic activity - alternative metals
4.39.Increasing catalytic activity - form factor
4.40.Reduction of catalyst poisoning
4.41.Reduction of cost of catalyst
4.42.Targets for reducing loading of catalytic materials in fuel cells
4.43.Key suppliers of catalysts for fuel cells
4.44.Recycling of the catalyst
5.1.SOFC Overview
5.2.SOFC for Marine
5.3.SOFC Electrolyte
5.4.SOFC Anode & Cathode
5.5.Tubular SOFC Design
5.6.Planar SOFC Design
5.7.Sealing & Connecting Materials
6.1.Fuel Cell Suppliers: Leaders & Challengers
6.2.Fuel Cell Supplier Market Share 2019-2024
6.3.Fuel Cell Deliveries by Vessel Type 2019-2024
6.4.Average Power of FC Deliveries 2019-2024
6.6.Fuel Cell Integration
6.9.TECO 2030 (1)
6.10.TECO 2030 (2)
6.11.Corvus Energy
6.12.Toyota Fuel Cell Technology
6.14.China Fuel Cell Suppliers
6.15.ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems
6.16.Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Players
6.17.Alma Clean Power
6.18.Bloom Energy
6.19.Ceres/ Doosan
6.20.SOFC Barriers & Future Commentary
6.21.Comparison of Commercial Marine Fuel Cells
7.1.Fuel Cell Vessel Project Database (1)
7.2.Fuel Cell Vessel Project Database (2)
7.3.Fuel Cell Vessel Project Database (3)
7.4.Boundary Layer Technologies
7.5.Hydrofoiling Hydrogen Cargo Ship: Argo
7.6.Green City Ferries - LTO Battery / Fuel Cell Catamaran
7.7.E1 Marine - Onboard Hydrogen Generation using Methanol
8.1.Low Carbon Fuels for Fuel Cells
8.2.Alternative Fuels by Technology & Vessel
8.3.Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Lifecycle Emissions
8.4.Environmental benefit of LNG
8.5.Overview of e-fuels
8.6.Carbon capture in marine vessels
8.7.The Hydrogen Economy
8.8.Hydrogen Sector Decarbonisation
8.9.The Colors of Hydrogen
8.10.Ammonia Production Process
8.11.Maritime Ammonia Vessel Projects
8.12.Energy Density Benchmarking of Fuels
8.13.Qualitative Benchmarking of Low Carbon Fuels
8.14.Efficiency Comparison: Battery, PEMFC, SOFC
8.15.Carbon Intensity Comparison of Fuels
8.16.LNG, Hydrogen & Ammonia Compared
9.1.Bunkering Overview
9.2.Global Bunker Infrastructure: Ammonia, LNG, Hydrogen
9.3.Global Green Hydrogen Production
9.4.Hydrogen Policy & Targets by Country (1)
9.5.Hydrogen Policy & Targets by Country (2)
9.6.Hydrogen Policy & Targets by Country (3)
9.7.Global Hydrogen Policy & Targets
9.8.Global Hydrogen Policy Impacts (1)
9.9.Global Hydrogen Policy Impacts (2)
9.10.Green Hydrogen Production
9.11.Announced Green Hydrogen Production 2020-2030 (kT)
9.12.List of Major Hydrogen Project Announcements (1)
9.13.List of Major Hydrogen Project Announcements (2)
9.14.Announced Green Ammonia Production 2022-2030 (kT)
9.15.List of Major Green Ammonia Project Announcements (1)
9.16.Green Hydrogen & Ammonia Production Comparison by 2030
9.17.Solar Capacity Additions
9.18.Wind Capacity Additions
9.19.Green Ammonia Production Requirements
9.20.Yara Clean Ammonia
9.21.Ammonia Bunkering in Scandinavia
9.22.Ammonia Bunkering in Australia
10.1.Hydrogen Cost Issues
10.2.2021/22 Geopolitics
10.3.Maritime Fuel Prices
10.4.Green Hydrogen & Ammonia Bunker Price
10.5.2022 impact on Hydrogen price
10.6.Green Ammonia Bunker Price
10.7.OPEX of Hydrogen Catamaran
11.1.Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Funding Overview
11.2.Clean Hydrogen Joint Undertaking
11.3.Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (Superseded)
11.6.Alma Clean Power
11.8.IPCEI Hy2Tech
12.1.Forecast Methodology
12.2.Fuel Cell Deliveries for Vessels 2020-2033 (MW)
12.3.Marine Fuel Cell System Cost Outlook 2022-2033 ($/kW)
12.4.Fuel Cell Deliveries for Vessels 2020-2033 ($)
12.5.Green Hydrogen Production
12.6.Announced Green Hydrogen Production 2020-2030 (kT)
12.7.Announced Green Ammonia Production 2022-2030 (kT)
12.8.Green Hydrogen & Ammonia Production Comparison by 2030
12.9.Marine Battery Price Cost Curve
12.10.Average Power of FC Deliveries 2019-2024
12.11.Maritime Fuel Cell Funding
12.12.Solar Capacity Additions
12.13.Wind Capacity Additions
13.1.Alma Clean Power
13.3.Boundary Layer Technologies
13.4.Corvus Energy: The Battery Leader Launching Fuel Cells
13.6.Green City Ferries
13.8.PowerCell: Megawatt Fuel Cell Systems

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Slides 203
Forecasts to 2033
ISBN 9781915514356

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