Oltre 880 milioni di litri di liquido refrigerante necessari per le auto elettriche nel 2035

Gestione termica per veicoli elettrici 2025-2035: materiali, mercati e tecnologie

Gestione termica delle batterie agli ioni di litio, dei motori elettrici, dell'elettronica di potenza e della cabina passeggeri. Tendenze e previsioni di mercato per materiali, fluidi, tecnologie e strategie per la gestione termica.

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Early trends in the market largely revolved around the adoption of active cooling for the battery pack, now this is the industry standard. However, batteries, motors, and power electronics in EVs continue to evolve with developments of cell-to-pack designs, directly oil-cooled motors, and silicon carbide power electronics being just a few of the key trends that will impact thermal management strategies. How this all interacts with the cabin thermal management is equally important with thermal architectures becoming more integrated and impending regulations impacting future refrigerant choices.
This report from IDTechEx analyses the EV market and the thermal management strategies adopted by OEMs and their suppliers, with a look to the future and how key EV technology trends will impact these methods for electric vehicle batteries, motors, power electronics, and cabin thermal management. This information is obtained from primary and secondary sources across the EV industry. The research also utilizes IDTechEx's extensive electric car database that consists of over 650 model variants with their sales figures for 2015-2023 plus technical specifications such as battery capacity, battery thermal strategy, motor power, motor cooling strategy, and many others. Market shares are given for existing thermal management strategies (air, oil, water, immersion) and fluids used (water-glycol, oil, immersion), for the battery, motor, and inverter in EVs along with market forecasts to 2035.
Evolving Thermal Architecture and Coolants
How the thermal management of the drivetrain components and cabin all interact is critical. The market is moving to greater levels of integration, with heat pumps and integrated thermal management modules. Some OEMs are taking thermal management and components development in-house to improve overall system efficiency and shorten the supply chain. This report takes a look at examples of EV thermal architectures and some key market announcements for key thermal management components (high voltage coolant heaters, condensers, pumps, integrated modules, etc.). The report also gives an overview of the key tier 1 thermal system suppliers and their size.
A host of fluids including refrigerants, oils, and water-glycol are required for the operation of an EV. These fluids are evolving to meet new requirements in EVs such as lower electrical conductivity, copper corrosion performance, and other properties. Regulatory factors will impact refrigerants and the choice between R134a, R1234yf, R744, and R290. This report provides an analysis of the coolant and refrigerant capacities in EVs with forecasts to 2035 for water-glycol, refrigerant, oils, and immersion fluids.
Active cooling with coolants is the industry standard for EV battery thermal management. Source: IDTechEx
Battery: cell-to-pack, thermal interface materials, fire protection, and immersion
The move towards increasing energy density and reducing costs has led to cell-to-pack or cell-to-body/chassis designs. Cell-to-pack eliminates module housings, stacking the cells directly together. Designs from BYD, Tesla, CATL, and others have made it onto the road, with more expected. In this report, IDTechEx considers how this trend will impact thermal management.
One major change is the application of thermal interface materials (TIMs), pushing in favor of thermally conductive adhesives to make a structural connection rather than the typical gap filler seen in many existing designs. This report forecasts TIM demand for EV batteries to 2035 in terms of mass and revenue, segmented by gap pad, gap filler, and thermally conductive adhesive.
Many material suppliers are tailoring their materials to provide multiple functions, including fire protection. This enables fire protection to be included without severely impacting the energy density of the pack. These include inter-cell materials that provide compression, thermal insulation, and fire protection. This report gives an overview of the material options with a total forecast to 2035. For a segmented material forecast and a deeper dive into fire protection, please see the Fire Protection Materials for EVs report by IDTechEx.
Immersion cooling is a topic that retains interest in the EV market with greater thermal homogeneity proposing benefits such as faster charging and increased safety. The technology is still at an early stage in terms of automotive commercialization but has seen greater traction in off-road markets. This report takes a deep dive into immersion cooling technology, with benchmarking of fluids and suppliers, market announcements and partnerships, and fluid volume forecasts for EVs in automotive, construction, agriculture, and mining markets.
For electric motors, the magnets used in the rotor and the windings used in the stator must be kept in an optimal operating temperature window to avoid damage or inefficient operation. Water-glycol used in a jacket around the motor has been the standard thermal management strategy for electric motors in EVs. However, recent years have seen much greater adoption of directly oil cooling the motor to provide better thermal performance, and in some cases, eliminate the cooling jacket, reducing the overall motor size. Oil cooling became the dominant form of cooling for EV motors in the first half of 2022, but that's not to say that water-jackets are going away, they are often used in conjunction with oil cooling, and water-glycol coolant is typically used to remove heat from the oil and can be used to integrate with the vehicles thermal management strategy as a whole. IDTechEx provides forecasts from 2015-2035 for electric motors segmented by the use of air, oil, or water-glycol cooling.
Oil cooling has become the dominant motor thermal management strategy. Source: IDTechEx
Power Electronics
The adoption of SiC is the largest trend in the news for EV power electronics and with good justification. This has had an impact on the construction of power electronics packages. Developments are happening for TIMs, wire bonding, die-attach, and substrate materials, largely with the goal of improving package reliability. The report provides analysis of these trends and the drivers behind adoption.
Inverter IGBT or SiC MOSFET modules are mostly cooled using water-glycol. However, both single-side and double-sided cooling options are used, each with its own benefits. There has also been an increased interest in using oil to cool power electronics to eliminate much of the water-glycol componentry within the electric drive unit, using the same oil for the motors and inverter. Whilst there has not been adoption of this approach in the current market, IDTechEx sees promise for this approach and includes a 10-year forecast for EV inverters using air, water, or oil cooling.
Evolving power electronics design presents opportunities in several material components. Source: IDTechEx
Key Aspects
Analysis of thermal management for Li-ion batteries, electric traction motors, and power electronics:
  • OEM strategies
  • EV industry trends and the impact on thermal management
  • Trends in thermal management strategies, materials and fluids
  • Emerging alternatives
  • Fire protection materials
  • EV use-cases
  • Primary information from key players
  • Company profiles
10 Year Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • BEVs with heat pumps: market share 2015-2023 and forecast to 2035
  • EV refrigerant forecast (kg) 2015-2035
  • EV oil forecast (L) 2015-2035
  • EV water-glycol forecast (L) 2015-2035
  • Air, liquid, refrigerant, and immersion-cooled BEVs and PHEVs (by kWh): regional market share 2015-2023 and forecast to 2035
  • Immersion fluid forecast to 2035 for passenger cars, and construction, agriculture, and mining EVs
  • Thermal interface material forecast to 2035 (in tonnes and revenue) split by vehicle category, and gap pad/gap filler/thermally conductive adhesive
1, Fire protection materials forecast to 2035 by inter-cell and pack-level protection
2, Air, oil, and water cooled electric motors for cars in China, Europe, and the US for 2015-2023.
3, Air, oil, and water cooled electric motors for cars forecast to 2035.
4, Air, oil, and water cooled electric car inverters forecast to 2035.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2015 - 2023
CAGRThermal management fluid volume for EVs to grow at 16% CAGR from 2023 to 2035
Forecast Period2024 - 2035
Forecast UnitsUnits, volume, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredCars, buses, trucks, vans, 2-wheelers, 3-wheelers, microcars, construction, agriculture, and mining (depending on forecast).
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.1.The Growing EV Market and Need for Thermal Management
1.2.Optimal Temperatures for Multiple Components
1.3.Battery Thermal Management Competition
1.4.Thermal System Architecture
1.5.BEV Cars with Heat Pumps Forecast (units)
1.6.Coolant Fluids in EVs
1.7.Future Refrigerants - China, North America and Japan
1.8.PFAS Ban - Future Trend in Europe
1.9.Fluids per Vehicle Market Average 2023 and 2035
1.10.Combined Fluid Forecasts for BEV & PHEV Cars 2015-2035 (volume)
1.11.Tier 1 Supplier Revenue 2023
1.12.OEM's Developing Integrated Thermal Management In-house
1.13.Battery Thermal Management Strategy by OEM
1.14.Battery Thermal Management Strategy Forecast 2015-2035 (GWh)
1.15.Immersion Fluid Comparison: Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat
1.16.IDTechEx Outlook for Immersion
1.17.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast in Passenger Cars 2021-2035 (L)
1.18.Thermal Management Options in CAM Markets
1.19.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast in CAM 2023-2035 (L)
1.20.TIM Pack and Module Overview
1.21.Material Options and Market Comparison
1.22.Thermal Conductivity Shift
1.23.TIM Use by Vehicle and by Year
1.24.TIM Mass Forecast for EV Batteries by TIM Type: 2021-2034 (kg)
1.25.Fire Protection Materials: Main Categories
1.26.Density vs Thermal Conductivity for Fire Protection Materials
1.27.Fire Protection Materials Forecast (kg)
1.28.Motor Thermal Management Competition
1.29.Motor Cooling Technology: OEM strategies
1.30.Motor Cooling Strategy Forecast 2015-2035 (units)
1.31.Power Electronics Material Evolution
1.32.Single Side, Dual Side, Indirect, and Direct Cooling
1.33.General Trend of TIMs in Power Electronics (1)
1.34.General Trend of TIMs in Power Electronics (2)
1.35.Advantages, Disadvantages and Drivers for Oil Cooled Inverters
1.36.Inverter Liquid Cooling Strategy Forecast (units): 2015-2035
1.37.Access More With an IDTechEx Subscription
2.1.The Growing EV Market and Need for Thermal Management
2.2.Electric Vehicle Definitions
2.3.Optimal Temperatures for Multiple Components
2.4.Battery Thermal Management Competition
2.5.Motor Thermal Management Competition
2.6.Power Electronics Thermal Management Competition
3.1.Range Calculations
3.2.Impact of Ambient Temperature and Climate Control
3.3.Model Comparison Against Ambient Temperature
3.4.Model Comparison with Climate Control
3.5.Model Comparison with Climate Control
4.1.Holistic Vehicle Thermal Management
4.2.Technology Timeline
4.3.What is a Heat Pump?
4.4.PTC vs Heat Pump
4.5.The Impact on EV Range
4.6.Examples of EVs with Heat Pumps
4.7.BEV Cars with Heat Pumps Forecast (units)
4.8.Challenges with Heat Pump Systems
4.9.Further Innovations
4.10.Vehicle Efficiency Through Cabin Thermal Management
4.11.Advantages of Sophisticated Thermal Management
4.12.Thermal Management Advanced Control: Key Players and Technologies
5.1.Thermal System Architecture
5.2.Thermal System Architecture Examples (1)
5.3.Thermal System Architecture Examples (2)
5.4.BYD ePlatform 3.0
5.5.Thermal System Tier 1 Suppliers
5.6.Tier 1 Supplier Revenue 2023
5.7.High Voltage Coolant Heaters (HVCH)
5.8.High Voltage Coolant Heater (HVCH) Supplier Announcements
5.9.Electric Compressor and Coolant Pump Supplier Announcements
5.10.Integrated Thermal Management Module (iTMM) Supplier Announcements
5.11.OEM's Developing Integrated Thermal Management In-house
5.12.Thermal Management Integration of Pumps and Valves
5.13.Supplying the Whole Thermal System for Commercial Vehicles
6.1.Coolant Fluids in EVs
6.2.What is Different About Fluids Used for EVs?
6.3.Electrical Properties
6.4.Corrosion with Fluids
6.5.Reducing Viscosity
6.6.Alternative Fluids
6.7.Models with EV Specific Fluids
6.8.Lubrizol - Oils for EVs
6.9.Arteco - Water-glycol Coolants for EVs
6.10.Dober - Water-glycol Coolants for EVs
6.11.Cooling the Battery and the eAxle with the Same Fluid
6.12.Coolants: Comparison
6.13.Large Fluid Supplier Announcements
6.14.Refrigerant for EVs
6.15.Future Refrigerants - China, North America and Japan
6.16.Regulations May Impact Future Refrigerant Trends for EVs
6.17.PFAS Ban - Future Trend in Europe
6.18.PFAS-free Refrigerants: R744 and R290
6.19.R744 Performance vs R1234yf in Heat Pumps
6.20.R744 and R290 as Alternatives
6.21.Hyundai and SK Partner for PFAS Free Next Gen Refrigerants
6.22.Refrigerant Content in EV Models
6.23.Impact of Heat Pumps on Refrigerant Content
6.24.EV Refrigerant Forecast 2015-2035 (kg)
6.25.WEG Volume in EV Models
6.26.WEG Forecast for EVs 2015-2035
6.27.Oil Quantity in Oil Cooled Motors Comparison
6.28.Oil for Electric Motors Forecast 2015-2035 (L)
6.29.Fluids per Vehicle Market Average 2023 and 2035
6.30.Summary and Outlook
7.1.Current Technologies and OEM Strategies
7.1.1.Introduction to EV Battery Thermal Management
7.1.2.Active vs Passive Cooling
7.1.3.Passive Battery Cooling Methods
7.1.4.Active Battery Cooling Methods
7.1.5.Air Cooling
7.1.6.Liquid Cooling
7.1.7.Liquid Cooling: Design Options
7.1.8.Refrigerant Cooling
7.1.9.Hyundai Considering Refrigerant Cooling
7.1.10.Cooling Strategy Thermal Properties
7.1.11.Analysis of Battery Cooling Methods
7.1.12.Battery Thermal Management Strategy by OEM
7.1.13.OEMs are Converging on Liquid Cooling
7.1.14.Liquid Cooling Enables Fast Charging
7.1.15.Higher Battery Capacities and Liquid Cooling 2015-2023
7.1.16.Why Liquid Cooling Dominates
7.1.17.Cooling Strategy Market Share by Region 2015-2023
7.1.18.Cooling Strategy Market Share by Cell Type 2015-2023
7.1.19.Cooling Strategy Market Share Forecast 2015-2035
7.1.20.Battery Thermal Management Strategy Forecast 2015-2035 (GWh)
7.1.21.IDTechEx Outlook
7.1.22.System Changes Moving to 800V
7.1.23.Thermal Management in 800V Systems
7.1.24.Thermal Management in 800V Systems
7.1.25.Thermal Management in Cell-to-pack Designs
7.1.26.WEG Content Reduction in Tesla Cell-to-pack
7.2.Immersion Cooling for Li-ion Batteries in EVs
7.2.2.Fluids and Benchmarking
7.2.3.Players and Partnerships
7.2.4.Outlook and Forecasts
7.3.Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
7.3.1.Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
7.3.2.Phase Change Materials as Thermal Energy Storage
7.3.3.PCM Categories and Pros and Cons
7.3.4.PCM vs Battery Case Study
7.3.5.Fast Charging Using Phase Change Thermal Management - AllCell (Beam Global)
7.3.6.Calogy Solutions - heat pipe integration with PCMs
7.3.7.Phase Change Materials - players
7.3.8.PCM Categories and Pros and Cons
7.3.9.PCMs - Players in EVs
7.3.10.AllCell (Beam Global)
7.3.11.Operating Temperature Range of Commercial PCMs
7.3.12.Thermal Conductivity and Density Comparison of EV Battery PCMs
7.3.13.PCMs - Use-case and Outlook
7.4.Heat Spreaders and Cooling Plates
7.4.1.Inter-cell Heat Spreaders or Cooling Plates
7.4.2.Chevrolet Volt and Dana
7.4.3.Tesla and CATL Side Wall Cooling
7.4.4.Stanley - Inter-cell Heat Spreaders and Protection
7.4.5.Miba - Flexible Cooler
7.4.6.GMC Hummer EV Example
7.4.7.Advanced Cold Plate Design
7.4.8.Roll Bond aluminium Cold Plates
7.4.9.Examples of Cold Plate Design
7.4.10.Erbslöh Aluminum
7.4.11.DuPont - Hybrid Composite/metal Cooling Plate
7.4.12.L&L Products - Structural Adhesive to Enable a New Cold Plate Design
7.4.13.Senior Flexonics - Battery Cold Plate Materials Choice
7.4.14.Polymer Heat Exchangers?
7.4.15.Graphite Heat Spreaders
7.4.16.NeoGraf - Graphitic Thermal Materials
7.4.17.Integrating the Cold Plate into the Enclosure
7.4.18.Cold Plate Suppliers (1)
7.4.19.Cold Plate Suppliers (2)
7.4.20.Cold Plate Suppliers (3)
7.5.Coolant Hoses
7.5.1.Coolant Hoses for EVs
7.5.2.Coolant Hose Material
7.5.3.Alternate Hose Materials (1)
7.5.4.Alternate Hose Materials (2)
7.5.5.Alternate Hose Materials (3)
7.6.Other Notable Developments
7.6.1.Printed Temperature Sensors Continue to Attract Interest for Thermal Management Applications
7.6.2.Monitoring Swelling in EV Batteries Using Hybrid Printed Temperature and Force Sensors
7.6.3.Market Drivers and Examples of Temperature Monitoring Using Printed Sensors
7.6.4.Thermal Management Leading Focus for Automotive Printed Sensors
7.6.5.Tab Cooling Rather Than Surface Cooling
7.6.6.Thermoelectric Cooling
7.6.7.Skin Cooling: Aptera Solar EV
7.6.8.MOF-based Composite Materials
7.7.Thermal Management of EV Batteries: Use-cases
7.7.1.Audi e-tron
7.7.2.Audi e-tron GT
7.7.3.BMW i3
7.7.4.BMW i4 and iX
7.7.5.BMW 330e PHEV
7.7.6.BYD Blade
7.7.7.CATL CTP 3.0
7.7.8.Chevrolet Bolt
7.7.9.Faraday Future FF 91
7.7.10.Ford Mustang Mach-E/Transit/F150 battery
7.7.11.Hyundai Kona
7.7.12.Hyundai E-GMP
7.7.13.Jaguar I-PACE
7.7.14.Mercedes EQS
7.7.15.MG ZS EV
7.7.16.MG Cell-to-pack
7.7.18.Rimac Technology
7.7.20.Romeo Power
7.7.21.Tesla Model S P85D
7.7.22.Tesla Model 3/Y
7.7.23.Tesla Model 3/Y prismatic LFP pack
7.7.24.Tesla Model S Plaid
7.7.25.Tesla 4680 Pack
7.7.26.Toyota Prius PHEV
7.7.27.Toyota RAV4 PHEV
7.7.29.VW MEB Platform
7.8.Thermal Interface Materials for EV Battery Packs
7.8.1.Introduction to Thermal Interface Materials for EVs
7.8.2.TIM Pack and Module Overview
7.8.3.TIM Application - Pack and Modules
7.8.4.TIM Application by Cell Format
7.8.5.Key Properties for TIMs in EVs
7.8.6.Gap Pads in EV Batteries
7.8.7.Switching to Gap fillers from Pads
7.8.8.Dispensing TIMs Introduction and Challenges
7.8.9.Challenges for Dispensing TIM
7.8.10.Thermally Conductive Adhesives in EV Batteries
7.8.11.Material Options and Market Comparison
7.8.12.TIM Chemistry Comparison
7.8.13.The Silicone Dilemma for the Automotive Market
7.8.14.Thermal Interface Material Fillers for EV Batteries
7.8.15.TIM Filler Comparison and Adoption
7.8.16.Thermal Conductivity Comparison of Suppliers
7.8.17.Factors Impacting TIM Pricing
7.8.18.TIM Pricing by Supplier
7.8.19.TIM in Cell-to-pack Designs
7.8.20.TIM Players
7.8.21.TIM EV Use Cases
7.8.22.TIM Forecasts
7.9.Fire Protection Materials
7.9.1.Thermal Runaway and Fires in EVs
7.9.2.Battery Fires and Related Recalls (automotive)
7.9.3.Automotive Fire Incidents: OEMs and Situations
7.9.4.EV Fires Compared to ICEs (1)
7.9.5.EV Fires Compared to ICEs (2)
7.9.7.What are Fire Protection Materials?
7.9.8.Fire Protection Materials: Main Categories
7.9.9.Material Comparison
7.9.10.Density vs Thermal Conductivity for Fire Protection Materials
7.9.11.Material Market Shares 2023
7.9.12.Fire Protection Materials Forecast (kg)
7.9.13.Fire Protection Materials
8.1.Overview of Charging Levels
8.2.Six Key Market Trends in EV Charging
8.3.Thermal Considerations for Fast Charging
8.4.Megawatt Charging: a New Segment of High-power DC Fast Charging
8.5.Thermal Management Strategies in HPC
8.6.Cable Cooling to Achieve High Power Charging
8.7.Leoni Liquid Cooled Charging Cables
8.8.Phoenix Contact - Liquid Cooling for Fast Charging
8.9.Brugg eConnect Cooling Units
8.10.TE Connectivity - Thermal Management Opportunities (I)
8.11.TE Connectivity - Thermal Management Opportunities (II)
8.12.CPC - Liquid Cooling for EV Charging (I)
8.13.CPC - Liquid Cooling for EV Charging (II)
8.14.Tesla Liquid-cooled Connector for Ultra fast Charging
8.15.Tesla Adopts Liquid-cooled Cable for its Supercharger
8.16.ITT Cannon's Liquid-cooled HPC Solution
8.17.Immersion Cooled Charging Stations
8.18.Two-phase Cooled Charging Cables: Ford
8.19.Commercial Charger Benchmark: Cooling Technology
8.20.Tesla MW Charging
8.21.Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
9.1.1.Summary of Traction Motor Types
9.1.2.Electric Motor Type Market Share
9.1.3.Cooling Electric Motors
9.2.Motor Cooling Strategies
9.2.1.Air Cooling
9.2.2.Water-glycol Cooling
9.2.3.Oil Cooling
9.2.4.Electric Motor Thermal Management Overview
9.2.5.Motor Cooling Strategy by Power
9.2.6.Cooling Strategy by Motor Type
9.2.7.Cooling Technology: OEM strategies
9.2.8.Motor Cooling Strategy by Region (2015-2023)
9.2.9.Motor Cooling Strategy Market Share (2015-2023)
9.2.10.Motor Cooling Strategy Forecast 2015-2035 (units)
9.2.11.Alternate Cooling Structures
9.2.12.Refrigerant Cooling
9.2.13.Immersion Cooling
9.2.14.Phase Change Materials
9.2.15.Reducing Heavy Rare Earths Through Thermal Management
9.3.Motor Insulation and Encapsulation
9.3.1.Impregnation and Encapsulation
9.3.2.Potting and Encapsulation: Players
9.3.3.Axalta - Motor Insulation
9.3.4.Eaton - nanocomposite PEEK insulation
9.3.5.Elantas - Insulation Systems for 800V Motors
9.3.6.Huntsman - Epoxy Encapsulation and Impregnation
9.3.7.Solvay - PEEK insulation
9.3.8.Sumitomo Bakelite - Composite Stator Encapsulation
9.3.9.Insulating Hairpin Windings
9.4.Emerging Motor Technologies
9.4.1.Axial Flux Motors
9.4.2.Axial Flux Motors Enter the EV Market
9.4.3.Thermal Management for Axial Flux Motors
9.4.4.In-wheel motors
9.4.5.Electric Motor Research
9.5.Thermal Management of EV motors: OEM Use-cases
9.5.1.Audi e-tron
9.5.2.Audi Q4 e-tron
9.5.3.BMW i3
9.5.4.BMW 5th Gen Drive
9.5.5.BorgWarner's EESM Development
9.5.6.Bosch - commercial vehicle motors
9.5.7.BYD e-Platform 3.0
9.5.8.Chevrolet Bolt (LG)
9.5.9.Equipmake: Spoke Geometry
9.5.10.Ford Mustang Mach-E
9.5.11.GKN Automotive
9.5.12.GM Ultium Drive
9.5.13.Jaguar I-PACE
9.5.14.Huawei - Intelligent Oil Cooling
9.5.15.Hyundai E-GMP
9.5.16.Koenigsegg - Raxial Flux
9.5.17.LiveWire (Harley Davidson)
9.5.18.Lucid Air
9.5.19.MAHLE - Magnet Free Oil Cooled Motor
9.5.20.Magna's Latest eDrive
9.5.21.Mercedes EQ
9.5.22.Nidec - Gen.2 drive
9.5.23.Nissan Leaf
9.5.25.Rivian Enduro Drive Unit
9.5.26.SAIC - Oil Cooling System
9.5.27.Schaeffler - Truck Motors
9.5.28.Tesla Cybertruck
9.5.29.Tesla Model S (pre-2021)
9.5.30.Tesla Model 3
9.5.31.Toyota Prius
9.5.32.VW ID3/ID4
9.5.33.Yamaha - hypercar electric motor
9.5.34.ZF - Commercial Vehicle Motors
9.5.35.ZF - Motor Innovations
10.1.Power Electronics and Thermal Management Overview
10.1.1.What is Power Electronics?
10.1.2.Power Electronics Use in Electric Vehicles
10.1.3.Power Electronics Material Evolution
10.1.4.Transistor History & MOSFET Overview - How Does it Affect Thermal Management?
10.1.5.Wide Bandgap (WBG) Semiconductor Advantages & Disadvantages
10.1.6.Benchmarking Silicon, Silicon Carbide & Gallium Nitride Semiconductors
10.1.7.The Transition to SiC (market share 2015-2023)
10.1.8.SiC Drives 800V Platforms
10.1.9.Traditional EV Inverter Power Modules
10.1.10.Inverter Package Designs
10.1.11.Traditional Power Module Packaging
10.1.12.Baseplate, Heat sink, and Encapsulation Materials
10.1.13.Cooling Concept Assessment
10.2.Single- vs Double-Sided Cooling
10.2.1.Single Side, Dual Side, Indirect, and Direct Cooling
10.2.2.Benefits and Drawbacks of Single-Sided Cooling
10.2.3.TIM2 Area Largely Similar for Single-Sided Cooling
10.2.4.Key Summary of Double-Sided Cooling (DSC)
10.2.5.The Need for Double-Sided Cooling in Power Modules
10.2.6.Infineon's HybridPACK DSC
10.2.7.Inner Structure of HybridPACK DSC
10.2.8.Trend Towards Double-Sided Cooling for Automotive Applications
10.2.9.Market Share of Single and Double-Sided Cooling: 2024-2034
10.3.TIM1 and TIM2
10.3.1.General Trend of TIMs in Power Electronics (1)
10.3.2.General Trend of TIMs in Power Electronics (2)
10.3.3.Introduction to TIM1
10.3.4.Solder TIM1 and Liquid Metal
10.3.5.Trend Towards Sintering
10.3.6.Why Sliver Sintering
10.3.7.Gamechanger? Threats to Ag - Cu sintering pastes
10.3.8.Copper Sintering - Challenges
10.3.9.Market News and Trends of Sintering
10.3.10.Thermal Interface Material 2 - Summary
10.3.11.TIM2 - IDTechEx's Analysis on Promising TIM2
10.3.12.Where are TIM2 Used in EV IGBTs?
10.3.13.IGBTs and SiC are not the Only TIM Area in Inverters
10.4.Wire Bonding
10.4.1.Wire Bonds
10.4.2.Al Wire Bonds: A Common Failure Point
10.4.3.Advanced Wire Bonding Techniques
10.4.4.Tesla's Novel Bonding Technique
10.4.5.Die Top System - Heraeus
10.5.Substrate Materials
10.5.1.The Choice of Ceramic Substrate Technology
10.5.2.The Choice of Ceramic Substrate Technology
10.5.3.Materials of Substrate - Comparison
10.5.4.Comparison of Al2O3, ZTA, and Si3N4 Substrate
10.5.5.Approaches to Metallization: DPC, DBC, AMB and Thick Film Metallization
10.5.6.Si3N4 Substrate: Overall Best Performance with Low Cost-Effectiveness
10.5.7.Si3N4 Ag Free AMB Market Position
10.6.Cooling Power Electronics: Water or Oil
10.6.1.Inverter Package Cooling
10.6.2.Direct and Indirect Cooling (1)
10.6.3.Direct and Indirect Cooling (2)
10.6.4.Drive Unit Cooling with a Single Fluid
10.6.5.Drivers for Direct Oil Cooling of Inverters
10.6.6.Advantages, Disadvantages and Drivers for Oil Cooled Inverters
10.6.7.Direct Oil Cooling Projects
10.6.8.Inverter Liquid Cooling Strategy Forecast (units): 2015-2035
10.6.9.Further EV Power Electronics Research
10.7.Liquid Cooled Inverter Examples
10.7.1.BorgWarner Heat Sinks
10.7.2.Ford Mustang Mach-E
10.7.3.Fraunhofer and Marelli - Directly Cooled Inverter
10.7.4.Hitachi - Oil Cooled Inverter
10.7.5.Jaguar I-PACE 2019
10.7.6.Lucid - Water Cooled Onboard Charger
10.7.7.Nissan Leaf
10.7.8.Renault Zoe 2013 (Continental)
10.7.10.Senior Flexonics - IGBT Heat Sink Design
10.7.11.Tesla Model 3
10.7.12.VW ID
11.1.Forecast Methodology
11.2.BEV Cars with Heat Pumps Forecast (units)
11.3.EV Refrigerant Forecast 2015-2035 (kg)
11.4.WEG Forecast for EVs 2015-2035
11.5.Oil for Electric Motors Forecast 2015-2035 (L)
11.6.Battery Thermal Management Strategy Forecast 2015-2035 (GWh)
11.7.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast in Passenger Cars 2021-2035 (L)
11.8.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast in CAM 2023-2035 (L)
11.9.Combined Fluid Forecasts for BEV & PHEV Cars 2015-2035 (volume)
11.10.TIM Mass Forecast for EV Batteries by TIM Type: 2021-2034 (kg)
11.11.TIM Market Size Forecast for EV Batteries by TIM Type: 2021-2034 (US$)
11.12.TIM Forecast for EV Batteries by Vehicle Type: 2021-2034 (kg and US$)
11.13.Fire Protection Materials Forecast (kg)
11.14.Motor Cooling Strategy Forecast 2015-2035 (units)
11.15.Inverter Liquid Cooling Strategy Forecast (units): 2015-2035
12.1.AllCell Technologies (Beam Global): Phase Change Material for EVs
12.2.Amphenol Advanced Sensors
12.4.Cadenza Innovation
12.5.Carrar: Two-Phase Immersion Cooling for EVs
12.11.Engineered Fluids
12.12.FUCHS: Dielectric Immersion Fluids for EVs
12.13.KULR Technology
12.15.M&I Materials
12.17.Solvay Specialty Polymers
12.18.Ultimate Transmissions
12.21.WEVO Chemie: Battery Thermal Management Materials
12.23.XING Mobility

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Gestione termica per veicoli elettrici 2025-2035: materiali, mercati e tecnologie

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Report Statistics

Slides 553
Companies 23
Forecasts to 2035
Published Jun 2024
ISBN 9781835700433

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