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Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2019-2029: Technology, Patents, Forecasts

Revolutionary approach for the battery business

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A typical commercial battery cell usually consists of cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. One of the most successful commercial batteries is the lithium-ion technology, which has been commercialized since 1991. However, their worldwide success and diffusion in consumer electronics and, more recently, electric vehicles (EV) cannot hide their limitations in terms of safety, performance, form factor, and cost due to the underlying technology.
Most current lithium-ion technologies employ liquid electrolyte, with lithium salts such as LiPF6, LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent. However, the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), which is caused as a result of the de-composition of the electrolyte at the negative electrode, limits the effective conductance. Furthermore, liquid electrolyte needs expensive membranes to separate the cathode and anode, as well as an impermeable casing to avoid leakage. Therefore, the size and design freedom for these batteries are constrained. Furthermore, liquid electrolytes have safety and health issues as they use flammable and corrosive liquids. Samsung's Firegate has particularly highlighted the risks that even large companies incur when flammable liquid electrolytes are used.
Solid-state electrolytes have the potential to address all of those aspects, particularly in the electric vehicle, wearable, and drone markets. Their first application was in the 70's as primary batteries for pacemakers, where a sheet of Li metal is placed in contact with solid iodine. The two materials behave like a short-circuited cell and their reaction leads to the formation of a lithium iodide (LiI) layer at their interface. After the LiI layer has formed, a very small, constant current can still flow from the lithium anode to the iodine cathode for several years. Fast forward to 2011, and researchers from Toyota and the Tokyo Institute of Technology have claimed the discovery of a sulphide-base material that has the same ionic conductivity of a liquid electrolyte, something unthinkable up to a decade ago. Five years later, they were able to double that value, thus making solid-state electrolytes appealing also for high power applications and fast charging. This and other innovations have fuelled research and investments into new categories of materials that can triple current Li-ion energy densities.
In solid-state batteries, both the electrodes and the electrolytes are solid state. Solid-state electrolyte normally behaves as the separator as well, allowing down-scaling due to the elimination of certain components (e.g. separator and casing). Therefore, they can potentially be made thinner, flexible, and contain more energy per unit weight than conventional Li-ion. In addition, the removal of liquid electrolytes can be an avenue for safer, long-lasting batteries as they are more resistant to changes in temperature and physical damages occurred during usage. Solid state batteries can handle more charge/discharge cycles before degradation, promising a longer life time.
With a battery market currently dominated by Asian companies, European and US firms are striving to win this arms race that might, in their view, shift added value away from Japan, China, and South Korea. Different material selection and change of manufacturing procedures show an indication of reshuffle of the battery supply chain. From both technology and business point of view, development of solid state battery has formed part of the next generation battery strategy. It has become a global game with regional interests and governmental supports.
Electrolyte market share for passenger cars ($B)
Source: IDTechEx
This report covers the solid-state electrolyte industry by giving a 10-year forecast till 2029 in terms of numbers of devices sold, capacity production and market size, predicted to reach over $25B. A special focus is made on winning chemistries, with a full analysis of the 8 inorganic solid electrolytes and of organic polymer electrolytes. This is complemented with a unique IP landscape analysis that identifies what chemistry the main companies are working on, and how R&D in that space has evolved during the last 5 years.
Solid-state electrolyte technology approach
Source: IDTechEx
Additionally, the report covers the manufacturing challenges related to solid electrolytes and how large companies (Toyota, Toshiba, etc.) try to address those limitations, as well as research progress and activities of important players. A study of lithium metal as a strategic resource is also presented, highlighting the strategic distribution of this material around the world and the role it will play in solid-state batteries. Some chemistries will be quite lithium-hungry and put a strain on mining companies worldwide.
Finally, over 20 different companies are compared and ranked in terms of their technology and manufacturing readiness, with a watch list and a score comparison.
Players featured in this report
24M, Applied Materials, BatScap (Bolloré Group) / Bathium, Beijing Easpring Material Technology, BMW, BrighVolt, BYD, CATL, Cenat, CEA Tech, China Aviation Lithium Battery, Coslight, Cymbet, EMPA, Enovate Motors, FDK, Fisker Inc., Flashcharge Batteries, Fraunhofer Batterien, Front Edge Technology, Ganfeng Lithium, Giessen University, Guangzhou Great Power, Guoxuan High-Tech Power Energy, Hitachi Zosen, Hyundai, Ilika, IMEC, Infinite Power Solutions, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ionic Materials, ITEN, Jiawei Long powers Solid-State Storage Tecnology RuGao City Co.,Ltd, JiaWei Renewable Energy, Johnson Battery Technologies, Kalptree Energy, Magnis Energy Technologies, Mitsui Metal, Murata, National Battery, National Interstellar Solid State Lithium Electricity Technology, NGK/NTK, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS, Oak Ridge Energy Technologies, Ohara, Panasonic, Planar Energy, Polyplus, Prieto Battery, ProLogium, Qing Tao Energy Development Co., QuantumScape, Sakti 3, Samsung SDI, Schott AG, SEEO, Solidenergy, Solid Power, Solvay, Sony, STMicroelectronics, Taiyo Yuden, TDK, Tianqi Lithium, Toshiba, Toyota, ULVAC, University of Münster, Volkswagen, Wanxian A123 Systems, WeLion New Energy Technology, Zhongtian Technology
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Table of Contents
1.1.Players talked about in this report
1.2.Industry efforts on solid-state batteries
1.3.Status and future of solid state battery business
1.4.Regional efforts: Germany, France, UK, Australia, USA, Japan, Korea and China
1.5.Comparison of various solid-state lithium-based batteries
1.6.Solid-state electrolyte technology approach
1.7.Comparison of solid state electrolytes
1.8.Technology evaluation
1.9.Technology evaluation: polymer vs. LLZO vs. LATP vs. LGPS
1.10.Technology and manufacturing readiness 1
1.11.Technology and manufacturing readiness 2
1.12.Score comparison
1.13.Solid state battery collaborations / acquisitions by OEMs
1.14.Battery ambitions
1.15.Solid-state battery value chain
1.16.Potential applications for solid-state batteries
1.17.Market readiness 1
1.18.Market readiness 2
1.19.Market readiness 3
1.20.Solid-state batteries for electric vehicles
1.21.Solid-state batteries for consumer electronics
1.22.Solid-state battery sales by units
1.23.Solid-state battery production by GWh
1.24.Forecasts by chemistry 2019-2029
1.25.Forecasts by application 2019-2029
1.26.Performance comparison: Electric Vehicles
1.27.Market penetration by 2029 - EVs
1.28.Market penetration by 2029 - drones
1.29.Solid-state battery market for EVs ($B)
1.30.Solid-state battery market share for EVs in 2024 and 2029
1.31.Solid-state battery sales by units (EV)
1.32.Solid-state battery market for electric cars ($B)
1.33.Solid-state battery market for electric trucks ($B)
1.34.Solid-state battery market for electric buses ($M)
1.35.Market growth for solid-state batteries in wearables and CEs ($M)
1.36.Performance comparison: CEs & wearables
1.37.Solid-state battery market for wearables and CEs
1.38.Market penetration by 2029 - wearables and CEs
2.1Chapter 1 introduction
3.1.What is a battery?
3.2.A big obstacle — energy density
3.3.Battery technology is based on redox reactions
3.4.Electrochemical reaction is essentially based on electron transfer
3.5.Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
3.6.The importance of an electrolyte in a battery
3.7.Cathode & anode need to have structural order
3.8.Failure story about metallic lithium anode
4.1.Safety of liquid-electrolyte lithium-ion batteries
4.2.Modern horror films are finding their scares in dead phone batteries
4.3.Samsung's firegate
4.4.Safety aspects of Li-ion batteries
4.5.LIB cell temperature and likely outcome
5.1.Food is electricity for humans
5.2.What is a Li-ion battery (LIB)?
5.3.Anode alternatives: Lithium titanium and lithium metal
5.4.Anode alternatives: Other carbon materials
5.5.Anode alternatives: Silicon, tin and alloying materials
5.6.Cathode alternatives: LNMO, NMC, NCA and Vanadium pentoxide
5.7.Cathode alternatives: LFP
5.8.Cathode alternatives: Sulphur
5.9.Cathode alternatives: Oxygen
5.10.High energy cathodes require fluorinated electrolytes
5.11.Why is lithium so important?
5.12.Where is lithium?
5.13.How to produce lithium 1
5.14.How to produce lithium 2
5.15.Where is lithium used 1
5.16.Where is lithium used 2
5.17.Question: how much lithium do we need? 1
5.18.Question: how much lithium do we need? 2
5.19.Question: how much Li do we need? 3
5.20.How can LIBs be improved? 1
5.21.How can LIBs be improved? 2
6.1.Push and pull factors in Li-ion research
6.2.The battery trilemma
6.3.Performance limit
6.4.Form factor
9.1.A solid future?
9.2.Lithium-ion batteries vs. solid-state batteries
9.3.What is a solid-state battery (SSB)?
9.4.How can solid-state batteries increase performance?
9.5.Close stacking
9.6.Energy density improvement
9.7.Value propositions and limitations of solid state battery
9.8.Flexibility and customisation provided by solid-state batteries
10.1.Research efforts on solid-state batteries
10.2.A new cycle of interests
10.3.Interests in China
10.5.Qing Tao Energy Development
10.6.History of Qing Tao Energy Development
10.7.Ganfeng Lithium
10.8.Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
10.9.WeLion New Energy Technology 1
10.10.WeLion New Energy Technology 2
10.11.WeLion New Energy Technology 3
10.12.JiaWei Renewable Energy
10.13.Enovate Motors
10.14.11 other Chinese player activities on solid state batteries
10.15.Regional interests: Japan
10.16.Technology roadmap according to Germany's NPE
10.17.Roadmap for battery cell technology
10.18.SSB project—Ionics
10.19.SSB project—SBIR 2016
10.20.Automakers' efforts - BMW
10.21.Automakers' efforts - Volkswagen
10.22.Automakers' efforts - Hyundai
10.23.Automakers' efforts - Toyota 1
10.24.Automakers' efforts - Toyota 2
10.25.Automakers' efforts - Fisker Inc.
10.26.Automakers' efforts - Bolloré
10.27.Battery vendors' efforts - Panasonic
10.28.Battery vendors' efforts - Samsung SDI
10.29.Academic views - University of Münster 1
10.30.Academic views - University of Münster 2
10.31.Academic views - Giessen University
10.32.Academic views - Fraunhofer Batterien
12.1.History of solid-state batteries
12.2.Solid-state battery configurations 1
12.3.Solid-state battery configurations 2
12.4.Solid-state electrolytes
12.5.Differences between liquid and solid electrolytes
12.6.How to design a good solid-state electrolyte
12.7.Classifications of solid-state electrolyte
12.8.Thin film vs. bulk solid-state batteries
12.9.Scaling of thin ceramic sheets
12.10.How safe are solid-state batteries?
13.1.Applications of polymer-based batteries
13.2.LiPo batteries, polymer-based batteries, polymeric batteries
13.3.Types of polymer electrolytes
13.4.Electrolytic polymer options
13.5.Advantages and issues of polymer electrolytes
13.6.PEO for solid polymer electrolyte
13.7.Polymer-based battery: Solidenergy
13.9.BrightVolt batteries
13.10.BrightVolt product matrix
13.11.BrightVolt electrolyte
13.13.Solvay 1
13.14.Solvay 2
13.15.IMEC 1
13.16.IMEC 2
13.19.Innovative electrode for semi-solid electrolyte batteries
13.20.Redefining manufacturing process by 24M
13.21.Ionic Materials
13.22.Technology and manufacturing process of Ionic Materials
13.23.Prieto Battery
13.24.Companies working on polymer solid state batteries
13.25.Solid Inorganic Electrolytes
13.26.Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion 1
13.27.Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion 2
13.28.Oxide Inorganic Electrolyte
13.29.Oxide electrolyte
13.31.QuantumScape's technology 1
13.32.QuantumScape's technology 2
13.33.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
13.34.Nagoya University
13.37.Lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic powder-01
13.38.LICGCTM PW-01 for cathode additives
13.39.Ohara's products for solid state batteries
13.40.Ohara / PolyPlus
13.41.Application of LICGC for all solid state batteries
13.42.Properties of multilayer all solid-state lithium ion battery using LICGC as electrolyte
13.43.LICGC products at the show
13.44.Manufacturing process of Ohara glass
13.45.Taiyo Yuden
13.49.LiPON: construction
13.50.Players worked and working LiPON-based batteries
13.51.Cathode material options for LiPON-based batteries
13.52.Anodes for LiPON-based batteries
13.53.Substrate options for LiPON-based batteries
13.54.Trend of materials and processes of thin-film battery in different companies
13.55.LiPON: capacity increase
13.56.Technology of Infinite Power Solutions
13.57.Cost comparison between a standard prismatic battery and IPS' battery
13.58.Thin-film solid-state batteries made by Excellatron
13.59.Johnson Battery Technologies
13.60.JBT's advanced technology performance
13.61.Ultra-thin micro-battery—NanoEnergy®
13.62.Micro-Batteries suitable for integration
13.63.From limited to mass production—STMicroelectronics
13.64.Summary of the EnFilm™ rechargeable thin-film battery
13.65.CEA Tech
13.66.Ilika 1
13.67.Ilika 2
13.68.Ilika 3
13.70.CeraCharge's performance
13.71.Main applications of CeraCharge
13.72.ProLogium: Solid-state lithium ceramic battery
13.73.ProLogium: EV battery pack assembly
13.75.Applications of FDK's solid state battery
13.76.Companies working on oxide solid state batteries
13.77.Sulphide Inorganic Electrolyte
13.78.Solid Power
13.79.LISICON-type 1
13.80.LISICON-type 2
13.81.Hitachi Zosen's solid-state electrolyte
13.82.Hitachi Zosen's batteries
13.83.Solid-state electrolytes - Konan University
13.84.Tokyo Institute of Technology
13.86.Companies working on sulphide solid state batteries
13.91.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 1
13.92.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 2
13.93.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 3
13.94.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 4
13.95.Dendrites - ceramic fillers and high shear modulus are needed
13.96.Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes 1
13.97.Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes 2
14.1.Overview of investigation
14.2.Total number of patents by electrolyte type and material
14.3.The SSE patent portfolio of key assignees
15.1.Total number of patents by SSE material
15.2.Patent application fluctuations from 2014 to 2016
15.3.Legal status of patents in 2018 by SSE material
15.4.Key assignee's patent portfolio of non-composite SSEs
15.5.PEO: Patent Activity Trends
15.6.LPS: Patent Activity Trends
15.7.LLZO: Patent Activity Trends
15.8.LLTO: Patent Activity Trends
15.9.Lithium Iodide: Patent Activity Trends
15.10.LGPS: Patent Activity Trends
15.11.LIPON: Patent Activity Trends
15.12.LATP: Patent Activity Trends
15.13.LAGP: Patent Activity
15.14.Argyrodite: Patent Activity Trends
15.15.LiBH4: Patent Activity Trends
16.1.The best of both worlds?
17.1.Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-sulphur batteries
17.2.Lithium sulphur solid electrode development phases
17.3.Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-air batteries
17.4.Solid-state electrolytes in metal-air batteries
17.5.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries 1
17.6.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries 2
17.7.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries 1
17.8.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries 2
19.1.The real bottleneck
19.2.The incumbent process: lamination
19.3.Solid battery fabrication process
19.4.Manufacturing equipment for solid-state batteries
19.5.Typical manufacturing method of the all solid-state battery (SMD type)
19.6.Are thin film electrolytes viable?
19.7.Summary of main fabrication technique for thin film batteries
19.8.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 1
19.9.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 2
19.10.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 3
19.11.Ilika's PVD approach
19.12.Avenues for manufacturing
19.13.Toyota's approach 1
19.14.Toyota's approach 2
19.15.Hitachi Zosen's approach
19.16.Sakti3's PVD approach
19.17.Planar Energy's approach
22.1.Glossary of terms - specifications
22.2.Useful charts for performance comparison
22.3.Battery categories
22.4.Commercial battery packaging technologies
22.5.Comparison of commercial battery packaging technologies
22.6.Actors along the value chain for energy storage
22.7.Primary battery chemistries and common applications
22.8.Numerical specifications of popular rechargeable battery chemistries
22.9.Battery technology benchmark
22.10.What does 1 kilowatthour (kWh) look like?
22.11.Technology and manufacturing readiness
22.12.List of acronyms

Report Statistics

Slides 454
Companies 25
Forecasts to 2029

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