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Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2022-2042: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players

Granular forecasts, interview-based company profiles, benchmarking, and market outlook of carbon dioxide utilization technologies in enhanced oil recovery, building materials, fuels, polymers, commodity chemicals, crop greenhouses, algae, and proteins

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Carbon dioxide utilization (CO2U) technologies are a sub-set of carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies and refer to the productive use of anthropogenic CO2 to make value-added products such as building materials, synthetic fuels, chemicals, and plastics. CCUS have been deployed around the world at large-scale and are seen as a crucial tool to decarbonize the world's economy. As well as storing CO2 in the subsurface, there has been increasing interest in its utilization. CO2U can promote not only a more circular economy but also, in some cases, result in products with enhanced properties or processes with lower feedstock costs.
The CO2U industry has gained momentum as a solution to achieve the world's ambitious climate goals. Many pre-commercial projects are currently operating or under construction, mostly concentrated in Europe and North America, with more in the pipeline supported by public and private investments. Although still in its infancy, the market pull is coming from the users - businesses and individuals are reportedly creating demand for low-carbon products.
This report provides a comprehensive outlook of the global CO2 utilization industry, with an in-depth analysis of the technological, economic, and environmental aspects that are set to shape this emerging market over the next twenty years. IDTechEx considers CO2 use cases in enhanced oil recovery, building materials, liquid and gaseous fuels, polymers, chemicals, and in biological yield-boosting (crop greenhouses, algae, and fermentation), exploring the technology innovations and opportunities within each area. The report also includes a twenty-year granular forecast for the deployment of 11 CO2U product categories, alongside 20+ interview-based company profiles.
Emerging applications of CO2 utilization: inputs, manufacturing pathways, and products made from CO2. Source: IDTechEx.
The options are diverse
Despite its potential to create a market for waste CO2, not all CO2U technologies are created equal. These systems face a range of economic, technical, and regulatory challenges which need to be carefully considered so that the technologies that actually provide climate benefits - and are economically viable - can be prioritized and pursued. For instance, for many CO2U routes, the CO2 sequestration is only temporary with the CO2 utilized being released to the atmosphere once the product is consumed (e.g., CO2-derived fuels or proteins), whilst for others, the CO2 can be stored permanently (e.g., CO2-derived building materials). On the economic side, many CO2U pathways can be considerably more expensive than their fossil-based counterparts due to high energy requirements, low yields, or need of other expensive feedstock (e.g., green hydrogen, catalysts). The report provides insights into the most promising processes being developed in CO2U, highlighting the pros and cons of each pathway and end-product.
Innovative companies across the world are developing technologies to improve the energy efficiency of CO2 conversion processes and reduce their costs. The report gives an overview of these players' latest developments, with first-hand accounts of the challenges and opportunities within the industry.
The highest potential areas
Successful deployment for CO2-based polymers saw considerable growth in recent years, especially in Europe and Asia, with more than 250 thousand metric tons of CO2 already used in polymer manufacturing annually worldwide (based on currently operating plants). IDTechEx expects the sector to continue to expand, even though its climate mitigation potential is limited, mainly due to its intrinsic low CO2 utilization ratio (volume of CO2 per volume of CO2-derived product).
Construction materials, fuels, and commodity chemicals (e.g., methanol, ethanol, olefins) offer vast potential for CO2 utilization, but this will not be realized without development of an extensive CO2 network linking capture sites to usage sites, widespread deployment of clean energy, or regulatory support (e.g., sustainable fuel mandates). CO2-derived construction products in particular - such as concrete and aggregates - are set to gain considerable market share due to its helpful thermodynamics and ability to sequester CO2 permanently.
The niche areas
The solid carbon (e.g., carbon nanotubes, carbon fiber, diamonds) and protein sectors will remain niche applications of CO2 utilization, despite their high market value, due to, respectively, the small size of the market (in volumes) and fierce competition from incumbents. Waste CO2 utilization in algae cultivation is still in the early stages, and many hurdles need to be addressed before commodity-scale applications become a reality.
Key questions answered in this report
  • What is CO₂ utilization and how can it be used to address climate change?
  • How is CO2 used in the industry today?
  • What is the market potential for CO2U?
  • How can CO2 be converted into useful products?
  • What is the technology readiness level of CO2U processes?
  • What are the energy and feedstocks requirements for CO2U processes?
  • How does the performance of CO2-derived products compare with their conventional counterparts?
  • What are the key drivers and hurdles for CO2U market growth?
  • How much do CO2U technologies cost?
  • Where are the key growth opportunities for CO2U?
  • Who are the key players in CO2U?
  • What is the climate impact of CO2U technologies?
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Table of Contents
1.1.Why CO₂ Utilization?
1.2.The industrial decarbonization challenge
1.3.CO₂ Utilization pathways
1.4.Comparison of emerging CO₂ utilization applications
1.5.What is CO₂-EOR?
1.6.Global status of CO₂-EOR: U.S. dominates but other regions arise
1.7.CO₂-EOR SWOT analysis
1.8.The role of concrete in the construction sector emissions
1.9.CO₂-derived building materials
1.10.CO₂ use in the cement and concrete supply chain
1.11.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials
1.12.CO₂-derived chemicals
1.13.CO₂ can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
1.14.Which CO₂U technologies are more suitable to which chemicals?
1.15.Key points in CO₂-derived chemicals and polymers
1.16.CO₂-derived fuels
1.17.Main routes to CO₂-derived fuels
1.18.CO₂-derived fuels SWOT analysis
1.19.CO₂ Utilization to boost biological yields
1.20.CO₂ utilization in biological processes
1.21.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting: pros and cons
1.22.Key players in emerging CO₂ Utilization
1.23.Factors driving CO₂U future market potential
1.24.Carbon Utilization potential and climate benefits
1.25.CO₂ Utilization: general pros and cons
1.26.CO₂ utilization capacity forecast by product (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
1.27.Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by product (million US$), 2022-2042
2.1.Definition and report scope
2.2.The world needs an unprecedented transition away from fossil carbon
2.3.Why CO₂ Utilization?
2.4.How is CO₂ used and sourced today?
2.5.CO₂ Utilization pathways
2.6.Reductive vs non-reductive methods
2.7.CO₂ Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery
2.8.CO₂ Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery
2.9.Main emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
2.10.Carbon Utilization potential and climate benefits
2.11.Factors driving future market potential
2.12.Cost effectiveness of CO₂ utilization applications
2.13.Carbon pricing is needed for most CO₂U applications to break even
2.14.Traction in CO₂U: funding worldwide
2.15.Traction in CO₂U: funding and policies in Europe
2.16.Carbon utilization - technical challenges
2.17.Climate benefits of major CO₂U applications (i)
2.18.Climate benefits of major CO₂U applications (ii)
2.19.Technology readiness and climate benefits of CO₂U pathways
2.20.Carbon utilization business models
2.21.CO₂ Utilization: general pros and cons
3.1.What is CO₂-EOR?
3.2.What happens to the injected CO₂?
3.3.Types of CO₂-EOR designs
3.4.The CO₂ source: natural vs anthropogenic
3.5.The CO₂ source impacts costs and technology choice
3.6.Global status of CO₂-EOR: U.S. dominates but other regions arise
3.7.World's large-scale anthropogenic CO₂-EOR facilities
3.8.CO₂-EOR potential
3.9.Most CO₂ in the U.S. is still naturally sourced
3.10.CO₂-EOR main players in the U.S.
3.11.CO₂-EOR main players in North America
3.12.Denbury Resources
3.13.CO₂ transportation is a bottleneck
3.14.Century Plant: the current biggest CCUS/EOR project
3.15.Boundary Dam - battling capture technical issues
3.16.CO₂-EOR in China
3.17.The economics of promoting CO₂ storage through CO₂-EOR
3.18.The impact of oil prices on CO₂-EOR feasibility
3.19.Petra Nova's shutdown: lessons for the industry?
3.20.Carbon sequestration tax credits role: the U.S. 45Q
3.21.Climate considerations in CO₂-EOR
3.22.The climate impact of CO₂-EOR varies over time
3.23.CO₂-EOR: an on-ramp for CCS and DACCS?
3.24.CO₂-EOR in shale: the next frontier?
3.25.CO₂-EOR SWOT analysis
3.26.Key takeaways: market
3.27.Key takeaways: environmental
4.1.1.The role of concrete in the construction sector emissions
4.1.2.The role of cement in concrete's carbon footprint
4.1.3.The role of cement in concrete's carbon footprint (ii)
4.1.4.The Basic Chemistry: CO₂ Mineralization
4.1.5.CO₂ use in the cement and concrete supply chain
4.1.6.Can the CO₂ used in building materials come from cement plants?
4.1.7.Carbonation of recycled concrete in a cement plant
4.1.8.Fortera Corporation
4.2.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing
4.2.1.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing
4.2.2.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing (ii)
4.2.3.CarbonCure Technologies
4.3.CO₂ utilization in carbonates
4.3.1.CO₂ utilization in carbonates
4.3.3.CO₂-derived carbonates from natural minerals
4.3.4.CO₂-derived carbonates from waste
4.3.5.CO₂-derived carbonates from waste (ii)
4.3.6.Carbon Upcycling Technologies
4.3.7.Blue Planet
4.4.Market analysis of CO₂-derived building materials
4.4.1.The market potential of CO₂ use in the construction industry
4.4.2.Supplying CO₂ to a decentralized concrete industry
4.4.3.Prefabricated versus ready-mixed concrete markets
4.4.4.Market dynamics of cement and concrete
4.4.5.CO₂U business models in building materials
4.4.6.CO₂U technology adoption in construction materials
4.4.7.CO₂ utilization players in mineralization
4.4.8.Factors influencing CO₂U adoption in construction
4.4.9.Factors influencing CO₂U adoption in construction (ii)
4.4.10.Concrete carbon footprint of key CO₂U companies
4.4.11.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials
4.4.12.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials (ii)
4.4.13.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials (iii)
5.1.1.The chemical industry's decarbonization challenge
5.1.2.CO₂ can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
5.1.3.Using CO₂ as a feedstock is energy-intensive
5.1.4.The basics: types of CO₂ utilization reactions
5.2.CO₂-derived chemicals: pathways and products
5.2.1.CO₂ use in urea production
5.2.2.CO₂ may need to be first converted into CO or syngas
5.2.4.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: syngas to hydrocarbons
5.2.5.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction
5.2.6.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction products
5.2.7.Low-temperature electrochemical CO₂ reduction
5.2.9.High-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers
5.2.10.Haldor Topsøe
5.2.11.Methanol is a valuable chemical feedstock
5.2.12.Cost parity has been a challenge for CO₂-derived methanol
5.2.13.Thermochemical methods: CO₂-derived methanol
5.2.14.Carbon Recycling International
5.2.15.Aromatic hydrocarbons from CO₂
5.2.16.Artificial photosynthesis
5.3.CO₂-derived polymers
5.3.1.CO₂ in polymer manufacturing
5.3.2.Commercial production of polycarbonate from CO₂
5.3.6.Asahi Kasei: CO₂-based aromatic polycarbonates
5.4.CO₂-derived pure carbon products
5.4.1.Carbon nanostructures made from CO₂
5.4.2.Mars Materials
5.5.CO₂-derived chemicals: market and general considerations
5.5.1.Players in CO₂-derived chemicals by end-product
5.5.2.CO₂-derived chemicals: market potential
5.5.3.Are CO₂-derived chemicals climate beneficial?
5.5.4.Investments and industrial collaboration are key
5.5.5.Steel-off gases as a CO₂U feedstock
5.5.6.Centralized or distributed chemical manufacturing?
5.5.7.What would it take for the chemical industry to run on CO₂?
5.6.CO₂-derived chemicals: takeaways
5.6.1.Which CO₂U technologies are more suitable to which products?
5.6.2.Technical feasibility of main CO₂-derived chemicals
5.6.3.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived chemicals
6.1.What are CO₂-derived fuels?
6.2.CO₂ can be converted into a variety of energy carriers
6.3.Summary of main routes to CO₂-fuels
6.4.The challenge of energy efficiency
6.5.CO₂-fuels are pertinent to a specific context
6.6.CO₂-fuels in shipping
6.7.CO₂-fuels in aviation
6.8.Sustainable aviation fuel policies (i)
6.9.Sustainable aviation fuel policies (ii)
6.10.Liquid Wind
6.11.Obrist Group
6.12.Coval Energy
6.13.CO₂-derived formic acid as a hydrogen carrier
6.14.Synthetic natural gas - thermocatalytic pathway
6.15.Biological fermentation of CO₂ into methane
6.16.Drivers and barriers for power-to-gas technology adoption
6.17.Power-to-gas projects worldwide - current and announced
6.18.Can CO₂-fuels achieve cost parity with fossil-fuels?
6.19.CO₂-fuels rollout is linked to electrolyzer capacity
6.20.Low-carbon hydrogen is crucial to CO₂-fuels
6.21.CO₂-derived fuels projects announced
6.22.CO₂-derived fuels projects worldwide over time - current and announced
6.23.CO₂-fuels from solar power
6.25.Dimensional Energy
6.26.Companies in CO₂-fuels by end-product
6.27.CO₂-derived fuel: players
6.28.CO₂-derived fuel: players (ii)
6.29.Sunfire: SOEC techonology
6.30.Audi synthetic fuels
6.31.Are CO₂-fuels climate beneficial?
6.32.CO₂-derived fuels SWOT analysis
6.33.CO₂-derived fuels: market potential
6.34.Key takeaways
7.1.CO₂ utilization in biological processes
7.2.Main companies using CO₂ in biological processes
7.3.CO₂ utilization in greenhouses
7.4.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses
7.5.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses: market potential
7.6.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses: pros and cons
7.7.CO₂ utilization in algae cultivation
7.8.CO₂-enhanced algae or cyanobacteria cultivation
7.9.Cemvita Factory
7.10.CO₂-enhanced algae cultivation: open vs closed systems
7.11.Algae CO₂ capture from cement plants
7.12.Algae has multiple market applications
7.13.The algae-based fuel market has been rocky
7.14.Algae-based fuel for aviation
7.15.CO₂-enhanced algae cultivation: pros and cons
7.16.CO₂ utilization in microbial conversion
7.17.CO₂ utilization in biomanufacturing
7.18.CO₂-consuming microorganisms
7.21.Food and feed from CO₂
7.22.Solar Foods
7.23.CO₂-derived food and feed: market
7.24.Carbon fermentation: pros and cons
8.1.Forecast scope & methodology
8.2.CO₂-derived product benchmarking (i)
8.3.CO₂-derived product benchmarking (ii)
8.4.Forecast product categories
8.5.CO₂-derived product price forecast: methodology
8.6.CO₂-derived product price forecast: input and results
8.7.CO₂ utilization overall market forecast
8.8.CO₂ utilization capacity forecast by category (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.9.CO₂ utilization capacity forecast by product (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.10.Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by category (million US$), 2022-2042
8.11.Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by product (million US$), 2022-2042
8.12.CO₂ utilization market forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
8.13.The evolution of the CO₂U market
8.14.CO₂-Enhanced Oil Recovery forecast
8.15.CO₂-EOR forecast assumptions
8.16.CO₂-EOR annual revenue (million US$) and oil production (million barrels per day), 2022-2042
8.17.CO₂-EOR utilization rate by source (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.18.CO₂-derived building materials forecast
8.19.CO₂-derived building materials: forecast assumptions
8.20.CO₂ utilization forecast in building materials by end-use (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.21.CO₂-derived building materials volume forecast by product (million tonnes of product per year), 2022-2042
8.22.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-derived building materials by product (million US$), 2022-2042
8.23.CO₂-derived building materials forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
8.24.CO₂-derived fuels forecast
8.25.CO₂-derived fuels: forecast assumptions
8.26.CO₂ utilization forecast in fuels by fuel type (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.27.CO₂-derived fuels volume forecast by fuel type (million tonnes of fuel per year), 2022-2042
8.28.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-derived fuels by fuel type (million US$), 2022-2042
8.29.CO₂-derived fuels forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
8.30.CO₂-derived fuels forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
8.31.CO₂-derived chemicals forecast
8.32.CO₂-derived chemicals: forecast assumptions
8.33.CO₂ utilization forecast in chemicals by end-use (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.34.CO₂ -derived chemicals volume forecast by end-use (million tonnes product per year), 2022-2042
8.35.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-derived chemicals by end-use (million US$), 2022-2042
8.36.CO₂-derived chemicals forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
8.37.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting forecast
8.38.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting: forecast assumptions
8.39.CO₂ utilization forecast in biological yield-boosting by end-use (million tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2022-2042
8.40.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting by end-use (million US$), 2022-2042
8.41.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting forecast, 2022-2042: discussion
9.1.Players in CO₂-derived chemicals (i)
9.2.Players in CO₂-derived chemicals (ii)
9.3.Players in CO₂-derived chemicals (iii)
9.4.Players in CO₂-derived chemicals (iv)
9.5.Players in CO₂-derived polymers (i)
9.6.Players in CO₂-derived polymers (ii)
9.7.Players in CO₂-derived solid carbon

Report Statistics

Slides 284
Forecasts to 2042
ISBN 9781913899974

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