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ตลาดหมึกนำไฟฟ้า 2023-2033

อนุภาคนาโนที่ปราศจากอนุภาค, ทองแดง, ยืด, หมึก nanowire thermoformable สำหรับเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์, ป้องกัน EMI, อิเล็กทรอนิกส์พิมพ์, อิเล็กทรอนิกส์ไฮบริดที่มีความยืดหยุ่น, อุปกรณ์อิเล็กทรอนิกส์ที่สวมใส่ได้, e-สิ่งทอ, อิเล็กทรอนิกส์ 3D

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IDTechEx's report 'Conductive Ink Market 2023-2033' comprehensively explores this crucial material technology that underpins both photovoltaics and the emerging field of printed electronics. Based on interviews with over 30 companies, the report assesses the market for each of 8 different conductive ink types across 15 different applications. Conductive ink types include flake-based silver, nanoparticle-based silver, copper, stretchable/thermoformable and particle-free, while applications include photovoltaics, multiple types of printed sensors, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), in-mold electronics (IME), and RFID/smart packaging. This detailed segmentation provides 39 distinct forecast lines, providing a clear picture of the status of the market for each ink type and future opportunities. The market as a whole is currently valued at US$2.7B, and forecast to grow to US$4.5B by 2033, with all this growth coming from emerging applications across printed/flexible/wearable electronics rather than from silicon photovoltaics.
Primary insight from interviews with individual players, ranging from established players to innovative start-ups, is included via over 30 detailed company profiles that include discussion of both technology and business models along with SWOT analysis. Additionally, the report includes analysis of conductive ink parameter space, based on a database of over 100 conductive inks that includes curing time, conductivity, and viscosity. Together with segmentation of suppliers by ink type, this should assist with gaining a comprehensive picture of the global conductive ink market.
Conductive ink types and applications covered in the report.
Technical developments
Flake-based conductive inks are a longstanding technology, widely used for metallizing the upper surface of photovoltaic panels for charge extraction. However, this market is unlikely to keep up with growth in PV panels, with new technologies developing to reduce the amount of silver ink required. Instead, much of the growth will come from emerging applications across the printed flexible electronics space.
This broadening of the application space creates opportunities for emerging conductive ink formulations that aim to meet specific application requirements:
  • Particle-free conductive inks are metallized in situ, producing a smooth, thin conductive layer ideally suited to high frequency EMI shielding and antennas. The very low viscosity also makes these inks ideally suited to high resolution deposition techniques such as aerosol printing.
  • Nanoparticle-based conductive inks offer higher conductivity, enabling more compact circuit designs.
  • Liquid metal gel makes an ideal stretchable ink since there is no increase in resistance over time - the conductive liquid flows to accommodate the dimensional change. It is primarily targeted at wearable strain sensors.
  • Copper-based inks with additives that prevent oxidation during sintering. These are gaining significant traction, with major electronics manufacturers running qualification projects. Copper inks are especially suitable where cost is the main driver, such as RFID/smart packaging antennas.
Application opportunities
As a platform technology for printed electronics, conductive inks can be utilized in a remarkably wide range of applications, spanning market verticals ranging from healthcare to energy. This report divides the conductive ink application space into 15 segments, each outlining:
  • Introduction to the application.
  • Assessment of technological and commercial status.
  • Conductive ink requirements for that specific application.
  • Examples of conductive inks targeting that application.
  • Market forecast, including the adoption of different ink types where appropriate.
Some of the most promising conductive ink applications, due to the potential for both rapid growth and specialist ink requirements enabling differentiation, are electronic skin patches, strain sensors, and in-mold electronics (IME).
The growth in printed/flexible/hybrid electronics, especially where it enables new applications and even business models such as electronic skin patches for remote health monitoring and smart packaging, will drive the growth of the conductive ink market over the next decade. Furthermore, many emerging applications, such is in-mold electronics, e-textiles, and high-frequency antennas, have specific ink requirements that provide an opportunity for differentiation.
Key questions answered in this report
  • What types of conductive inks are produced by each supplier?
  • How will rising silver prices impact the conductive ink market?
  • What are the requirements for each conductive ink application, and how much ink is used in each?
  • What is the technological and market readiness of each conductive ink application?
  • What are the key growth opportunities where there is scope for differentiation?
  • Who are the key players producing each type of ink?
IDTechEx has 20 years of expertise covering printed and flexible electronics, including conductive inks. Our analysts have closely followed the latest developments in the technology and associated markets by interviewing many conductive ink suppliers and users and annually attending multiple printed electronics conferences such as LOPEC and FLEX. This report provides a complete picture of the fragmented conductive ink landscape, helping to inform product development and positioning.
This report provides the following information:
Technology trends & manufacturer analysis:
  • Comparison of 8 conductive ink types and suppliers across multiple metrics, including conductivity, curing time, and curing temperature.
  • Assessment of the specific requirements of 15 conductive inks applications, including emerging areas such as electronic skin patches and in-mold electronics (IME).
  • Outlook for each of the 15 conductive applications, including specific conclusions relevant to conductive inks.
  • Examples of conductive inks formulated for many different applications.
  • Segmentation of the fragmented conductive ink manufacturing landscape by both metal (silver, copper, etc) and formulation (flakes, nano-particles, particle-free etc).
  • Over 30 company profiles of conductive ink manufacturers, including SWOT analysis and size along with discussion of value proposition and target applications.
  • Discussion of how contract manufacturers and EMS companies are qualifying conductive inks for mass production.
  • Pricing for each conductive ink type, based on discussion with suppliers and analysis of published prices. This will include estimates of how the value is divided amongst materials and processing steps.
  • Assessment of how rising silver prices will affect the conductive ink market.
  • Benchmarking of conductive ink types and application requirements, enabling assessment of suitability.
Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • Market size and 10-year market forecasts segmented by both conductive ink types and applications.
  • Assessment of technological and commercial readiness level for different types and applications of conductive ink.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.1.Introduction to conductive inks
1.2.Market evolution and new opportunities
1.3.What are the key growth markets for conductive inks?
1.4.Balancing differentiation and ease of adoption (I)
1.5.Balancing differentiation and ease of adoption (II)
1.6.Capturing value from conductive ink facilitated digitization via collaboration
1.7.Reducing adoption barriers by supplying both printer and ink
1.8.Rheology and viscosity: Important considerations in determining printer compatibility
1.9.Strategies for conductive ink cost reduction
1.10.Rising material prices expected to drive alternatives to flake-based inks
1.11.Segmenting conductive ink materials
1.12.Segmentation of conductive ink technologies used in this report
1.13.Readiness level of conductive inks
1.14.Flake-based silver inks: Conclusions
1.15.Nanoparticle-based silver inks: Conclusions
1.16.Particle-free conductive inks: Conclusions
1.17.Copper inks: Conclusions
1.18.Carbon-based inks (including graphene and CNTs): Conclusions
1.19.Stretchable/thermoformable inks: Conclusions
1.20.Silver nanowires: Conclusions
1.21.Conductive polymer ink types: Conclusions
1.22.Applications for conductive inks: Overview
1.23.Technological and commercial readiness of conductive ink applications
1.24.Forecast: Overall conductive ink volume (segmented by ink type)
1.25.Forecast: Overall conductive ink revenue (segmented by ink type)
2.1.Mapping conductivity vs application
2.2.Conductivity requirements by application
2.3.Challenges of comparing conductive inks
2.4.Converting conductivity to sheet resistance
2.5.Motivation for using printed electronics (and hence conductive inks)
2.6.Frequency dependent conductivity for antennas and EMI shielding
2.7.Conductive ink suppliers: Specialization vs broad portfolio
2.8.Conductive ink companies segmented by conductive material
2.9.Insights from company segmentation by conductive material
2.10.Conductive ink companies segmented by composition
2.11.Insights from company segmentation by formulation
3.1.Market forecasting methodology
3.2.Forecasting across conductive ink applications (I)
3.3.Forecasting across conductive ink applications (II)
3.4.Information acquisition for conductive ink forecasts
3.5.Forecast: Overall conductive ink volume (segmented by ink type)
3.6.Forecast: Overall conductive ink revenue (segmented by ink type)
3.7.Forecast: Conductive inks for flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
3.8.Forecast: Conductive inks for in-mold electronics (IME)
3.9.Forecast: Conductive inks for 3D electronics (partially additive)
3.10.Forecast: Conductive inks for 3D electronics (fully additive)
3.11.Forecast: Conductive inks e-textiles
3.12.Forecast: Conductive inks for circuit prototyping
3.13.Forecast: Conductive inks for capacitive sensors
3.14.Forecast: Conductive inks for pressure sensors
3.15.Forecast: Conductive inks for biosensors
3.16.Forecast: Conductive inks for strain sensors
3.17.Forecast: Conductive inks for wearable electrodes
3.18.Forecast: Conductive inks for photovoltaics (conventional/rigid)
3.19.Forecast: Conductive inks for photovoltaics (flexible)
3.20.Forecast: Conductive inks for printed heaters
3.21.Forecast: Conductive inks for EMI shielding
3.22.Forecast: Conductive inks for antennas (for communications)
3.23.Forecast: Conductive inks for RFID and smart packaging
4.1.1.Segmenting the conductive ink landscape
4.1.2.Segmentation of conductive ink technologies used in this report
4.1.3.Benchmarking conductive ink properties
4.2.Flake-based silver inks
4.2.1.Thinner flakes improves conductivity and durability
4.2.2.Flake-based silver ink value chain
4.2.3.High resolution functional screen printing
4.2.4.Is silver electromigration a concern?
4.2.5.Comparing properties of flake-based silver inks
4.2.6.SWOT analysis: Flake-based inks
4.2.7.Flake-based silver inks: Conclusions
4.3.Nanoparticle-based silver inks
4.3.1.Silver nanoparticle inks: Key value propositions
4.3.2.Silver nanoparticle inks: higher conductivity
4.3.3.Are you buying ink or buying conductivity?
4.3.4.Microstructural homogeneity increases conductivity
4.3.5.Additional benefits of nanoparticle inks
4.3.6.Price competitiveness of silver nanoparticles
4.3.7.Ag nanoparticle inks: Do they really cure fast and at lower temperatures?
4.3.8.Benchmarking parameters for silver nanoparticle production methods
4.3.9.Comparing silver nanoparticle production methods (I)
4.3.10.Comparing silver nanoparticle production methods (II)
4.3.11.Multiple application opportunities for nanoparticle inks
4.3.12.Overview of selected nanoparticle ink manufacturers
4.3.13.Comparing properties of nanoparticle-based silver inks
4.3.14.SWOT analysis: Nanoparticle inks
4.3.15.Nanoparticle-based silver inks: Conclusions
4.4.Particle-free inks
4.4.1.Particle-free (molecular) conductive inks: An introduction
4.4.2.Operating principle of particle-free inks
4.4.3.Conductivity close to bulk metals
4.4.4.Highly smooth surfaces for high-frequency conductivity
4.4.5.Low viscosity enables high resolution digital printing methods
4.4.6.Permeability of particle-free inks enables conductive textiles
4.4.7.Thermoformable particle-free inks for in-mold electronics
4.4.8.Application opportunities for particle free inks
4.4.9.Value propositions of particle-free inks
4.4.10.Particle-free conductive inks for different metals
4.4.11.Differentiating particle-free conductive inks with sintering requirements
4.4.12.Overview of particle free ink manufacturers
4.4.13.Comparing properties of particle-free silver inks
4.4.14.SWOT analysis: Particle-free conductive inks
4.4.15.Particle-free conductive inks: Conclusions
4.5.Copper inks
4.5.1.Copper inks: An introduction
4.5.2.Challenges in developing copper inks
4.5.3.Commercially unsuccessful strategies to avoid copper oxidation
4.5.4.Strategies to avoid copper oxidation: Reducing agent additives
4.5.5.Strategies to avoid copper oxidation: Photonic sintering
4.5.6.Growing interest in utilizing copper ink for FHE (I)
4.5.7.Growing interest in utilizing copper ink for FHE (II)
4.5.8.Recent collaborations utilizing copper inks
4.5.9.PrintCB: Two component copper ink based on micron-scale particles
4.5.10.Copprint: Commercializing nano-particle based copper
4.5.11.Overview of early-stage copper ink companies
4.5.12.Comparing properties of selected copper inks
4.5.13.SWOT analysis: Copper-based inks
4.5.14.Copper inks: Conclusions
4.6.Carbon based inks (including graphene and CNTs)
4.6.1.Carbon based inks (including graphene and CNTs): An introduction
4.6.2.Carbon-based inks: two distinct categories
4.6.3.CNTs as a transparent conductive ink
4.6.4.Material properties of transparent conductive materials
4.6.5.Overview of graphene/CNT ink companies
4.6.6.Comparing properties of selected copper inks
4.6.7.SWOT analysis: Carbon black conductive inks
4.6.8.Nano-structured carbon conductive inks: SWOT
4.6.9.Carbon-based inks (including graphene and CNTs): Conclusions
4.7.Stretchable/thermoformable inks
4.7.1.Stretchable/thermoformable inks: An introduction
4.7.2.Stretchable vs thermoformable conductive inks
4.7.3.The role of particle size in stretchable inks
4.7.4.New ink requirements: Portfolio approach
4.7.5.Stretchable and thermoformable electronics: Technology readiness
4.7.6.Innovations in stretchable conductive ink
4.7.7.Metal gel as a stretchable ink
4.7.8.Comparing properties of stretchable/thermoformable conductive inks
4.7.9.Company profiles: Stretchable/thermoformable ink
4.7.10.Stretchable/thermoformable inks: SWOT
4.7.11.Stretchable/thermoformable inks: Conclusions
4.8.Silver nanowires
4.8.1.Silver nanowires: An introduction
4.8.2.Benefits of silver nanowire TCFs
4.8.3.Drawbacks of silver nanowire TCFs
4.8.4.Value chain for silver nanowires
4.8.5.Percolation thresholds and aspect ratio
4.8.6.AgNW TCF durability and flexibility
4.8.7.Improving material properties - gluing and 'welding'
4.8.8.Improving material properties - coating and encapsulation
4.8.9.Silver nanowires gain traction in touchscreens
4.8.10.Silver nanowires for transparent heaters
4.8.11.Technology readiness level snapshot of silver nanowire technologies
4.8.12.Global distribution of silver nanowire producers
4.8.13.SWOT analysis of silver nanowire TCFs
4.8.14.Silver nanowires: Conclusions
4.9.Conductive polymers
4.9.1.Conductive polymers: An introduction
4.9.2.Polythiophene-based conductive films for flexible devices
4.9.3.Applications for conductive polymers for transparent capacitive touch and e-textiles
4.9.4.Emerging sensitive sensor readout facilitates conductive polymers for capacitive touch
4.9.5.Innovative n-type conductive polymer
4.9.6.Conductive polymer inks: SWOT
4.9.7.Conductive polymer ink types: Conclusions
5.1.1.Applications for conductive inks: Overview
5.1.2.Benchmarking conductive ink application requirements
5.1.3.Technological and commercial readiness of conductive ink applications
5.1.4.Applications for conductive inks: Included content
5.2.Conductive ink for circuit manufacturing
5.2.1.Conductive ink for circuit manufacturing
5.3.Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
5.3.1.FHE: Best of both approaches
5.3.2.What counts as FHE?
5.3.3.Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
5.3.4.FHE value chain: Many materials and technologies
5.3.5.Wearable skin patches - another stretchable ink application
5.3.6.Condition monitoring multimodal sensor array
5.3.7.Multi-sensor wireless asset tracking system demonstrates FHE potential
5.3.8.Conductive ink requirements for flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
5.3.9.SWOT analysis: Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
5.3.10.Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE): Conclusions
5.4.In-mold electronics (IME)
5.4.1.Introduction to in-mold electronics (IME)
5.4.2.IME manufacturing process flow
5.4.3.Commercial advantages of IME
5.4.4.IME value chain overview
5.4.5.IME requires a wide range of specialist materials
5.4.6.In-mold electronics requires stretchability
5.4.7.Materials for IME: A portfolio approach
5.4.8.All materials in the stack must be compatible: Conductivity perspective
5.4.9.Silver flake-based ink dominates IME
5.4.10.In-mold electronics requires thermoformable conductive inks (I)
5.4.11.Conductive ink requirements for in-mold electronics
5.4.12.SWOT analysis: In-mold electronics
5.4.13.In-mold electronics (IME): Conclusions
5.5.3D electronics
5.5.1.Additive electronics and the transition to three dimensions
5.5.2.Advantages of fully additively manufactured 3D electronics
5.5.3.Fully 3D printed electronics
5.5.4.Examples of fully 3D printed circuits
5.5.5.Conductive ink requirements for 3D electronics
5.5.6.SWOT analysis: 3D printed electronics electronics: Conclusions
5.6.1.E-Textiles: Where textiles meet electronics
5.6.2.E-textile industry challenges
5.6.3.Biometric monitoring in apparel
5.6.4.Sensing functionality woven into textiles
5.6.5.Commercial progress with e-textile projects
5.6.6.Conductive ink requirements for e-textiles
5.6.7.E-textiles: SWOT analysis
5.6.8.E-textiles: Conclusions
5.7.Circuit prototyping
5.7.1.PCB prototyping and 'print-then-plate' methodologies.
5.7.2.Circuit prototyping and 3D electronics landscape
5.7.3.Conductive ink requirements for circuit prototyping
5.7.4.Readiness level of additive manufacturing technologies
5.7.5.Circuit prototyping: SWOT analysis
5.7.6.Circuit prototyping: Conclusions
5.8.Sensing applications for conductive inks
5.8.1.Sensing applications for conductive inks
5.8.2.Industry 4.0 requires printed sensors
5.8.3.Printed/flexible sensors - A growing market for conductive inks
5.8.4.Key markets for printed/flexible sensors
5.9.Capacitive sensing
5.9.1.Capacitive sensors: Working principle
5.9.2.Hybrid capacitive/pressure sensors
5.9.3.Conductive materials for transparent capacitive sensors
5.9.4.Quantitative benchmarking of different transparent conductive film technologies
5.9.5.Use case examples of PEDOT:PSS for capacitive touch sensors
5.9.6.Readiness level of capacitive touch sensors materials and technologies
5.9.7.Conductive ink requirements for capacitive sensors
5.9.8.Printed capacitive sensors: SWOT analysis
5.9.9.Printed capacitive sensors: Conclusions
5.10.Pressure sensors
5.10.1.Printed piezoresistive sensors: An introduction
5.10.2.Force sensitive inks
5.10.3.Mass production of printed sensors
5.10.4.Summary: Printed pressure sensors
5.10.5.Conductive ink requirements for printed pressure sensors
5.10.6.Readiness level snapshot of printed piezoresistive sensors
5.10.7.Piezoresistive sensors: SWOT analysis
5.10.8.Piezoelectric sensors: SWOT analysis
5.10.9.Pressure sensors: Conclusions
5.11.1.Electrochemical biosensors present a simple sensing mechanism
5.11.2.Biosensor electrode deposition: screen printing vs sputtering
5.11.3.Challenges for printing electrochemical test strips
5.11.4.Printed pH sensors for biological fluids
5.11.5.Conductive ink requirements for printed biosensors
5.11.6.Printed biosensors: SWOT analysis
5.11.7.Readiness level of printed biosensors
5.11.8.Printed biosensors: Conclusions
5.12.Strain sensors
5.12.1.High strain stretchable sensors
5.12.2.'Stretchable' sensors
5.12.3.Capacitive strain sensors
5.12.4.Resistive strain sensors
5.12.5.Conductive ink requirements for printed strain sensors
5.12.6.Printed strain sensors: SWOT analysis
5.12.7.Technology readiness level snapshot of capacitive strain sensors
5.12.8.Printed strain sensors: Conclusions
5.13.Wearable electrodes
5.13.1.Applications and product types
5.13.2.Key requirements of wearable electrodes
5.13.3.Material suppliers collaboration has enabled large scale trials of wearable skin patches
5.13.4.Wet vs dry electrodes
5.13.5.Wet electrodes: The incumbent technology
5.13.6.Dry electrodes: A more durable emerging solution
5.13.7.Stretchable conductive printed electrodes (Nanoleq)
5.13.8.Conductive ink requirements for wearable electrodes/electronic skin patches
5.13.9.Wearable electrodes/electronic skin patches: SWOT analysis
5.13.10.Readiness level of printed wearable electrodes
5.13.11.Wearable electrodes/electronic skin patches: Conclusions
5.14.Other applications for conductive inks
5.14.1.Other applications for conductive inks
5.15.Charge extraction from photovoltaics
5.15.1.Conductive pastes for photovoltaics: Introduction
5.15.2.Reducing silver content per wafer via ink innovations
5.15.3.Flake-based conductive inks face headwind from alternative solar cell connection technology
5.15.4.Photovoltaic market dynamics
5.15.5.Conductive ink requirements for photovoltaics
5.15.6.Charge extraction from photovoltaics: SWOT analysis
5.15.7.Charge extraction from photovoltaics: Conclusions
5.16.Printed heaters
5.16.1.Introduction to printed heaters
5.16.2.Automotive applications for printed heaters
5.16.3.Emerging building-integrated opportunities for printed (and flexible) heaters
5.16.4.Stretchable conductive inks for wearable heaters
5.16.5.Technology comparison for e-textile heating technologies
5.16.6.Heated clothing is the dominant e-textile sector
5.16.7.Conductive ink requirements for printed heaters
5.16.8.Printed heaters: SWOT analysis
5.16.9.Printed heaters: Conclusions
5.17.EMI shielding
5.17.1.What is electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding?
5.17.2.Process flow for EMI shielding
5.17.3.Spraying EMI shielding: A cost effective solution
5.17.4.Overview of conformal shielding technologies
5.17.5.Particle size and morphology influence EMI shielding
5.17.6.Using hybrid inks improves shielding performance
5.17.7.Suppliers targeting ink-based conformal EMI shielding
5.17.8.EMI shielding with particle-free Ag inks
5.17.9.EMI shielding and heterogeneous integration
5.17.10.Conductive ink requirements for EMI shielding
5.17.11.EMI shielding: SWOT analysis
5.17.12.EMI shielding: Conclusions
5.18.Printed antennas
5.18.1.Segmenting printed antennas
5.18.2.Electronics on 3D surfaces with extruded conductive paste and inkjet printing
5.18.3.Extruded conductive paste for antennas
5.18.4.Addressable market verticals for transparent antennas
5.18.5.Automotive transparent antennas
5.18.6.Building integrated transparent antennas
5.18.7.Transparent antennas for consumer electronic devices
5.18.8.Transparent antennas for smart packaging
5.18.9.Conductive ink requirements for printed antennas
5.18.10.Printed antennas: SWOT analysis
5.18.11.Printed antennas: Conclusions
5.19.RFID and smart packaging
5.19.1.RFID and smart packaging: An introduction
5.19.2.Largest RFID markets in 2022 vs 2032
5.19.3.RFID technologies: The big picture
5.19.4.Printed RFID antennas struggle for traction: Is copper ink a solution?
5.19.5.Smart packaging with flexible hybrid electronics
5.19.6.'Sensor-less' sensing of temperature and movement
5.19.7.Conductive ink requirements for RFID and smart packaging
5.19.8.RFID and smart packaging: SWOT analysis
5.19.9.RFID and smart packaging: Conclusions
6.2.ACI Materials
6.3.Advanced Nano Products
6.5.C3 Nano
6.19.Liquid Wire
6.20.Liquid X
6.23.Nano Dimension
6.29.Promethean Particles
6.32.Sun Chemical
6.33.UT Dots
6.34.Zero Valent Nano Metals

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