Camion elettrici e a celle a combustibile 2023-2043: IDTechEx

Market for medium and heavy-duty electric trucks to reach US$200 billion by 2043

Camion elettrici e a celle a combustibile 2023-2043

Propulsori elettrici, ibridi e a celle a combustibile H₂. Analisi dei mercati dei camion BEV, PHEV e FCEV medi e pesanti. Previsioni a 20 anni per regioni. Tecnologie abilitanti chiave: batterie agli ioni di litio, motori elettrici, celle a combustibile e infrastruttura di ricarica


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The IDTechEx Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043 report explores the future of the rapidly developing zero-emission truck market, covering battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and hydrogen fuel cell trucks. Within the report we discuss the technical and economic aspects of zero-emission truck deployment and present IDTechEx's granular forecasts for medium and heavy-duty zero-emission truck deployment out to 2043, with focus on the key markets; Europe, the U.S., and China.
 
Despite the medium and heavy-duty truck fleet representing less than 10% of the global on-road vehicle stock, large diesel truck engines and high average annual mileage mean that the truck sector contributes around 40% of the global transport sector's greenhouse gas emissions. This equates to about 5.1% of all global fossil fuel derived CO2 emission. It is this disproportionate contribution to emissions which makes trucks a target for governments. If the global community is going to meet its targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit the impact of climate change then a rapid decarbonisation of the truck sector must be a priority. Consequently, the days of the fossil fuel powered combustion engine truck are numbered.
 
Governments around the world, recognising the potentially catastrophic repercussions of unfettered climate change and witnessing the detrimental impact on human health from vehicle exhaust pollutant emissions in urban environments, are taking decisive action, tightening exhaust emission regulation, and plotting timelines to net zero emission. This will, in the coming few decades, drive vehicle manufacturers to zero on-road exhaust emission powertrain solutions. OEMs and suppliers are increasingly committing to this transition.
 
Significant truck electrification progress
The past 18-months have seen substantial progress in truck electrification. The previous version of this IDTechEx report (Electric Medium & Heavy-duty Trucks 2021-2041) presented primarily prototype vehicles or zero-emission trucks in small series production, today, almost all OEMs either have a battery electric model in series production or are committed to starting production within the next year. Supply chains are maturing, and major tier 1 suppliers are putting substantial resources into parts electrification and shifting focus away from traditional combustion engine powertrains.
 
Zero-emission Medium and Heavy-Duty Trucks by Technology and Production Status
 
 
Source: IDTechEx Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043
 
Key to deployment of battery electric trucks is understanding the daily duty cycle energy demand. The high cost of battery packs means that optimisation which minimises the size of the installed battery, whilst still delivering a full day's operation, is likely to be the most cost-effective solution. Many OEMs are offering consultancy services, working with customers to analyse the daily energy demanded by their operations, to then tailor the vehicle and charging infrastructure to that requirement. Modular battery solutions and a choice of electric motor sizes will help customers acquire the correct vehicle for their application. Working with customers is key to successful BEV truck deployment for these early generation vehicles.
 
Fuel cell trucks can provide long-haul range but face deployment challenges
Whilst the market for battery electric vehicles is beginning to take-off, the energy density and specific energy of current lithium-ion battery technologies can mean that the range of battery electric trucks is restricted by both the maximum weight of batteries that can be carried by a truck, and the available space for batteries within that vehicle. Fuel cell technologies offer truck OEMs an avenue to greater range, whilst still delivering the crucial reduction in on-road exhaust emissions. Despite the technologies promise, reducing system cost and rolling out sufficient hydrogen refuelling infrastructure to make driving a FCEV workable, will be a challenge. Also essential will be the availability of cheap low-carbon 'green' hydrogen, which analysis in the new IDTechEx report highlights will be vital to FCEVs delivering the environmental credentials on which they are being sold.
 
Heavy-duty charging / refuelling infrastructure needed
The installation of electric charging / hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is critical to the deployment of zero-emission trucks. Part of any fleet transition to electric trucks will involve the installation of sufficient charging infrastructure to enable high utilisation of vehicles. For short urban duty-cycles, which do not deplete an electric truck's battery over a day's operation, low power AC depot charging should be enough for most vehicles to recharge the battery overnight. However, some long-haul truck applications entail a daily mileage far in excess of the range that can be delivered by a practical level of installed battery capacity. In these instances, DC fast chargers specifically designed to cater for heavy-duty vehicles will need to be installed both on highways and at points of regular loading/unloading to add considerable energy in less than one hour. The alternative is hydrogen fuel-cell trucks, which will require a network of hydrogen refuelling stations, along with the development of hydrogen generation and transport infrastructure.
 
The report discusses the drivers and barriers to zero-emission truck deployment, including total cost of ownership considerations. It presents analysis of ongoing OEM and supplier development work and their goals for zero-emission truck deployment, with case-study detail about battery electric and fuel cell electric truck projects being undertaken by the major players in the industry. The report contains detailed investigation of key enabling technologies for zero-emission truck deployment such as batteries, motors, fuel cells, charging infrastructure and hydrogen combustion engines.
 
The IDTechEx Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043 report is designed to help businesses across the truck sector plan for the future in this dynamic market. The report provides 80 forecast lines for battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell electric trucks, giving a twenty-year outlook for truck sales, battery demand, fuel cell demand and market value, with separate forecasts for both the medium and heavy-duty truck markets. This report is intended for companies across the automotive value chain including: truck OEMs, parts and systems suppliers, battery and fuel cell manufacturers, electric charging / hydrogen refuelling infrastructure developers, truck fleet operators, government agencies, research organisations, and banks financing zero-emission truck deployment.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Report Overview
1.2.The Rise of Zero Emission Trucks
1.3.Key Report Findings (1)
1.4.Key Report Findings (2)
1.5.CO2 Emission: Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks
1.6.Zero Emission Trucks: Drivers and Barriers
1.7.Range of Zero Emission M&HD Trucks
1.8.Installed Battery Capacity by Truck Weight
1.9.Installed Motor Power by Truck Weight
1.10.What do Electric Trucks Need to Deliver
1.11.Duty Cycle Energy Considerations
1.12.BEV Trucks Already Offer Sufficient Range
1.13.Heavy-Duty Trucks: BEV or Fuel Cell
1.14.5-year TCO ICE, BEV, FCEV, H₂-ICE
1.15.Green H₂ for FCEV Trucks to be 'Green'
1.16.The Importance of Grid Carbon Intensity
1.17.Medium & Heavy-Duty Truck Sales Forecast
1.18.M&HDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
1.19.eM&HDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
1.20.eM&HDT Sales by Region
1.21.eM&HDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
1.22.Portal Company Background Profiles
1.23.Forecast Commentary
2.TRUCK DEFINITIONS
2.1.Electric Vehicle Definitions
2.2.Truck Weight Definitions
2.3.Truck Type
2.4.Truck Axle Layout Descriptions
3.DRIVERS FOR ZERO-EMISSION
3.1.Main Driver for Sector Decarbonization
3.2.Greenhouse Gas Emission
3.3.GHG Emission: China, U.S. & Europe
3.4.CO2 Emission: Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks
3.5.EU27+UK GHG Emission by Sector
3.6.Europe Road Transport GHG Emission
3.7.U.S. Transport Related GHG Emission
3.8.U.S. Road Transport GHG Emission
3.9.GHG Emission From The Truck Sector
3.10.CO2 Emission from Electricity Generation
3.11.Urban Air Quality
3.12.Fossil Fuel Bans in Cities
3.13.Emission Regulation for New Trucks
3.14.Heavy-Duty Emission Standards
3.15.Fuel / CO2 Regulation for New Trucks
3.16.Fuel Saving Technology Areas
3.17.Fossil Fuel Bans
3.18.OEMs Endorse Transition to Zero-Emission
3.19.OEM Statements
3.20.What do Electric Trucks Need to Deliver
3.21.Zero Emission Truck Considerations
4.TCO CONSIDERATIONS
4.1.Total Cost of Ownership
4.2.TCO Considerations Zero Emission Trucks
4.3.TCO Considerations: Battery Pack Cost
4.4.Zero Emission Tractor Truck Cost Breakdown
4.5.Truck Price Forecast by Powertrain
4.6.BEV Truck Fuel Cost Savings
4.7.Electric Trucks Reduced Operating Costs
4.8.Overcoming Barriers for Zero Emission Trucks
4.9.More Carrot, More Stick
4.10.Powertrain CAPEX Costs
4.11.5-year TCO ICE, BEV, FCEV, H₂-ICE
4.12.TCO FCEV Trucks vs Battery Electric
4.13.External Cost of Heavy-Duty Trucks
5.EUROPEAN TRUCK MARKET
5.1.Overview
5.1.1.Europe: Addressable Truck Market 2021
5.1.2.Europe: Addressable Truck Market 2020
5.1.3.Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in Europe
5.1.4.Average European Diesel Price
5.1.5.EU 2030: 30% Cut in Truck CO2 Emissions
5.1.6.Financial Driver: Legislation in Europe
5.1.7.Powertrain and Range
5.1.8.OEMs Combine on Charging Infrastructure
5.2.European e-Truck Players
5.2.1.European Electric Truck Sales 2016-2021
5.2.2.Europe BEV Truck Sales by Country
5.2.3.Volvo Trucks FE and FL Electric
5.2.4.Volvo Trucks VERA
5.2.5.Volvo FM, FMX and FH Electric
5.2.6.Renault Trucks (Volvo Group)
5.2.7.Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E.
5.2.8.Renault BEV Refuse Truck at EVS 32
5.2.9.Volvo Group Electrification
5.2.10.Mercedes-Benz (Daimler) eMobility
5.2.11.Mercedes-Benz (Daimler) eActros
5.2.12.Daimler eActros "Innovation Fleet"
5.2.13.FUSO eCanter (Daimler / Mitsubishi)
5.2.14.DAF (PACCAR)
5.2.15.DAF (PACCAR) CF Hybrid
5.2.16.TRATON e-Truck Orders 2021
5.2.17.Scania (TRATON) BEV Truck
5.2.18.Scania (TRATON) PHEV Truck
5.2.19.Scania (TRATON)
5.2.20.MAN (TRATON) eTGM
5.2.21.MAN (TRATON) Future e-Truck
5.2.22.Futuricum Electric Concrete Mixer Truck
5.2.23.Other European Electric Trucks
6.U.S. TRUCK MARKET
6.1.Overview
6.1.1.US: Addressable Truck Market 2021
6.1.2.US: Addressable Truck Market 2020
6.1.3.U.S. New Truck Sales by Class 2017-2021
6.1.4.U.S. Truck Sales by OEM Brand
6.1.5.Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in the U.S.
6.1.6.U.S. Annual Truck Market Sales
6.1.7.U.S. Average Truck Replacement Age
6.1.8.U.S. Truck Fleet Statistics
6.1.9.Average U.S. On-Highway Diesel Price
6.1.10.Operational Costs for US Truckers
6.1.11.Rising Truck Fuel Costs
6.1.12.U.S. Uptake of Alternative Fuel Trucks
6.1.13.The Future: Electric, Autonomous Trucks?
6.1.14.U.S. GHG Emission Policy
6.1.15.California's Advanced Clean Trucks Regulation
6.1.16.CARB Voucher Incentive Project
6.1.17.State Support for e-Truck Deployment
6.1.18.U.S. Companies Urge Faster Adoption
6.2.U.S. e-Truck Players
6.2.1.U.S. Electric Trucks
6.2.2.U.S. Zero Emission Truck Deployments
6.2.3.Significant Market for BEV Trucks
6.2.4.U.S. Electric Truck Major OEMs
6.2.5.Freightliner (DAIMLER) eM2
6.2.6.Freightliner (DAIMLER) eCascadia
6.2.7.Freightliner (DAIMLER) Battery Packs
6.2.8.Freightliner Custom Chassis
6.2.9.Daimler Invest in Charging Infrastructure
6.2.10.Peterbilt (PACCAR) 220EV
6.2.11.Peterbilt (PACCAR) 579EV
6.2.12.Peterbilt (PACCAR) 520EV
6.2.13.Kenworth (PACCAR) T680E
6.2.14.Kenworth (PACCAR) K270E / K370E
6.2.15.Volvo Trucks North America VNR Electric
6.2.16.Mack Trucks (Volvo) LRe
6.2.17.Navistar (VW Group) International eMV
6.2.18.BYD 8TT Electric Tractor
6.2.19.BYD 8TT Electric Tractor
6.2.20.Tesla Semi
6.2.21.Isuzu / Cummins F-Series
6.2.22.Small OEMs / Component Integrators
6.2.23.Xos Trucks
6.2.24.Nikola
6.2.25.Motiv Power Systems
6.2.26.Motiv Power Systems
6.2.27.SEA Electric
6.2.28.Lion Electric
6.2.29.Other U.S. Class 4 Electric Trucks
6.2.30.Other U.S. Class 5 Electric Trucks
6.2.31.Other U.S. Class 6 Electric Trucks
6.2.32.Other U.S. Class 7 / 8 Electric Trucks
6.2.33.Hyliion Natural Gas Electric PHEV
6.2.34.Electric Terminal Tractors
6.2.35.Low e-Truck Deployment / Large Orders
7.CHINESE TRUCK MARKET
7.1.Overview
7.1.1.China: Addressable Truck Market 2021
7.1.2.China: Addressable Truck Market 2020
7.1.3.Addressable M&HD Truck Sales in China
7.1.4.Road Freight Demand in China
7.1.5.China's Truck Market Segments
7.1.6.Example Chinese Truck Joint Ventures
7.1.7.China Phasing Out EV Subsidies
7.2.Chinese e-Truck Players
7.2.1.China New Energy Truck Sales 2018-2021
7.2.2.China Zero-Emission Truck Sales by OEM 2021
7.2.3.China NEV Truck Sales by OEM in 2020
7.2.4.China NEV Tractor Sales by Model 2021
7.2.5.Chinese Battery Swapping Dump Trucks
7.2.6.Sany Electric Dump Trucks
7.2.7.BYD Electric Dump Trucks For Shenzhen
7.2.8.Chinese Battery Swapping Dump Trucks
7.2.9.Chinese OEMs Electric Mixer Trucks
7.2.10.GEELY
7.2.11.The Rise of Battery Swapping in China
7.2.12.Battery-Swapping Truck Market Share In China
8.BENCHMARKING US / EU OEMS
8.1.Volvo Trucks
8.2.Daimler Trucks
8.3.BYD
8.4.PACCAR
8.5.Traton Group
8.6.TESLA
8.7.CNH Industrial / IVECO / Nikola
9.BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
9.1.Overview
9.1.1.What is a Li-ion Battery?
9.1.2.Electrochemistry Definitions
9.1.3.Li-ion Timeline Commentary
9.1.4.Types of Lithium Battery
9.1.5.Battery Technology Comparison
9.1.6.The Promise of Silicon
9.1.7.Silicon: Incremental Steps
9.1.8.Li-ion Technology Diversification
9.1.9.Li-ion Batteries: From Cell to Pack
9.1.10.Role of Battery Pack Manufacturers
9.2.Battery Pack Players
9.2.1.Pack Manufacturers - Europe
9.2.2.Pack Manufacturers - North America
9.2.3.Asian Module and Pack Manufacturers
9.2.4.Battery Pack Comparison
9.2.5.Akasol (BorgWarner)
9.2.6.Akasol AKASYSTEM
9.2.7.Proterra
9.2.8.Webasto
9.2.9.Cummins
9.2.10.Microvast
9.2.11.EnerDel
9.2.12.American Battery Solutions
9.2.13.Leclanche
9.2.14.Northvolt Voltpack Core
9.2.15.Romeo Power
9.2.16.Forsee Power
9.2.17.Deutz AG
9.2.18.Drivers for 800V Platforms
10.BATTERY CHOICE FOR E-TRUCKS
10.1.LFP or High-Nickel Cathodes for e-Trucks?
10.2.E-Truck OEM Battery Chemistry Choice
10.3.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Range & Payload
10.4.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Charging
10.5.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Reliability
10.6.Supply Chain: In-House Pack Assembly
10.7.Timeline and Outlook For Li-ion Energy Densities
10.8.China Electric Heavy-Duty Truck Battery Suppliers
10.9.Chinese Battery Manufacturers for eBuses
11.HEAVY-DUTY CHARGING
11.1.Overview
11.1.1.Charging Infrastructure Critical to Deployment
11.1.2.Overview of Charging Levels
11.2.Conductive Charging
11.2.1.Daimler Truck Commercial EV Charging Park
11.2.2.CharIN Charging Standards for Electric CV
11.2.3.The Emergence of 'Megawatt Chargers'
11.2.4.Tesla Debut Megacharger
11.2.5.MEDUSA Project: 3 MW Charging Solutions
11.2.6.Detroit eFill Chargers
11.2.7.NREL Testing Megawatt Charging Systems
11.2.8.Charging: Depot & Opportunity Charging
11.2.9.Charging Infrastructure For Heavy-Duty Vehicles
11.2.10.Heliox: Public Transport & Heavy-Duty Vehicle Charging
11.2.11.Heliox's 13 MW Charging Network for Electric Buses
11.2.12.SprintCharge: Battery-Buffered Charging
11.2.13.ABB's Smart Depot Charging Solution for Large Fleets
11.2.14.ABB: Opportunity Charging
11.2.15.ABB's 600 kW TOSA Flash-Charging
11.2.16.Siemens: Electric Bus Charging Infrastructure
11.2.17.Siemens Autonomous Charging System
11.3.Inductive Charging
11.3.1.Inductive Charging for Heavy-Duty Applications
11.3.2.Momentum Dynamics: High-Power Wireless Charging
11.3.3.Case Study: Wireless Charging
11.3.4.Inductive Supercharging for Heavy-Duty Vehicles
11.4.Battery Swapping
11.4.1.The Rise of Battery Swapping in China
11.4.2.Battery-Swapping Truck Market Share In China
11.4.3.Mounting Swappable Batteries in Trucks
11.4.4.Chinese Battery Swapping BEV Trucks
11.4.5.Battery Swapping for Electric Buses
11.4.6.Bus Stations as Battery Swap Stations?
11.4.7.TU Berlin Test Robotic Battery Swapping
11.4.8.Side to side swapping for electric buses
11.4.9.Sany Debut Battery Swapping Station
11.4.10.Edison Motors Buses
11.4.11.Foton C10/C12 BEV
11.5.Electric Road Systems
11.5.1.Types of Electric Road Systems
11.5.2.Siemens eHighway
11.5.3.Electric Road Systems: Sweden
11.5.4.Californian Electric Highway
11.5.5.UK Government Investigating E-Highways
11.5.6.Volvo Conductive Rail Testing
11.5.7.Qualcomm Inductive Power Transfer
11.5.8.Summary of Electric Road Systems
12.ELECTRIC MOTORS
12.1.Summary of Traction Motor Types
12.2.Comparison of Traction Motors
12.3.Truck Motor Type Market Share / Power Requirements
12.4.Magnet Price Increase Risk
12.5.Integrated e-Axle Space Advantage
12.6.Dana E-Axles
12.7.Dana TM4
12.8.Volvo
12.9.Meritor Blue Horizon ePowertrain
12.10.Meritor 14Xe Electric Drivetrain
12.11.Danfoss Editron
12.12.Detroit eAxles
12.13.Allison Transmission eGen Power e-Axles
12.14.ZF Electrification Solutions
12.15.BorgWarner
13.FUEL CELL ELECTRIC TRUCKS
13.1.Fuel Cells Trucks Outlook
13.2.Toyota Mobility Roadmap
13.3.Attraction of Fuel Cell Vehicles
13.4.Deployment Barriers for FCEV
13.5.A Kaleidoscope of Hydrogen Colours
13.6.Sources of Hydrogen
13.7.Fuel Cells Technologies Overview
13.8.Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
13.9.What is a Fuel Cell Vehicle?
13.10.Fuel Cell Power Requirement
13.11.Fuel Cell Energy Density Advantage
13.12.Daily Duty Cycle Demand
13.13.Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Cell System Costs
13.14.The Challenge: Green H₂ Cost Reduction
13.15.Must be Green H₂ for FCEV to be 'Green'
13.16.Green Hydrogen Price Development Forecasts
13.17.Green Hydrogen Production Costs US / EU
13.18.Green H₂ Cost by Electricity Source US / EU
13.19.Electrolyser Powered by Curtailed Electricity
13.20.Comparison Hydrogen Fuel Cost vs Diesel Cost
13.21.FCEV Truck Hydrogen Consumption
13.22.Fuel Cell Truck Example Specifications
13.23.Fuel Cell Truck: HYUNDAI
13.24.Hyundai Hydrogen Mobility
13.25.Hyundai Pilot FC-Trucks in Switzerland
13.26.Hyundai Pilot FC-Trucks in Switzerland
13.27.XCIENT FC Truck Coming to America
13.28.U.S. XCEINT Longer Range
13.29.Hyundai XCIENT 4,000 Unit China Order
13.30.Hyundai Class 8 Concept
13.31.Fuel Cell Trucks: DAIMLER / VOLVO
13.32.Daimler Test GenH₂ Truck Prototype
13.33.Daimler Battery and Fuel Cell Outlook
13.34.Cellcentric: Daimler-Volvo Joint Venture
13.35.Volvo Group: Toward Fossil Free Transport
13.36.Scania to Concentrate on BEV-Trucks
13.37.HYZON Motors
13.38.Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies
13.39.HYZON Motors FCEV Truck Schematic
13.40.Nikola Corporation
13.41.Nikola ONE - Proof of Concept
13.42.Nikola TWO: New Flagship Fuel Cell Truck
13.43.Nikola Commercial Truck Milestones
13.44.Nikola an "Energy Technology Company"?
13.45.IDTechEx Take: The Future for Nikola
13.46.Fuel Cell Trucks: KENWORTH (PACCAR)
13.47.T680 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
13.48.Fuel Cell Trucks: TOYOTA / HINO
13.49.Fuel Cell Trucks: BALLARD / UPS
13.50.Ballard Acquire Arcola Energy
13.51.Ballard Motive Solutions
13.52.Fuel Cell Trucks: DONGFENG
13.53.Fuel Cell Truck Sales 2021
13.54.Chinese FCEV Support
13.55.China Hydrogen Refuelling Stations
13.56.China's FCEV Deployment will it be Green?
13.57.Chinese Fuel Cell Dump Trucks
13.58.SANY Fuel Cell Trucks
13.59.China Fuel Cell Installed Capacity 2020
13.60.Other Chinese Fuel Cell System Manufacturers
13.61.United Fuel Cell System R&D (Beijing) Co.
13.62.Example Fuel Cell Manufacturers U.S. FC-Trucks
13.63.BOSAL / Ceres Power - SOFC Range Extender
13.64.Guide to Hydrogen Truck Refuelling
13.65.Developing Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure
13.66.Fuel Cell Truck Refuelling Advantage
13.67.Long-Haul Trucking Opportunity?
13.68.FC-Trucks Facilitate Wider FCEV Deployment
13.69.The Fundamental Issue of Efficiency
14.H₂ COMBUSTION ENGINES
14.1.Introduction - H₂ Combustion Engines
14.2.Hydrogen Combustion Engines
14.3.Attraction of H₂ Combustion Engines
14.4.High Energy Density and Low Cost
14.5.Drawbacks of H₂ Combustion Engines
14.6.H₂-ICE Development by Vehicle Type
14.7.H₂-ICE Development by Region
14.8.KEYOU
14.9.H₂ Engine Key Modifications
14.10.Suppliers Move Toward H₂-ICE
14.11.JCB Focus on Hydrogen Combustion
14.12.DAF BEV, H₂-ICE, and FCEV
14.13.MAN Truck & Bus - H₂ Engine Testing
14.14.H₂-ICE Emissions Near Zero
14.15.Hydrogen Combustion System Layouts
14.16.Cummins H₂-ICE Approach
14.17.H₂-ICE CO2 Emission Reduction
14.18.H₂-ICE Efficiency vs FCEV
14.19.Is there a TCO Case for H₂-ICE?
14.20.Is H₂-ICE a Fast-to-Market Solution?
14.21.H₂-ICE CAPEX Advantage
14.22.Green H₂ Production Cost Forecast
14.23.H₂ Fuel Price More than Production Cost
14.24.On-site H₂ Production in Europe
14.25.The Reality: Today's H₂ Pump Price
14.26.The TCO Impact of High H₂ Fuel Cost
14.27.H₂-ICE Summary
15.FORECASTS
15.1.Introduction
15.1.1.Forecast Methodology (1)
15.1.2.Forecast Methodology (2)
15.1.3.Forecast Methodology (3)
15.1.4.Forecast Assumptions
15.1.5.Fuel Cells in Trucks Commentary
15.1.6.Other Alternative Powertrains
15.1.7.Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions MDT
15.1.8.Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions HDT
15.1.9.Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions FCEV
15.1.10.Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions PHEV
15.2.Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Market Forecasts 2023-2043
15.2.1.Medium & Heavy-Duty Truck Global Sales
15.2.2.M&HDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
15.2.3.eM&HDT Sales by Region
15.2.4.Global M&HDT Market Share for eM&HDT
15.2.5.eM&HDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
15.2.6.eM&HDT Battery Demand Forecast by Region
15.2.7.eM&HDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
15.2.8.eM&HDT Market Forecast by Region
15.2.9.FCEV M&HDT Fuel Cell Demand Forecast (MW)
15.3.Medium-Duty Truck Market Forecasts 2023-2043
15.3.1.Medium-Duty Truck (MDT) Global Sales
15.3.2.MDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
15.3.3.eMDT Sales by Region
15.3.4.Global MDT Market Share for eMDT
15.3.5.eMDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
15.3.6.eMDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
15.3.7.eMDT Market Forecast by Region
15.4.Heavy-Duty Truck Market Forecasts 2023-2043
15.4.1.Heavy-Duty Truck Global Sales
15.4.2.HDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
15.4.3.eHDT Sales by Region
15.4.4.HDT Market Share for eHDT
15.4.5.eHDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
15.4.6.eHDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
15.4.7.eHDT Market Forecast by Region
15.5.Regional Sales Forecasts 2023-2043
15.5.1.Europe (EU27+UK+EFTA) MDT Sales by Powertrain
15.5.2.Europe (EU27+UK+EFTA) HDT Sales by Powertrain
15.5.3.U.S. MDT Sales by Powertrain
15.5.4.U.S. HDT Sales by Powertrain
15.5.5.China MDT Sales by Powertrain
15.5.6.China HDT sales by Powertrain
15.5.7.RoW MDT Sales by Powertrain
15.5.8.RoW HDT Sales by Powertrain
 

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Camion elettrici e a celle a combustibile 2023-2043

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Report Statistics

Slides 462
Forecasts to 2043
Published Jul 2022
ISBN 9781915514073
 

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