The global Micro-LED display market will exceed US$5.2 billion by 2034

จอแสดงผล Micro-LED 2024-2034: เทคโนโลยี การพาณิชย์ โอกาส ตลาดและผู้เล่น

ไมโครไฟ LED สำหรับ AR/VR/MR ทีวียานยนต์โทรศัพท์มือถืออุปกรณ์สวมใส่แท็บเล็ตแล็ปท็อปและจอแสดงผลวิดีโอขนาดใหญ่พร้อมการวิเคราะห์เทคโนโลยี ห่วงโซ่อุปทาน ตลาด ผู้เล่น และโอกาส


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After acquisition of LuxVue by Apple in 2014, micro-light emitting diode (MicroLED, or µLED) has become an attractive emissive display technology and pursued by players from various industries. μLED displays, based on arrays of microscopic light-emitting diodes (LEDs), have distinct advantages over conventional displays including wide colour gamut, high luminance, low power consumption, excellent stability and long lifetime, wide viewing angle, high dynamic range, high contrast, fast refresh rate, transparency, seamless connection, and sensor integration capability. Some of the value propositions can be provided by alternatives such as LCD, OLED and QD, while one of the strong drivers to develop µLED displays are these unique value propositions.
 
Value propositions of various display technologies. Source: IDTechEx
 
The first µLED commercial product, the Crystal LED display, was launched by Sony, which replaced the traditional packaged LEDs by µLEDs. These tiny-pitch LED video displays target the to-B market and both the costs and prices are far more expensive than what already exist. Technology immaturity, cost barriers and supply chain incompletion are three major hurdles in large-scale commercialization for MicroLED displays.
 
Building upon the foundations of the established LED industry and the well-developed display sector, the emerging mass transfer and integration field plays a pivotal role in bridging these two industries. Together, they have the potential to catalyze the establishment of a new supply chain. On the basis that current LCD manufacturing is shifting to China due to cost advantage and South Korea is dominating OLED displays, those who can react quick enough to take an important position in the shaped supply chain will seize the next big opportunity. The game is open to conventional LED suppliers, display vendors, advanced material players, component providers, OEMs, integrators, tool offers, and also welcome newcomers that can bring technology innovation, material improvement, equipment support, and business model revolution.
 
To make strategic decisions, both information and insights are required. These include but are not limited to technology limitations and capabilities, market status analysis, supply chain interpretation, player activity tracking, and global trend understanding. This report will tackle these aspects accordingly.
 
To fabricate a µLED display, many technologies and processes are involved, such as epitaxy, photolithography, chip fabrication, substrate removal, inspection, mass transfer, bonding and interconnection, testing, repair, backplane and drive IC, etc. After years of development, some technology difficulties have been solved, while new challenges are placed in front of us. For instance, several years ago, the major efforts were concentrated in die miniaturization, chip design and mass transfer, etc. Recently, more and more players are realizing a complete understanding of all the processes is key. Therefore, an increasing number of people put more effort also on technologies such as inspection, repair, driving, image improvement, light management, as well as ramping yield and productivity. Commercial mass transfer and bonding tools are available on the market today. This report provides all the major technology choices with detailed introduction, analysis, and comparison. It also shows what important players have offered to the market and their technologies behind the prototypes/products. The targeting applications covers from micro-displays such as AR/VR/MR, to consumer middle-sized displays like smart phones, TVs, to huge displays, e.g., large video public displays. The corresponding technologies vary from each other. With a deep understanding of each technology, it is possible to understand where we are and where we can go. As time goes by, four applications gradually stand out with µLED displays, providing distinct differentiations: AR/MR, wearables, automotive displays and large video displays. In the meantime, other functions are demonstrated by various technology providers, such as flexibility and transparency.
 
 
With players holding various technologies, they have different entry markets to target. In this report, we have focused on 7 applications to analyze. They are augmented/mixed reality (AR/MR), virtual reality (VR), large video displays/TVs, automotive displays, mobile phones, smart watches and wearables, and tablets and laptops. A ten-year market forecast is provided based on shipment unit and market value in each application. In addition, an application roadmap is offered with the consideration of different maturity readiness of each application.
 
As more and more players are plunging into µLED industry, they gradually choose to work with each other directly or in a large network. Several supply chain clusters are formed based on geography, with cross-continental collaboration more and more common. We also show regional efforts in the report.
 
All these collaborations indicate globalization continues to be our future trend. Also, from the display cycle we know we are at the moment in the merge and consolidation stage and lots of activities show us the direction of future trends.
 
Objectives of the report:
 
Technology assessment
  • Value propositions, benefits and drawbacks compared with competing technologies
  • Drivers and motivations
  • Current status
  • Technology breakthroughs
  • Technology challenges and roadmap to tackle these issues
  • Activities of research institutes, universities and start-ups
 
Application interpterion
  • Roadmap for display applications
  • How mature and disruptive are µLEDs for these applications
  • What we can expect in the near future
 
Market landscape, business opportunity and supply chains
  • Cost analysis
  • Impact on the supply chain and identify possible supply chain for µLED displays
  • Market forecast
  • Regional efforts
  • Merges, acquisitions, joint ventures and partnerships
 
Player
  • Identify key players, IP owners and emerging start-ups
 
Who should read it: Display makers, LED suppliers, material suppliers, R&D organizations, technology providers, OEMs/ODMs, investors, players who are exploring new opportunities
Report MetricsDetails
Forecast Period2023 - 2034
Forecast UnitsVolume (unit), value (US$ million)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredAR, VR, Smart watch, Smart phone, Tablet & laptops and monitors, TV/Large video displays, Automotive
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.What is the report about and who should read it?
1.2.Status of OLED
1.3.Strategies of QDs in display
1.4.Characteristic comparison of different display technologies
1.5.Horizontal comparison
1.6.Why Micro-LED Displays?
1.7.Micro-LED value propositions compared with LCD, OLED, QD
1.8.Importance of identifying core value propositions
1.9.Core value propositions of µLED displays 1
1.10.Core value propositions of µLED displays 2
1.11.Core value propositions of µLED displays 3
1.12.Core value propositions of µLED displays 4
1.13.Core value propositions of µLED displays 5
1.14.Analysis of micro-LED's value propositions
1.15.Influence of resolution for applications
1.16.Micro-LED display types
1.17.Potential applications for micro-LED displays
1.18.Matrix analysis
1.19.Display requirements for XR applications
1.20.Application analysis: Augmented/mixed reality
1.21.Application analysis: Virtual reality
1.22.Application analysis: Large video displays
1.23.Application analysis: Televisions and monitors
1.24.Application analysis: Automotive displays
1.25.Application analysis: Mobile phones
1.26.Application analysis: Smart watches and wearables
1.27.Application analysis: Tablets and laptop
1.28.Emerging displays enabled by micro-LED technology
1.29.Summary: Micro-LED displays for XR
1.30.Application focus for micro-LED displays
1.31.Emerging functional displays based on micro-LEDs
1.32.Trend: Equipment solution provider status
1.33.Micro-LED display development stage
1.34.Micro-LED application roadmap
1.35.Micro-LED display fabrication flowchart 1
1.36.Micro-LED display fabrication flowchart 2
1.37.Technologies of micro-LED displays
1.38.Complex micro-LED display design
1.39.Challenge transition for micro-display manufacturing
1.40.Current achievements of micro-LED displays
1.41.Summary of challenges for micro-LED displays
1.42.Issues with RGB micro-LED chips
1.43.Micro-LED performance summary
1.44.Full colour realization
1.45.Quantum dots for µLEDs
1.46.Common color assembly choice comparison
1.47.Trend: Package preference for direct-view large displays
1.48.Regional players: Taiwan
1.49.Regional players: Mainland China
1.50.Regional players: Japan & Korea
1.51.Regional players: Europe
1.52.Regional players: North America
1.53.Supply chain status
1.54.Supply chain reshuffle
1.55.Possible supply chain for micro-LED displays
1.56.Scenarios of supply chain dominance
1.57.Supply chain influenced by trade war and COVID-19
2.COST ANALYSIS
2.1.Cost basics
2.2.Micro-LED cost vs Die size
2.3.Cost assumption
2.4.Cost analysis
2.5.Economics of micro-LED: Cost reduction paths
3.MARKET ANALYSIS
3.1.Forecast approaches and assumptions
3.2.Market forecast of device unit
3.3.Market forecast of market value
3.4.2029 & 2034 application market value share
3.5.Market forecast analysis
3.6.Wafer value forecast
4.INTRODUCTION TO MICRO-LED DISPLAY
4.1.Expectation of future displays
4.2.From traditional LEDs...
4.3....to Micro-LEDs
4.4.Comparisons of LEDs for displays
4.5.Mini-LEDs and Micro-LEDs
4.6.Sony: Micro-LEDs
4.7.Correlations between mini-LED, micro-LED and fine pitch LED displays
4.8.From traditional LEDs to micro-LED
4.9.Display types based on micro-LEDs
4.10.Existing large mini-/micro-LED display announcements
4.11.Advantages of AM micro-LED micro-displays
4.12.LED size definitions
4.13.Micro-LED displays: Size is an important feature
4.14.Micro LED displays: Beyond the size
4.15.A better definition?
4.16.Micro-LED display panel structure
5.EPITAXY AND CHIP MANUFACTURING
5.1.Introduction to light-emitting diodes
5.1.1.History of solid-state lighting
5.1.2.What is an LED?
5.1.3.How does an LED work?
5.1.4.Homojunction vs heterojunction
5.1.5.LEDs by package technique 1
5.1.6.LEDs by package technique 2
5.1.7.Typical LED and packaged LED sizes
5.1.8.Comparison between SMD and COB
5.1.9.COB for displays
5.1.10.List of global major LED companies with introduction
5.2.Epitaxy
5.2.1.Bandgap vs lattice constant for III-V semiconductors
5.2.2.Materials for commercial LED chips 1
5.2.3.Materials for commercial LED chips 2
5.2.4.Green gap
5.2.5.Epitaxy substrate
5.2.6.Wafer patterning 1
5.2.7.Wafer patterning 2
5.2.8.Wafer patterning 3
5.2.9.Epitaxy methods
5.2.10.Metal organic chemical vapor deposition
5.2.11.Pros and cons of MOCVD
5.2.12.Epitaxial growth requirement
5.2.13.Offering from Aixtron and Veeco
5.2.14.Veeco's offering
5.2.15.Engineered substrate
5.2.16.Wafer uniformity 1
5.2.17.Wavelength uniformity 2
5.2.18.Solutions for wafer nonuniformity
5.3.Chip manufacturing
5.3.1.LED fabrication flowchart
5.3.2.Typical RGB LED designs
5.3.3.LED chip structures 1
5.3.4.LED chip structures 2
5.3.5.LED chip structure illustrations
5.3.6.Future of the LED chip structure
5.3.7.Epi-film transfer
5.3.8.Fabrication of vertical GaN-LEDs
5.4.Micro-LED Performances
5.4.1.Influence of micro-LED performance
5.4.2.EQE of micro-LED versus current density 1
5.4.3.EQE of micro-LED versus current density 2
5.4.4.Efficiency droop
5.4.5.Temperature stability
5.4.6.Bowing of wavelength shift
5.4.7.Size dependence of micro-LEDs: Efficiency
5.4.8.Size dependence of micro-LEDs: Current spreading
5.4.9.Size dependence of micro-LEDs: Strain relaxation
5.4.10.Surface recombination
5.4.11.Sidewall effect
5.4.12.Conclusion of micro-LED size dependency
5.4.13.Side wall passivation
5.4.14.Efficiencies and requirement of RGB micro-LEDs
5.4.15.Color-dependent light emission pattern
5.4.16.Efficiency improvement
5.4.17.Mikro Mesa: Current injection
5.4.18.Mikro Mesa's micro-LEDs
6.TRANSFER, ASSEMBLY AND INTEGRATION
6.1.1.Transfer, assembly and integration technology types
6.1.2.Introduction
6.1.3.Mass transfer, assembly and integration technologies
6.1.4.Requirements of mass transfer
6.1.5.Chiplet mass transfer types
6.2.Chiplet Mass Transfer
6.2.1.Introduction to chiplet mass assembly
6.2.2.Chiplet mass transfer scenario 1
6.2.3.Chiplet mass transfer scenario 2
6.2.4.Comparison of mass transfer technologies
6.2.5.Comparison of transfer technologies of different companies
6.2.6.Transfer yield
6.3.Fine pick and place
6.3.1.Overview of Elastomeric stamp
6.3.2.Transfer process flow
6.3.3.Elastomeric stamp: Pros and cons
6.3.4.Key technologies for micro-LED mass transfer
6.3.5.Substrate treatment
6.3.6.Kinetic control of the elastomeric stamp adhesion
6.3.7.Elastomeric stamp
6.3.8.Pitch size determination
6.3.9.X-Celeprint
6.3.10.µLED fabrication
6.3.11.µLEDs from sapphire substrate
6.3.12.Passive matrix displays made by micro-transfer printing
6.3.13.Passive matrix μLED display fabrication 1
6.3.14.Passive matrix μLED display fabrication 2
6.3.15.Active matrix displays made by micro-transfer printing
6.3.16.Active matrix μLED display fabrication
6.3.17.Automated micro-transfer printing machinery
6.3.18.Capillary-assisted transfer printing
6.3.19.Mikro Mesa: Transfer technology
6.3.20.Mikro Mesa: Transfer flowchart 1
6.3.21.Mikro Mesa: Transfer flowchart 2
6.3.22.Mikro Mesa: Transfer stamp
6.3.23.Mikro Mesa: Transfer design target
6.3.24.PlayNitride: Mass transfer for micro-LED chips
6.3.25.PlayNitride: Mass transfer flowchart 1
6.3.26.PlayNitride: Mass transfer flowchart 2
6.3.27.Visionox 1
6.3.28.Visionox 2
6.3.29.ITRI: Chip fabrication
6.3.30.ITRI's mass transfer process
6.3.31.ITRI's transfer module
6.3.32.Overview of electrostatic array
6.3.33.Electrostatic/electromagnetic transfer
6.3.34.Apple/LuxVue 1
6.3.35.Apple/LuxVue 2
6.3.36.VerLASE's large area assembly platform
6.3.37.Interposer idea
6.4.Self-assembly
6.4.1.Introduction of fluidic-assembly
6.4.2.eLux: introduction
6.4.3.Fabrication of micro-LED chip array
6.4.4.eLux's fluidic assembly
6.4.5.eLux's display prototypes
6.4.6.eLux's supply chain
6.4.7.eLux's core patent technology 1
6.4.8.eLux's core patent technology 2
6.4.9.eLux's core patent technology 3
6.4.10.eLux's core patent technology 4
6.4.11.eLux's core patent technology 5
6.4.12.eLux's core patent technology 6
6.4.13.Image quality comparison
6.4.14.SWOT analysis of eLux's technology
6.4.15.Other fluidic assembly techniques
6.4.16.Fluidic assembly (physical): overview
6.4.17.Alien
6.4.18.Alien's fluidic self-assembly technology
6.4.19.Self-assembly based on shape/geometry matching
6.4.20.Shape-based self-assembly
6.4.21.Fluidic assembly (electrophoretic): Overview
6.4.22.Electrophoretic positioning of LEDs
6.4.23.PARC's xerographic micro-assembly Printing 1
6.4.24.PARC's xerographic micro-assembly Printing 2
6.4.25.Fluidic-assembly (surface energy): Overview
6.4.26.LG's FSA transfer technique
6.4.27.Mechanism of surface-tension-driven fluidic assembly
6.4.28.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 1
6.4.29.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 2
6.4.30.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 3
6.4.31.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 4
6.4.32.Fluidic-assembly (magnetic): Overview
6.4.33.Magnetically-assisted assembly
6.4.34.Fluidic-assembly (photoelectrochemical): Overview
6.4.35.Photoelectrochemically driven fluidic-assembly
6.4.36.Fluidic-assembly (combination): Overview
6.4.37.Chip mounting apparatus
6.4.38.Summary of fluidic assembly
6.4.39.SelfArray
6.5.Laser enabled transfer
6.5.1.Overview of laser enabled transfer
6.5.2.Laser beam requirement
6.5.3.Coherent UVtransfer 3in1 System
6.5.4.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 1
6.5.5.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 2
6.5.6.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 3
6.5.7.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 4
6.5.8.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 5
6.5.9.QMAT's beam-addressed release technology
6.5.10.Optovate's technology 1
6.5.11.Optovate's technology 2
6.5.12.Coherent's approach
6.5.13.Toray's offering
6.5.14.Visionox's achievement
6.5.15.Selective transfer by selective bonding-debonding
6.6.Other chiplet mass transfer techniques
6.6.1.Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) 1
6.6.2.Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) 2
6.6.3.Continuous roller transfer-printing of >75,000 die transfer in a single shot
6.6.4.VueReal's cartridge printing technique
6.6.5.VueReal's micro printer
6.6.6.Innovasonic's technology
6.6.7.Rohinni's Technology
6.6.8.Two-step micro-transfer technology 1
6.6.9.Two-step micro-transfer technology 2
6.6.10.Two-step micro-transfer technology 3
6.6.11.Two-step micro-transfer technology 4
6.6.12.Micro-transfer using a stretchable film
6.6.13.Micro-pick-and-place
6.6.14.Photo-polymer mass transfer
6.7.All-In-One Transfer
6.7.1.All-in-one CMOS driving
6.7.2.Pros and cons of all-in-one CMOS driving technique
6.8.Heterogeneous Wafers
6.8.1.Array integration
6.8.2.Hybridization
6.8.3.Wafer bonding process
6.8.4.Hybridization integration structure
6.8.5.Process flow of Silicon Display of Sharp
6.8.6.Monolithic micro-LED array
6.8.7.JBD's integration technology
6.8.8.Device fabrication 1
6.8.9.Device fabrication 2
6.8.10.Device structure and architecture
6.8.11.micro-LEDs for the JBD's micro-displays
6.8.12.Process of fabricating monolithic micro-displays
6.8.13.Novel approach for monolithic display fabrication
6.8.14.Pros and cons of heterogeneous wafers
6.8.15.Players on heterogeneous wafers
6.9.Monolithic Integration
6.9.1.Introduction to monolithic integration
6.9.2.Lumiode approach
6.9.3.Lumiode: Introduction
6.9.4.Lumiode approach, process details
6.9.5.Lumiode's micro-LED performance
6.9.6.Lumiode's device performance
6.9.7.Temperature performance for the crystallization
6.9.8.Wafer from Lumiode
6.9.9.Ostendo's approach
6.9.10.Ostendo's QPI structure
6.9.11.Introduction of EpiPix
6.9.12.EpiPix's technique
6.10.GaN on Silicon
6.10.1.GaN-on-Si for various application markets
6.10.2.GaN on silicon epi types
6.10.3.Challenges of GaN-on-Silicon epitaxy
6.10.4.Value propositions of GaN-on-Si 1
6.10.5.Value propositions of GaN-on-Si 2
6.10.6.GaN on sapphire vs on silicon
6.10.7.GaN-on-Si approach
6.10.8.Cost comparison: Sapphire vs silicon
6.10.9.Is GaN-on-Si the ultimate option?
6.10.10.Players working on GaN micro-LEDs on silicon
6.10.11.LED manufacturing
6.10.12.Pixel development
6.10.13.RGB GaN on silicon
6.11.Nanowires
6.11.1.Comparison between 2D and 3D micro-LEDs
6.11.2.GaN epitaxy on silicon substrate
6.11.3.Aledia process flow
6.11.4.Aledia's nanowire technology
6.11.5.Front size device technology
6.11.6.Nanowires growth on silicon substrate
6.11.7.Size influence on nanowire's efficiency
6.11.8.Native EL RGB nanowires
6.11.9.3D technology for small-display applications
6.11.10.Micro-display enabled by nanowires and 3D integration
6.11.11.Future of nanowire approach
6.12.Bonding and interconnection
6.12.1.Classification
6.12.2.Summary
6.12.3.Wire bonding and flip chip bonding
6.12.4.ACF bonding
6.12.5.Interconnection by resin reflow
6.12.6.Microtube interconnections
6.12.7.Microtube fabrication
6.12.8.Transfer and interconnection process by microtubes
6.12.9.Interconnection options
7.TESTING
7.1.Challenges in inspection
7.2.Testing techniques
7.3.PL vs EL testing
7.4.EL test by Tesoro Scientific 1
7.5.EL test by Tesoro Scientific 2
7.6.Camera-based microscopic imaging system
7.7.Inspection solution by Toray 1
7.8.Inspection solution by Toray 2
7.9.Instrument System's solution
7.10.PL+AOI
7.11.TTPCON's solution
7.12.Cathodoluminescence used for testing
7.13.Hamamatsu Photonics' PL testing
7.14.Trends of testing
7.15.Inspection tool suppliers
8.DEFECT MANAGEMENT
8.1.Introduction
8.2.Defect types
8.3.Redundancy
8.4.Repair 1
8.5.Repair 2
8.6.Laser micro trimming 1
8.7.Laser micro trimming 2
8.8.PlayNitride's SMAR Tech
8.9.Defect compensation by QDs
9.MICRO-LED DISPLAY FULL-COLOUR REALIZATION
9.1.1.Strategies for full colour realization
9.1.2.Direct RGB or color converters?
9.1.3.RGB micro-LEDs vs blue micro-LED + QD 1
9.1.4.RGB micro-LEDs vs blue micro-LED + QD 2
9.1.5.UV LED approach
9.1.6.Micro Nitride's technology
9.2.Colour filters
9.2.1.Colour filters
9.2.2.Colour filter process flow: Black matrix process
9.2.3.Colour filter process flow: RGB process 1
9.2.4.Colour filter process flow: RGB process 2
9.3.Stacked RGB MicroLEDs
9.3.1.Introduction to stacked RGB microLEDs
9.3.2.MIT's solution
9.3.3.Seoul Viosys' contribution
9.3.4.Lumens
9.3.5.Innovision's efforts
9.3.6.Sundiode
9.3.7.Tsinghua University's research
9.3.8.Youngwoo DSP
9.3.9.KAIST
9.3.10.Rayleigh Vision's innovation
9.4.Three panel system
9.4.1.Full colour realized by optical lens synthesis
9.4.2.Full colour realization for projectors
9.5.Do phosphors work for micro-LED displays?
9.5.1.Introduction to phosphors 1
9.5.2.Introduction to phosphors 2
9.5.3.Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
9.5.4.Table of phosphor materials
9.5.5.Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
9.5.6.Search for narrow FWHM red phosphors
9.5.7.Red phosphor options: TriGainTM from GE
9.5.8.Reliability of TriGain
9.5.9.Red phosphor options: Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ (SLA) red phosphor
9.5.10.Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
9.5.11.Small sized PFS phosphor
9.5.12.Value propositions of red KSF
9.5.13.Evolution of KSF phosphors
9.5.14.GE alternative red phosphors in development
9.5.15.Thermal stability of common RGY phosphors
9.5.16.Narrow-band green phosphor
9.5.17.High performance organic phosphors
9.5.18.Toray's organic colour conversion film
9.5.19.Colour coverage of Toray's colour conversion films
9.5.20.Stability of Toray's colour conversion films
9.5.21.Response time feature of Toray's colour conversion films
9.5.22.Suppliers of phosphors
9.6.Quantum dot approach
9.6.1.Introduction to quantum dots
9.6.2.Quantum dot structure
9.6.3.Value propositions of QDs in displays
9.6.4.QD-based display types
9.6.5.Photoluminescence of quantum dots
9.6.6.Replacing phosphors with quantum dots
9.6.7.Phosphors and quantum dots
9.6.8.QDs vs phosphors: Particle size
9.6.9.QDs vs phosphors: Response time
9.6.10.QDs vs phosphors: Colour tunability
9.6.11.QDs vs phosphors: Stability
9.6.12.QDs vs phosphors: Absorption
9.6.13.QDs vs phosphors: FWHM
9.6.14.Summary: QDs vs phosphors
9.6.15.Phosphor and QD in harmony
9.6.16.Quantum dots used for micro-LED displays
9.6.17.Using quantum dots as colour filter
9.6.18.Basic requirements of QDs for micro-LED displays
9.6.19.Disadvantages and challenges of QD color filters
9.6.20.Trade-off between efficiency and leakage
9.6.21.Efficiency drop and red shift
9.6.22.Thickness of the QD layer for absorption
9.6.23.Emission tails overlap
9.6.24.High blue absorptive QD materials
9.6.25.Display structure with QDs
9.6.26.QD display pixel patterning techniques
9.6.27.QD converters for µLED displays
9.6.28.Ink-jet printed QD colour converters
9.6.29.Pros and cons of ink-jet printing
9.6.30.Photoresist approach
9.6.31.Pros and cons of photolithography
9.6.32.Full-colour emission of quantum-dot-based micro-LED display by aerosol jet technology
9.6.33.Samsung's QNED
9.6.34.Full colour realization by Sharp
9.6.35.NPQD technology from Saphlux 1
9.6.36.NPQD technology from Saphlux 2
9.7.Quantum well approach
9.7.1.Quantum wells
9.7.2.Conclusions
10.LIGHT MANAGEMENT
10.1.Light management approach summary
10.2.Layers to optimize current distribution for better light extraction
10.3.InfiniLED's approach to increase light extraction efficiency 1
10.4.InfiniLED's approach to increase light extraction efficiency 2
10.5.Apple's approach
10.6.Methods to capture light output
10.7.Micro-catadioptric optical array for better directionality
10.8.AM micro-LED with directional emission
11.BACKPLANES AND DRIVING
11.1.Backplane and driving options for Micro-LED displays
11.2.Introduction to metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors
11.3.Introduction to thin film transistors
11.4.Introduction to complementary metal oxide semiconductor
11.5.Introduction to backplane
11.6.TFT materials
11.7.Pixel driving for OLED
11.8.LCD pixel structure
11.9.TFT backplane
11.10.Passive matrix addressing
11.11.Passive driving structure
11.12.Active matrix addressing
11.13.Comparison between PM and AM addressing
11.14.Transistor-micro-LED connection design
11.15.Driving for micro-LEDs
11.16.Pulse width modulation
11.17.PAM vs PWM
11.18.Driving voltage
11.19.Driving vs. EQE
11.20.RGB driver
11.21.Active matrix micro-LEDs with LTPS TFT backplane
11.22.Sony: Active matrix driving with micro IC
11.23.Conclusion
12.IMAGE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, POWER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION AND OTHER DESIGNS
12.1.Image Quality Improvement
12.1.1.TFT-based image uniformity issues
12.1.2.LED binning
12.1.3.Drive design
12.1.4.Optical compensation
12.1.5.Drive compensation
12.1.6.AUO's LTPS TFT driven micro-LED display 1
12.1.7.AUO's LTPS TFT driven micro-LED display 2
12.2.Power Consumption Reduction
12.2.1.LED and TFT
12.2.2.Drive mode optimization
12.2.3.Backplane optimization
13.MINI-LED DISPLAYS
13.1.Mini-LED display configurations
13.2.What kind of role is mini-LED playing?
13.3.MiniLEDs, real hope for 2024 onward?
13.4.Trends of Mini-LED displays
14.PARTNERSHIPS, MERGES, ACQUISITIONS AND JOINT VENTURE
14.1.Display cycle
14.2.Benefits
14.3.Meta & InfiniLED & Plessey
14.4.Google & Raxium & Jasper Display
14.5.Epistar & Leyard
14.6.PlayNitride & RIT Display
14.7.Konka & Chongqing Liangshan Industrial Investment, Konka & LianTronics
14.8.BOE & Rohinni
14.9.Lextar & X Display
14.10.JDI & glō, Kyocera & glō
14.11.Seoul Semiconductors & Viosys
14.12.Kulicke & Soffa and Uniqarta
14.13.Snap & Compound Photonics
 

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