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โรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือด 2020-2030: แนวโน้ม เทคโนโลยี และแนวโน้ม


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Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which refers to all conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, is currently the leading cause of death globally. The World Health Organisation reported that CVD is responsible for 17 million deaths every year, which translates to approximately 31% of all deaths globally, and expects this figure to rise to over 23 million by 2030. CVD also represents a major economic burden. The annual cost of CVD to the economy is estimated to range between £19-35 billion in the UK and over $500 billion in the USA. The prevalence and cost of CVD mean that there is an urgent need for solutions to raise standards of care and improve patient outcomes.
This report is segmented into three chapters to cover topics related to the detection, monitoring and treatment of CVD.
The main technologies for detection of CVD are artificial intelligence (AI) in cardiovascular imaging and in vitro diagnostics (IVD) at point-of-care (POC). AI in imaging is discussed rather than imaging in general because the imaging technologies available today have not evolved greatly for a number of years. It is the integration of AI into these systems that represents the current innovations of interest. The IVD section explores the four main types of IVD POC tests: lab-on-a-chip (LOAC), electrochemical test strips, lateral flow assays (LFAs) and molecular diagnostics (MDx).
The monitoring chapter discusses emerging technologies in remote patient monitoring (RPM). Wearables - such as skin patches, accessories and smart clothing - are the primary topic as most innovations are made in this field. Some non-wearable technology is also highlighted.
Current trends in the treatment of CVD revolve around cardiac rhythm management and cardiovascular tissue generation. The treatments chapter thus mainly covers devices for cardiac rhythm management & heart failure and tissue engineering & 3D bioprinting. Cardiac valves & stents are not mentioned at length due to the lack of emerging technologies in this area. Innovations in surgery are also not covered, although transcatheter ablation is discussed as this procedure is so minimally invasive that it is not considered surgery. It also sheds light on other approaches and types of treatment currently available for various CVDs.
Examples of technologies highlighted in this report include sensors for the detection of cardiac biomarkers, electronic skin patches for cardiac monitoring, wrist-worn devices for blood pressure monitoring, digital stethoscopes, implantable cardiac monitors and defibrillators, ablation catheters, and an ultra-sound based device for the removal of arterial calcium.
IDTechEx interviewed a total of 36 companies and research organisations over the phone or in person. These companies operate in the fields of cardiovascular imaging, artificial intelligence, POC diagnostics, remote patient monitoring, wearable technology, implantable devices, catheter ablation, tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting and more.
The following forecasts are included in the report:
• Ambulatory cardiac monitoring
• Smart clothing suitable for RPM
• Wearable accessories for RPM
• Devices for cardiac rhythm management and heart failure
The ten year forecasts are built on information derived from company interviews, financial reports and press releases, among other sources. Parameters used to calculate values include size of the company, product range, number of units sold and pricing. Other factors such as competitive landscape, access to new entrants and regulatory frameworks were used to extrapolate data for the next decade.
The report also provides information such as historical revenue data, market drivers & constraints, ongoing clinical trials and investments/funding in a number of topics - as well as how these factors impact the emergence of innovative technologies.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
1.2.CVD: Number 1 killer and heavy economic burden
1.3.Report summary
1.4.Artificial intelligence (AI) in CVD imaging: Active companies
1.5.Drivers & constraints of AI in cardiovascular imaging
1.6.AI in cardiovascular imaging: Investments & funding
1.7.AI in cardiovascular imaging: Remarks & outlook
1.8.The value of point-of-care (POC) testing
1.9.Devices for CVD biomarker detection: Key players
1.10.LFAs for CVD biomarker detection: Key players
1.11.In vitro diagnostics at point-of-care: Remarks and outlook
1.12.Electrode-based wearable accessories for RPM
1.13.Smart clothing for RPM
1.14.Electronic skin patches for RPM
1.15.Wearable optical sensing technologies
1.16.Blood pressure monitoring technologies
1.17.Ambulatory cardiac monitoring: Historic revenues & forecast
1.18.Smart clothing suitable for RPM: Historic revenues & forecast
1.19.Wearable accessories for RPM: Historic revenue data
1.20.Wearable accessories for RPM: Revenue forecast
1.21.Wearables for RPM: Remarks & outlook
1.22.Non-wearables for RPM: Remarks & outlook
1.23.Cardiac rhythm management: Key players & devices
1.24.Cardiac devices: Market share
1.25.Cardiac devices: Market forecast 2019-2029
1.26.Devices for cardiac rhythm management and heart failure: Remarks & outlook
1.27.Heart failure treatment: Moving towards 3D bioprinted cardiovascular tissue
1.28.3D bioprinting cardiovascular tissue: Opportunities
1.29.3D bioprinting cardiovascular tissue: Remarks & outlook
1.30.Other treatments: Remarks & outlook
1.31.Key conclusions & takeaways
2.1.Scope of report
2.2.The heart
2.3.Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
2.4.Coronary heart disease leads to heart attack
2.7.Atrial fibrillation
2.8.Heart failure
2.9.Other cardiovascular disorders
2.10.Some CVDs are interlinked - one may lead to another
2.11.Incidence of CVD
2.12.Economic and healthcare costs of CVD
2.13.CVD technologies: Market drivers
2.14.Report summary
3.1.Artificial intelligence in cardiovascular imaging
3.1.1.Traditional cardiovascular imaging methods
3.1.2.Enter artificial intelligence (AI)
3.1.3.Drivers & constraints of AI in cardiovascular imaging
3.1.4.Innovations in cardiovascular imaging
3.1.5.Using imaging & AI to build 3D virtual models
3.1.6.Centerline Biomedical: Vasculature models for catheter navigation
3.1.7.inHEART: Cardiac models for intervention planning
3.1.8.Using imaging & AI to detect clots and blockages
3.1.9.iSchemaView: Assessing ischaemic brain injury
3.1.10.iSchemaView: Assessing ischaemic brain injury (2)
3.1.11.Sensome: Categorising blood clots and tissue composition
3.1.12.HeartFlow: Identifying coronary artery blockages
3.1.13.Other AI-driven cardiovascular imaging technologies
3.1.14.AI to analyse cardiovascular images
3.1.15.AI to analyse cardiovascular images (2)
3.1.16.HeartVista: Autonomous MRI imaging
3.1.17.Further AI uses: Predicting cardiac events
3.1.18.Catalia Health: Home healthcare robot assistant
3.1.19.Detecting cardiac events through sounds
3.1.20.Automation of cardiac electric signal reading
3.1.21.AI in cardiovascular imaging: Investments
3.1.22.AI in cardiovascular imaging: Funding
3.1.23.AI in healthcare: Regulations & path to approval
3.1.24.Imaging devices: Regulations & path to approval
3.1.25.Radiation from imaging devices: Safety regulations
3.1.26.Concluding remarks & outlook
3.2.In vitro diagnostics at point-of-care
3.2.1.Point-of-care diagnostics can increase standards of care
3.2.2.Biosensors, bioreceptors and biotransducers
3.2.3.The value of POC testing
3.2.4.Biomarkers: indicators of disease
3.2.5.Characterizing different POC biosensor technologies
3.2.6.cTnI measurement using LOAC devices
3.2.7.cTnI measurement via LAOC: iSTAT
3.2.8.Stroke detection via LOAC: Evidence MultiSTAT
3.2.9.Cholesterol: An indicator of CVD risk & onset
3.2.10.Electrochemical test strips: cholesterol detection
3.2.11.Cholesterol electrochemical test strips - Key players
3.2.12.Other electrochemical test strips for CVD
3.2.13.The future of electrochemical test strips
3.2.14.Lateral flow assays (LFAs) at point-of-care
3.2.15.LFAs for CVD biomarker detection: Key players
3.2.16.Commercial cardiac LFA tests
3.2.17.Commercial cardiac LFA devices
3.2.18.Detection of CVD biomarkers via LFA: Roche
3.2.19.LFA: Measuring multiple biomarkers simultaneously
3.2.20.Innovations in cTnI LFA testing: MIP Diagnostics
3.2.21.Lipid profiling via LFA: Alere
3.2.22.Molecular diagnostics (MDx): From the lab to POC
3.2.23.Applications of MDx at POC for CVD diagnosis
3.2.24.MDx to prevent adverse response to anticoagulant drugs
3.2.25.Molecular POC devices still have a long way to go
3.2.26.Challenges of developing POC MDx devices for CVD
3.2.27.POC devices: Regulatory routes to market
3.2.28.POC devices: Regulatory road map in the US
3.2.29.Concluding remarks and outlook
4.1.Wearable technology for remote patient monitoring
4.1.1.Cardiovascular monitoring via wearable devices
4.1.2.American Well and the rise of RPM
4.1.3.Key American Well Partnerships in cardiovascular health
4.1.4.Wearable vs implantable monitoring
4.1.5.Biotronik: Injectable cardiac monitor
4.1.6.Electrode-based wearable cardiac monitors
4.1.7.Heart monitoring using electrodes
4.1.8.Measuring biopotential
4.1.9.The circuitry for measuring biopotential
4.1.10.Electrocardiogram (ECG)
4.1.11.What do ECG readings mean?
4.1.12.Innovations in ECG devices
4.1.13.Progress towards ambulatory cardiac monitoring
4.1.14.Differentiation between ambulatory cardiac monitors
4.1.15.Electrode-based wearable accessories for RPM
4.1.16.Smart watch: Apple Watch Series 5
4.1.17.Apple Watch: Clinical studies
4.1.18.Smart watch: Withings' Move ECG
4.1.19.Chest strap: Custo-Med
4.1.20.Necklace: toSense CoVa
4.1.21.Smart clothing for RPM
4.1.22.Smart clothing: WeHealth
4.1.23.Smart clothing: ChronoLife
4.1.24.Smart clothing: Hexoskin
4.1.25.Smart clothing: Myant
4.1.26.Electronic skin patches for RPM
4.1.27.Skin patches: VivaLNK
4.1.28.Skin patches: Holst Center
4.1.29.Skin patches: Cardiomo
4.1.30.Other cardiac monitoring skin patches
4.1.31.Wearable optical sensors for HRM and more
4.1.32.Photoplethysmography (PPG)
4.1.33.Transmission-mode PPG vs Reflectance-mode PPG
4.1.34.Wearable optical sensing technologies
4.1.37.Well Being Digital (WBD101)
4.1.39.Sky Labs
4.1.40.Monitoring blood pressure and flow
4.1.41.What is blood pressure?
4.1.42.How is blood pressure measured?
4.1.43.History of blood pressure monitoring devices
4.1.44.Inferring blood pressure from other heart biometrics
4.1.45.Blood pressure monitoring technologies
4.1.46.Blood pressure monitoring: Withings
4.1.47.Blood pressure monitoring: Omron
4.1.48.Blood pressure monitoring: Tarilian Laser Technologies
4.1.49.Blood flow monitoring: Ida Health
4.1.50.Wearable cardiac monitoring technologies in clinical trials
4.1.51.Ambulatory cardiac monitoring: Historic revenue data
4.1.52.Ambulatory cardiac monitoring: Revenue forecast
4.1.53.Smart clothing suitable for RPM: Historic revenue data
4.1.54.Smart clothing suitable for RPM: Revenue forecast
4.1.55.Wearable accessories for RPM: Historic revenue data
4.1.56.Wearable accessories for RPM: Revenue forecast
4.1.57.Wearables for RPM: concluding remarks & outlook
4.2.Non-wearable technology for remote patient monitoring
4.2.1.Cardiovascular monitoring using non-wearable devices
4.2.2.Evolution of the Stethoscope into the Digital Realm
4.2.3.Digital stethoscopes
4.2.4.Smart scale: Withings
4.2.5.Contact-free patient monitoring: EarlySense
4.2.6.Portable devices for cardiac monitoring
4.2.7.Portable devices: AliveCor
4.2.8.Portable devices: BioTelemetry, Inc.
4.2.9.Non-wearable technologies in clinical trials
4.2.10.Non-wearables for RPM: concluding remarks & outlook
5.1.Devices for cardiac rhythm management and heart failure
5.1.1.Cardiac devices can provide treatment where drugs can't
5.1.2.Devices for cardiac rhythm management: Key players
5.1.3.Market drivers and Constraints
5.1.4.Devices for cardiac rhythm management
5.1.5.Cardiac Device Components
5.1.6.Implantation Procedure
5.1.7.Pacemakers and other cardiac rhythm implants
5.1.9.Leadless Pacemakers
5.1.10.Medtronic: CareLink
5.1.11.Medtronic: CareLink (2)
5.1.12.Boston Scientific: Latitude
5.1.13.Arrhythmia treatment: Transcatheter ablation
5.1.14.Transcatheter ablation techniques and their limitations
5.1.15.Transcatheter ablation equipment
5.1.16.Transcatheter ablation innovations: DiamondTemp
5.1.17.Transcatheter ablation innovations: Helios II system
5.1.18.Transcatheter ablation innovations: APAMA RF
5.1.19.Heart failure treatment
5.1.20.Automated external defibrillators
5.1.21.Portable external defibrillators: Zoll
5.1.22.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
5.1.23.Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators
5.1.24.Extravascular Cardioverter Defibrillator
5.1.25.Carotid sinus nerve stimulator: CVRx
5.1.26.Cardiac Contractility Modulators: Impulse Dynamics
5.1.27.Cardiac device development opportunities
5.1.28.Ongoing Clinical Trials
5.1.29.Regulations: Device invasiveness
5.1.30.Regulations: Path to market
5.1.31.Cardiac devices: Market share
5.1.32.Cardiac devices: Market forecast 2019-2029
5.1.33.Concluding remarks & outlook
5.2.Cardiovascular tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting
5.2.2.Drivers & constraints
5.2.3.Current options for HF treatment
5.2.4.Current options for HF treatment: LVADs
5.2.5.Current options for HF treatment: Artificial hearts
5.2.6.Moving towards 3D bioprinting: Heart Sheet
5.2.7.Methods of cardiovascular tissue engineering
5.2.8.Scaffolds for tissue engineering
5.2.9.Biodegradable scaffold materials
5.2.10.Properties of scaffolds
5.2.11.Challenges of cardiac tissue engineering
5.2.12.Significant challenge: vascularisation bioprinting Bioprinting Process
5.2.15.Manufacturing 3D bioprinted blood vessels
5.2.16.Tissue engineering for heart muscle regeneration bioprinted cardiac patches bioprinted blood vessels bioprinting the human heart
5.2.20.Opportunities for 3D bioprinting cardiovascular tissue
5.2.21.Beyond tissue regeneration
5.2.22.Clinical studies
5.2.23.Regulatory roadblocks - USA
5.2.24.Regulatory roadblocks - EU & UK
5.2.25.Concluding remarks & outlook
5.3.Other treatments of CVD
5.3.1.Options for CVD treatment are numerous
5.3.2.Ultrasound to remove calcium deposits
5.3.3.Cardiac shockwave therapy
5.3.4.SuperSaturated Oxygen (SSO2) printing as a CVD treatment tool printing: Cardiac models for patient-specific care printing: Custom valves and stents printing: Bespoke valves for aortic valve replacement
5.3.9.Concluding remarks & outlook
6.1.Key takeaways
7.1.List of company profiles
7.2.Life Sciences Research

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