IDTechEx คาดการณ์ว่าแบตเตอรี่ Li-ion 23.8 ล้านตันจะได้รับการรีไซเคิลในปี 2043

ตลาดรีไซเคิลแบตเตอรี่ลิเธียมไอออน 2023-2043

การวิเคราะห์ตลาดการรีไซเคิลแบตเตอรี่ลิเธียมไอออนทั่วโลก รวมถึงเทคโนโลยี นโยบาย เศรษฐศาสตร์ และการคาดการณ์การรีไซเคิลแบตเตอรี่ลิเธียมไอออนเป็นเวลา 20 ปีสำหรับแบตเตอรี่ลิเธียมไอออนจากยานพาหนะไฟฟ้า เศษวัสดุการผลิต อุปกรณ์อิเล็กทรอนิกส์สำหรับผู้บริโภค และการจัดเก็บพลังงานแบบอยู่กับที่


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IDTechEx forecasts that by 2043, approximately 23.8 million tonnes of Li-ion batteries will be recycled, equivalent to US$101B in valuable metals. Li-ion batteries dominate electric vehicles (EV) and consumer electronics markets and are expected to be the main battery technology used in stationary energy storage. However, the sustainability of Li-ion batteries relies on their entire lifecycle management, including at end-of-life (EOL). Furthermore, the availability of raw materials such as cobalt is becoming a growing concern. By recycling Li-ion batteries, it is possible to recover the embedded value of battery metals and establish a circular supply chain, creating revenues and allowing battery manufacturers to shield themselves against volatile commodity prices of battery materials. Stakeholders involved in the Li-ion battery supply chain are recognizing the potential of recycling, and the Li-ion battery recycling market is projected to grow significantly over the next twenty years.
 
 
Companies are preparing for the growing availability of waste Li-ion batteries. The past year has seen a growing number of investments in Li-ion battery recycling companies, as well as the forming of new joint ventures (JVs) between recyclers and battery manufacturers. Some of these strategic partnerships will see battery manufacturers providing recyclers with recycling feedstock. This will promote a more consistent and stable supply of feedstock directly to recyclers, while allowing battery manufacturers to keep some of their valuable battery materials within a closed loop circular supply chain. This will start to reduce reliance on mining for raw materials, which also brings environmental benefits. Other JVs establish plans for constructing new recycling facilities. Detailed analysis is provided in the report, detailing new facility roadmaps by region, company and recycling technique.
 
The majority of recycling feedstock currently comes from cell manufacturing scrap, with most of this residing in China. Most consumer electronics batteries are not recycled, due to the difficulty in collecting these. However, it will be easier to establish collection networks for EOL EV batteries. Extended producer responsibility (EPR) in several countries mandates that the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is responsible for the collection of retired EV batteries for recycling. Over the coming two decades, the exponential growth in demand for EVs will see EV batteries dominating the Li-ion battery recycling market, while manufacturing scrap will still form a reasonably sized source of feedstock. Recyclers have started to strategically co-locate their facilities near cell manufacturing facilities to reduce feedstock transportation costs.
 
The report provides an in-depth analysis of the current state of the Li-ion battery recycling market, including a global technology and policy deep-dive. While China currently has the most extensive policies, other regions such as the EU and India have started to implement their own policies. The EU Battery Regulation and India 'Battery Waste Management Rules 2022' outline targets, which increase over time, for Li-ion battery collection rates, material recovery efficiencies and minimum recycled contents in new batteries. These policies will drive demand for battery recycling in these regions. Through the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), the US government is offering an Advanced Manufacturing Production Credit (PTC), applying to both battery component production and critical battery minerals. If 40% (by value) of critical battery minerals are sourced from recyclers in North America, EV battery manufacturers will be eligible for the tax credit. While not strictly a recycling-specific policy, this will incentivize recycling and the forming of strategic relationships between battery manufacturers and recyclers in the US.
 
However, compared to other regions, the US has fewer major battery recycling companies, most of which primarily focus on the production of black mass. This requires further refining into metal salts via hydrometallurgical processing. Salts can be further processed to produce new cathode precursor material. Some US companies are only starting to plan commercial-scale hydrometallurgical recycling plants. Therefore, wide-scale implementation of domestically sourced recycled minerals in new EV batteries in the US is unlikely in the short-term. From analysis on data on 80 Li-ion battery recyclers worldwide, IDTechEx report on multiple commercial-scale recycling plants planned across key regions over the next few years, as well as up-to-date mechanical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical process descriptions, and developments in direct recycling techniques.
 
Some of the key issues regarding efficient Li-ion battery recycling stem from battery collection and disassembly. Without an efficient battery collection network, the current lower volume of batteries to be recycled or high cost of collection could hinder economical battery recycling. Due to EV batteries lacking design standardization across OEMs, battery pack disassembly is a complex procedure which requires a skilled workforce to perform this safely. Another issue is that the value of $/kWh within EV batteries is expected to be lower in comparison to consumer electronics batteries. This implies that recyclers will need to extract a greater amount of material at higher levels of purity and efficiency to make their recycling process economically viable.
 
Another key topic of discussion is whether to recycle or repurpose retired EV batteries for second-life applications. By choosing not to repurpose batteries, this potentially wastes some of the remaining value that these batteries could have in applications such as stationary energy storage. However, repurposing comes with many technical considerations, one of which depends on the State of Health (SOH) of the battery at EOL. Accounting for this across a large volume of retired EV batteries with different use histories is but one difficult factor to manage. Repurposing delays the recycling process but offers to maximize the value of the battery. Recycling will eventually be necessary to re-obtain valuable battery metals. The report discusses the economics of Li-ion battery recycling and the key factors that might impact its value.
 
This IDTechEx report provides twenty-year market forecasts on the Li-ion battery recycling market for the period 2020-2043, in both volume and market value. Forecast breakdowns are provided by region, cathode chemistry, Li-ion battery sector (manufacturing scrap, EVs, stationary energy storage and consumer electronics), and key metals (lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, copper and aluminum) recovered. EVs are split into electric cars, light-commercial vehicles, trucks, buses and two-wheelers (scooters and motorcycles). Data is provided in GWh, ktonnes, and US$B.
This report provides the following information:
 
  • Overview of Li-ion battery market.
  • Current market landscape of Li-ion battery recycling, including regional capacities, new joint ventures, investments, and new recycling facility roadmaps by region and recycling technology.
  • Comprehensive analysis and examples of recycling processes and technologies.
  • Li-ion battery recycling regulations and policies by region.
  • Analysis of Li-ion battery recycling value chain and economics.
  • Detailed 20-year Li-ion battery recycling market forecast in both volume and market value; granular market forecasts are provided by major regions, sectors, cathode chemistries and key metals recovered. Forecasts for metals obtained from battery packs are also included.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2011 - 2022
CAGRThe Li-ion battery recycling market will reach US$101B by 2043. This represents a CAGR of 20% over the 2023-2043 period.
Forecast Period2023 - 2043
Forecast UnitsGWh, ktonnes, US$
Regions CoveredChina, Europe, North America (USA + Canada), Worldwide
Segments Covered- Overview of Li-ion battery market - Regulation, policy and economics of Li-ion battery recycling - Market landscape, player activity and new facility roadmaps - Recycling technologies and processes - Li-ion battery recycling value chain and economics
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Drivers for recycling Li-ion batteries
1.2.LIB recycling approaches overview
1.3.Pyrometallurgical recycling
1.4.Hydrometallurgical recycling
1.5.Direct recycling
1.6.Recycling techniques compared
1.7.EV battery recycling value chain
1.8.When will Li-ion batteries be recycled?
1.9.Recycling or second life?
1.10.Is recycling Li-ion batteries economic?
1.11.Economic analysis of Li-ion battery recycling
1.12.Impact of cathode chemistries on recycling economics
1.13.Impact of metal prices on recycling economics
1.14.Recycling regulations and policies
1.15.Recycling policies and regulations map
1.16.Sector involvement
1.17.Recycling techniques and commercial activity
1.18.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (GWh)
1.19.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (GWh) - Summary
1.20.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (ktonnes)
1.21.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (ktonnes) - Summary
1.22.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By chemistry (ktonnes)
1.23.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By chemistry (ktonnes) - Summary
1.24.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 (ktonnes)
1.25.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 (ktonnes) - Summary
1.26.Price Assumptions
1.27.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2043 - (US$ billion)
1.28.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2043 - (US$ billion) - Summary
2.INTRODUCTION AND LI-ION BATTERY MARKET OVERVIEW
2.1.What is a Li-ion battery?
2.2.Li-ion cathode overview
2.3.Li-ion anode overview
2.4.Cycle life and end-of-life
2.5.Why batteries fail?
2.6.Li-ion degradation complexity
2.7.What happens to end-of-life Li-ion batteries
2.8.When will Li-ion batteries be recycled?
2.9.The Li-ion supply chain
2.10.Demand for Li-ion shifting
2.11.Market overview
2.12.Drivers for high-nickel cathode
2.13.Battery cathode technology trends
2.14.Battery technology trends in anode and beyond Li-ion
2.15.The elements used in Li-ion batteries
2.16.Supply and demand overview
2.17.Potential for raw material shortage
2.18.Carbon emissions from electric vehicles
2.19.Sustainability of Li-ion materials
2.20.Questionable mining practice
2.21.Drivers and restraints
3.RECYCLING REGULATION AND POLICY
3.1.1.Executive Summary (1)
3.1.2.Executive Summary (2)
3.1.3.Circular economy
3.1.4.Benefits of recycling regulation
3.2.China
3.2.1.Extended Producer Responsibility
3.2.2.China's specifications
3.2.3.Overview of Chinese Regulations
3.2.4.China's Policy Framework
3.2.5.The EV battery traceability management system in China
3.2.6.China's Traceability Management Platform
3.2.7.Drawbacks of Chinas policy framework
3.3.EU
3.3.1.EU critical raw materials
3.3.2.European batteries Alliance
3.3.3.EU Battery Directive 2006/66/EC
3.3.4.Proposed EU regulation concerning batteries and waste batteries
3.3.5.EU Battery Regulation commentary
3.4.US
3.4.1.US Critical Minerals Act
3.4.2.Inflation Reduction Act
3.4.3.US Li-ion battery recycling incentives and tax breaks (examples pre-IRA)
3.4.4.US Policy
3.4.5.National Blueprint for Lithium Batteries (US)
3.5.India
3.5.1.India's Battery Waste Management Rules
3.6.UK
3.6.1.Building a policy framework in the UK
3.6.2.UK battery recycling industry
3.7.South Korea and Japan
3.7.1.South Korea and Japan
3.8.Australia
3.8.1.Australia
3.8.2.Battery Stewardship Scheme and ABRI
3.9.Other considerations
3.9.1.Transportation
3.10.Policies summary
3.10.1.Recycling policies and regulations map
3.10.2.Policy summary
3.10.3.Specific policy targets and funding summary
4.LI-ION RECYCLING PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES
4.1.1.Recycling history - Pb-acid
4.1.2.Pb-acid batteries
4.1.3.Pb-acid vs Li-ion cost breakdown
4.1.4.Lessons to be learned
4.1.5.Recycling alkaline cells
4.1.6.Drivers for recycling Li-ion batteries 1
4.1.7.Drivers for recycling Li-ion batteries 2
4.1.8.Constraints on recycling Li-ion batteries
4.1.9.LIB recycling process overview
4.1.10.Recycling feedstock streams
4.1.11.LIB recycling approaches overview
4.1.12.LIB recycling approaches overview
4.1.13.Recycler capabilities
4.1.14.Is there enough global resource?
4.1.15.Material content
4.1.16.BEV Li-ion recycling mass flow
4.2.Mechanical processing
4.2.1.Recycling different Li-ion batteries
4.2.2.Recycling different Li-ion batteries
4.2.3.Lack of pack standardisation
4.2.4.EV LIB discharge and disassembly
4.2.5.LIB disassembly
4.2.6.Mechanical processing and separation
4.2.7.Mechanical processing and separation process example
4.2.8.Recycling pre-treatments and processing
4.2.9.Sieving
4.2.10.Gravity separation/Eddy current separation
4.2.11.Froth flotation
4.2.12.Mechanical separation flow diagram
4.2.13.Recupyl mechanical separation flow diagram
4.2.14.TES-AMM black mass process
4.3.Pyrometallurgy
4.3.1.Pyrometallurgical recycling
4.3.2.Pyrometallurgical recycling
4.3.3.Pyrometallurgical recycling strengths/weaknesses
4.3.4.Umicore recycling flow diagram
4.4.Hydrometallurgy and material recovery
4.4.1.Hydrometallurgical recycling
4.4.2.Hydrometallurgical recycling strengths/weaknesses
4.4.3.Recycling example via hydrometallurgy
4.4.4.Recupyl recycling flow diagram
4.4.5.TES-AMM hydrometallurgical process flow diagram
4.4.6.Electrometallurgy
4.4.7.Solvent extraction
4.4.8.Precipitation
4.4.9.Opportunities in Li-ion recycling
4.5.Direct recycling
4.5.1.Direct recycling
4.5.2.Direct recycling process development
4.5.3.Direct recycling strengths/weaknesses
4.5.4.Hydrometallurgical-direct hybrid recycling
4.5.5.ReCell Center
4.5.6.Pre-processing
4.5.7.Electrolyte separation
4.5.8.Cathode-cathode and cathode-anode separation
4.5.9.Binder removal
4.5.10.Relithiation
4.5.11.Solid-state and electrochemical relithiation
4.5.12.OnTo Technology
4.5.13.Cathode healingTM (Hydrothermal)
4.5.14.Cathode recovery and rejuvenation
4.5.15.Solid state vs cathode healing
4.5.16.Upcycling
4.5.17.Direct recycling of manufacturing scrap
4.5.18.Life-cycle analysis [1/2]
4.5.19.Life cycle analysis [2/2]
4.6.Recycling technology conclusions
4.6.1.Trends in Li-ion recycling
4.6.2.Trends in Li-ion recycling
4.6.3.Recycling methods map
4.6.4.Li-ion production chain/loop
4.6.5.Designed for recycling
4.6.6.Recycling technology conclusions
4.6.7.Recycling techniques compared
4.6.8.Academic research
4.6.9.Academic research by region
5.VALUE CHAIN AND BUSINESS MODELS FOR LI-ION BATTERY RECYCLING
5.1.Why Li-ion batteries fail
5.2.What happens to end-of-life Li-ion batteries
5.3.Overview of the Li-ion battery recycling value chain
5.4.Closed-loop value chain of electric vehicle batteries
5.5.EV battery recycling value chain
5.6.The lifecycle view of EV battery recycling value chain
5.7.When will Li-ion batteries be recycled?
5.8.Is recycling Li-ion batteries economic?
5.9.Economic analysis of battery recycling
5.10.Impact of battery chemistries on recycling economics
5.11.Recycling value by cathode chemistry
5.12.Impact of metal prices on recycling economics
5.13.Recycling or second life?
5.14.Recycling or second life: Techno-economic analysis (1)
5.15.Recycling or second life: Techno-economic analysis (2)
5.16.Recycling LFP batteries
5.17.Difficulty of recycling other components and materials
5.18.Recycling or second life: Related report
5.19.Impact of recycling on Li-ion battery cost reduction
5.20.Where are the retired Li-ion batteries?
5.21.Reverse logistics: Li-ion battery collection
5.22.Case study of a EV battery collection network in China
5.23.Battery sorting and disassembling
5.24.Design for recycling
5.25.Concluding remarks
6.RECYCLING MARKET OVERVIEW
6.1.Executive summary
6.2.Interest in recycling across the value chain
6.3.Location of Li-ion recycling companies
6.4.European recycling
6.5.European recycling
6.6.Asia-Pacific (excl. China) recycling
6.7.Asia-Pacific (excl. China) recycling
6.8.China recycling
6.9.China recycling
6.10.North America recycling
6.11.North America recycling
6.12.Sector involvement
6.13.Recycling commercialization stages
6.14.Recycling technology breakdown
6.15.State of recycling players
6.16.Global recycling capacity
6.17.Concluding remarks
7.2022-2023 MARKET UPDATES
7.1.1.Executive Summary
7.2.Li-ion battery recycling timeline Q4 2021-Q3 2022
7.2.1.Li-ion battery recycling timeline Q4 2022-Q1 2023
7.2.2.November 2021-January 2022
7.2.3.January 2022-April 2022
7.2.4.May 2022-June 2022
7.2.5.August 2022-September 2022
7.2.6.October 2022
7.2.7.November 2022-December 2022
7.2.8.December 2022-February 2023
7.2.9.February 2023-March 2023
7.3.Supply relationships, joint ventures, and facility timelines
7.3.1.South Korean company relationships
7.3.2.Li-Cycle and Glencore company relationships
7.3.3.Cirba Solutions company map
7.3.4.Li-ion battery recycling capacity roadmap
7.3.5.Li-ion battery recycling capacity roadmap
7.3.6.Li-ion battery recycling capacity roadmap
7.3.7.Global recycling future capacity expansions (simplified)
7.3.8.Concluding remarks
8.MARKET FORECASTS
8.1.1.Methodology explained
8.1.2.LFP and material considerations
8.1.3.Assumptions
8.1.4.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (GWh)
8.1.5.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (GWh) - Summary
8.1.6.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (ktonnes)
8.1.7.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By region (ktonnes) - Summary
8.1.8.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By chemistry (ktonnes)
8.1.9.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By chemistry (ktonnes) - Summary
8.1.10.Global Li-ion battery recycling market by chemistry in major regions
8.1.11.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 (ktonnes)
8.1.12.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 (ktonnes) - Summary
8.1.13.Price assumptions
8.1.14.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2043 - (US$ billion)
8.1.15.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2043 - (US$ billion) - Summary
8.1.16.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value share
8.2.China
8.2.1.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By sector (GWh)
8.2.2.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By sector (GWh) - Summary
8.2.3.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By sector (ktonnes)
8.2.4.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By sector (ktonnes) - Summary
8.2.5.Li-ion battery recycling market share by sector in China
8.2.6.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By chemistry (GWh)
8.2.7.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By chemistry (GWh) - Summary
8.2.8.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By chemistry (ktonnes)
8.2.9.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in China: By chemistry (ktonnes) - Summary
8.2.10.Li-ion battery recycling market share by cathode in China
8.2.11.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 in China (ktonnes)
8.2.12.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 in China (ktonnes) - Summary
8.3.Europe
8.3.1.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By sector (GWh)
8.3.2.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By sector (GWh) - Summary
8.3.3.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By sector (ktonnes)
8.3.4.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By sector (ktonnes) - Summary
8.3.5.Li-ion battery recycling market share by sector in Europe
8.3.6.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By chemistry (GWh)
8.3.7.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By chemistry (GWh) - Summary
8.3.8.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By chemistry (ktonnes)
8.3.9.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in Europe: By chemistry (ktonnes) - Summary
8.3.10.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 in Europe (ktonnes)
8.3.11.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2043 in Europe (ktonnes) - Summary
8.4.North America
8.4.1.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By sector (GWh)
8.4.2.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By sector (GWh) - Summary
8.4.3.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By sector (ktonnes)
8.4.4.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By sector (ktonnes) - Summary
8.4.5.Li-ion battery recycling market share by sector in North America
8.4.6.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By chemistry (GWh)
8.4.7.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By chemistry (GWh) - Summary
8.4.8.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By chemistry (ktonnes)
8.4.9.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 in North America: By chemistry (ktonnes) - Summary
8.4.10.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries in North America 2020-2043 (ktonnes)
8.4.11.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries in North America 2020-2043 (ktonnes) - Summary
8.5.Sector breakdown and methodology
8.5.1.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043: By sector (GWh)
8.5.2.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 for consumer electronics: By product (GWh)
8.5.3.Consumer electronics - Collection rates
8.5.4.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2028-2043 for stationary energy storage (GWh)
8.5.5.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2028-2043 for stationary energy storage: By chemistry (GWh)
8.5.6.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 for manufacturing scrap
8.5.7.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 for car BEVs (GWh)
8.5.8.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 for car BEVs: By chemistry (GWh)
8.5.9.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2043 for non-car electric vehicles: By vehicle type (GWh)
8.6.Battery packs
8.6.1.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2043: By region (thousand units)
8.6.2.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2043: By region (thousand units) - Summary
8.6.3.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2043: By region (ktonnes)
8.6.4.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2043: By region (ktonnes) - Summary
8.6.5.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2043: By metal (ktonnes)
8.6.6.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2043: By metal (ktonnes) - Summary
8.6.7.Global Li-ion battery pack market value 2020-2043: By region (US$ million)
8.6.8.Global Li-ion battery pack market value 2020-2043: By metal (US$ million)
9.COMPANY PROFILES
9.1.1.List of company profiles included
9.1.2.Portal links to key company profiles
9.2.Recycling company overviews
9.2.1.Company overviews: China
9.2.2.Company overviews: Japan and South Korea
9.2.3.Company overviews: India, Singapore and Australia
9.2.4.Company overviews: Europe [1/3]
9.2.5.Company overviews: Europe [2/3]
9.2.6.Company overviews: Europe [3/3]
9.2.7.Company overviews: North America
9.3.Automotive OEMs
9.3.1.BMW's strategic partnerships for EV battery recycling
9.3.2.Renault's circular economy efforts for Li-ion batteries
9.3.3.Volkswagen plans for retired EV batteries
9.3.4.Volkswagen's in-house Li-ion battery recycling plant
9.3.5.Tesla's 'circular Gigafactory'
9.4.Europe
9.4.1.Akkuser Oy
9.4.2.Batrec
9.4.3.BASF
9.4.4.Duesenfeld
9.4.5.Duesenfeld process overview
9.4.6.Glencore Nikkelverk
9.4.7.Inobat - Combining recycling and mining with Rio Tinto
9.4.8.Nickelhütte Aue
9.4.9.ReLieVe Project (Suez, Eramet and BASF)
9.4.10.Stena Recycling AB
9.5.Asia
9.5.1.4R Energy
9.5.2.4R Energy's Namie plant
9.5.3.Anhua Taisen
9.5.4.CATL and Brunp Recycling
9.5.5.Blast at Brunp Recycling factory
9.5.6.Dowa Eco-System Co.
9.5.7.EcoPro
9.5.8.Ganfeng Lithium
9.5.9.GEM
9.5.10.GS E&C - Involvement with Hyundai, SungEel HiTech and POSCO
9.5.11.Guangdong Guanghua Sci-Tech
9.5.12.JX Nippon Metal Mining
9.5.13.Kobar
9.5.14.Kyoei Seiko
9.5.15.Sumitomo
9.5.16.Sumitomo processes
9.6.North America
9.6.1.Farasis
9.6.2.Farasis recycling process patent
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 363
Companies 25
Forecasts to 2043
ISBN 9781915514684
 

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pdf Document Webinar Slides
pdf Document Webinar: Energy Storage & Hydrogen Landscape
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