IDTechEx คาดการณ์ว่าตลาดส่วนประกอบอิเล็กโทรไลเซอร์น้ำจะสูงถึง 31.7 พันล้านดอลลาร์สหรัฐภายในปี 2034

วัสดุสำหรับการผลิตไฮโดรเจนสีเขียว 2024-2034: เทคโนโลยี ผู้เล่น การคาดการณ์

ข้อกำหนดด้านวัสดุสำหรับกองอิเล็กโทรไลเซอร์ ได้แก่ AWE, AEMEL, PEMEL และ SOECการคาดการณ์ตลาดแบบเม็ด 10 ปีสำหรับส่วนประกอบอิเล็กโทรไลเซอร์ทบทวนวัสดุปัจจุบันและขั้นสูง การออกแบบสแตค เทคโนโลยีการผลิต ผู้เล่นสำคัญ

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IDTechEx forecasts substantial growth in the electrolyzer component sector, projecting a market value of US$31.7 billion by 2034. This expansion is attributed to the expanding green hydrogen industry, where electrolyzers are indispensable. This comprehensive IDTechEx report delves into the current and prospective materials and components utilized in the four main water electrolyzer technologies: alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE), proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), anion exchange membrane electrolyzer (AEMEL), and solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC). It further offers stack costs broken down by component for the AWE, PEMEL and SOEC stacks. In addition, granular 10-year market forecasts, quantifying material and component demand intonnes, square meters (m2), and US$ million annually are presented for these three electrolyzer stacks.
The need for green hydrogen and advanced electrolyzer technologies
Global activities in the hydrogen sector have intensified, with a unified drive from governments, industries, and corporations to transition to a hydrogen economy for decarbonizing sectors that are difficult to electrify directly. Green hydrogen - produced through water electrolysis powered by renewable energy - has emerged as the frontrunner solution, propelled by governmental ambitions to establish substantial gigawatt (GW) scale electrolyzer manufacturing and green hydrogen production capacities by the end of this decade.
The pivot to green hydrogen transcends the goal of sustainable hydrogen production - it is a strategic move to decarbonize industries where electrification is not feasible, such as heavy industry (e.g. petroleum refining) and various transportation sectors (e.g. shipping). These sectors, crucial yet challenging in terms of emissions reduction, can leverage hydrogen as a potent and clean energy vector. Additionally, the integration of green hydrogen into the energy mix enhances energy security and paves the way for potential new market opportunities in the realm of energy storage and coupling of various sectors.
Source: IDTechEx
Critical role of materials and components in electrolyzers
At the heart of the green hydrogen revolution lies the evolution of materials and components within electrolyzer technologies. Advancements in this area are pivotal, aiming to boost electrolyzer efficiency, extend longevity, and mitigate reliance on scarce materials. For example, innovations in PEMEL technology, such as catalysts with reduced iridium content, could significantly alleviate supply chain vulnerabilities associated with iridium's limited availability.
This IDTechEx report provides a comprehensive analysis of the key materials and components across the four electrolyzer technologies, emphasizing both established solutions and prospective advancements. Components analyzed include membranes, catalysts, electrodes, porous transport layers (PTL), gas diffusion layers (GDL), bipolar plates, coatings, gaskets, and end plates, offering insights into their current and future states. Manufacturing methods and potential innovations are also discussed. Furthermore, the report includes extensive lists of stack, material and component suppliers and provides commercial case studies of materials and components.
The focus of this report is on the cell to stack level of electrolyzers. Source: IDTechEx
Alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE) - utilization of widely available materials
The AWE is a mature and established technology. It operates using a liquid alkaline solution (typically KOH) and a porous diaphragm to segregate the half-cell chambers. Its reliance on accessible materials like nickel and stainless steel is a stable trend, which is anticipated to persist. Currently, AWE systems vary between finite-gap and zero-gap configurations, but the industry is gravitating towards the latter, which incorporates porous transport layers (PTLs) for improved efficiency.
AWE manufacturers exhibit diverse designs that are dependent on the operational mode (atmospheric versus pressurized) and cell architecture. This report provides an in-depth examination of material choices and the architectural evolution of the AWE stack, showcasing examples of cutting-edge stacks. It also highlights key innovation priorities and improvements that could be made in existing components. While many AWE have brought stack production in-house, they still depend on external suppliers for numerous components, revealing substantial opportunities for innovation in catalysts and cell configurations within this established technology.
Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL) - management of scarce materials
PEMEL technology has risen in popularity due to its superior efficiency, compact stack size, and flexible operational capabilities, making it ideal for pairing with intermittent renewable energy sources. Despite a trend towards standardization of materials in PEMEL stacks, ongoing innovations continue, especially in anode catalyst development. New catalysts demonstrate comparable catalytic activity with less iridium usage, hence decreasing the materials loading in g/kW, leading to cost reductions.
The report examines various material choices and innovations within PEMEL stacks, from advancements in proton exchange membrane thinning to innovative titanium bipolar plate coating technologies. It details advanced commercial PEMEL designs and key priorities for innovation. Overall, significant enhancements in PEMEL stacks are achievable through novel bipolar plate materials and coatings for the catalyst-coated membrane (CCM), for example.
Anion exchange membrane electrolyzer (AEMEL) - pursuit of high stability
The AEMEL is a newer, up-and-coming technology seeking to combine AWE's abundant materials with the high efficiency of PEMEL stacks. Rapid advancements in the field are evident, with companies like Enapter leading the way in commercial MW-scale systems. The report indicates various material developments, with academic and commercial entities focusing on membranes and catalysts, given the standardization of other components derived from AWE or PEMEL technologies. As a nascent technology, AEMEL has the unique advantage of integrating lessons from AWE and PEMEL, positioning it for innovation.
Solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC) - high-temperature ceramic innovation
The SOEC, although newer and with fewer market participants than AWE and PEMEL, is benefiting from cross-innovation in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) space since SOFC stacks can be operated reversibly and use very similar materials to SOEC. Certain ceramic cell components are well-established due to their application in SOFCs. However, electrode-electrolyte assemblies present an active frontier for development, with significant variations in cell design and materials among stack providers. The report delves into these nuances, exploring the various cell designs. These range from metal- to electrode-supported and utilize diverse ceramic materials, highlighting the potential for material innovation in this high-temperature electrolyzer technology.
Granular 10-year market forecasts segmented by materials and components for AWE, PEMEL & SOEC
To identify the expanding prospects of the materials and components sector in the water electrolyzer industry, IDTechEx offers granular 10-year market forecasts. These projections are segmented by raw materials - such as stainless steel, titanium, and platinum group metals - and by components, including membranes and bipolar plates, across AWE, PEMEL, and SOEC electrolyzer technologies. Quantitative forecasts are provided in terms of tonnes, square meters (m²), and US$ million on an annual basis. Additionally, the report provides a cost analysis of AWE, PEMEL, and SOEC stacks, breaking down the costs associated with each component.
Key aspects of this report
This report provides the following information:
  • Review of all major components in the four water electrolyzer stacks: AWE, AEMEL, PEMEL and SOEC. Components discussed include catalysts & electrodes, membranes/electrolytes, porous transport layers (PTLs), gas diffusion layers (GDLs), membrane electrode assembly (MEA), bipolar plates, gaskets & stack assembly components.
  • Review of the incumbent materials and components used in the four major electrolyzer technologies.
  • Discussion of the key challenges associated with incumbent materials.
  • Advanced and innovative materials that can alleviate challenges.
  • Overview of manufacturing methods for electrodes, bipolar plates and catalyst coated membranes (CCM).
  • Summaries of all material and component options available for the four electrolyzer stacks.
  • Analysis of key innovation priorities and potential for cost reductions across the four electrolyzer stacks.
  • Case studies and commercial examples of companies supplying materials and developing new materials or manufacturing methods.
  • Comprehensive lists of electrolyzer stack manufacturers and material suppliers.
  • Total electrolyzer stack costs broken down by component forAWE, PEMEL and SOEC stacks.
  • Granular 10-year market forecasts by component and material type for AWE, PEMEL and SOEC stacks. Forecasts include component/material demand in tonnes per annum (tpa) and 1000's of m2 per annum, as well as market values for components in US$M.
  • Discussion of manufacturing and wider supply chain issues.
IDTechEx's hydrogen research portfolio
This report includes entirely new content on the materials and components for water electrolyzers, drawing on IDTechEx's existing research in green hydrogen production and fuel cells. Further information on the hydrogen economy, low-carbon hydrogen production, fuel cells, fuel cell mobility sectors can be found in these reports:
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
CAGRIDTechEx forecasts the water electrolyzer component market to grow at a CAGR of 50% for the 2024-2034 period.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast Unitstonnes per annum (tpa), thousands of m2 per annum, US$ millions (US$M)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredCatalysts & electrodes, membranes/electrolytes, porous transport layers (PTLs), gas diffusion layers (GDLs), membrane electrode assembly (MEA) methods, bipolar plates, gaskets & stack assembly components for AWE, AEMEL, PEMEL & SOEC electrolyzer stacks.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Table of Contents
1.1.Overview of electrolyzer technologies
1.2.Report focus - electrolyzer materials & components
1.3.Annual electrolyzer demand by type (GW)
1.4.AWE materials & components summary
1.5.AWE materials & components summary
1.6.Innovation priorities for AWE materials & components
1.7.AWE stack cost & potential in cost reduction
1.8.AWE materials & components supplier summary
1.9.AWE system suppliers
1.10.AWE component supply chain
1.11.AWE components market forecast (US$M)
1.12.AEMEL materials & components summary
1.13.Innovation priorities for AEMEL materials & components
1.14.AEMEL stack & anion exchange membrane suppliers
1.15.PEMEL & PEMFC component overlap
1.16.PEMEL materials & components summary
1.17.PEMEL materials & components summary
1.18.Innovation priorities for PEMEL materials & components
1.19.PEMEL stack cost & potential in cost reduction
1.20.PEMEL materials & components supplier summary (1/2)
1.21.PEMEL materials & components supplier summary (2/2)
1.22.PEMEL stack suppliers
1.23.PEMEL component supply chain (1/2)
1.24.PEMEL component supply chain (2/2)
1.25.PEMEL catalyst loading forecast (g/kW or t/GW)
1.26.Will iridium supply limit the growth of PEMEL?
1.27.PEMEL components market forecast (US$M)
1.28.SOEC materials & components summary
1.29.SOEC materials & components summary
1.30.Innovation priorities for SOEC materials & components
1.31.SOEC stack cost & potential in cost reduction
1.32.SOEC materials & components supplier summary
1.33.SOEC & SOFC stack suppliers
1.34.SOEC component supply chain
1.35.SOEC components market forecast (US$M)
2.1.Introduction to the hydrogen economy & green hydrogen
2.1.1.The need for unprecedented CO2 emission reductions
2.1.2.Hydrogen as a key tool for decarbonization
2.1.3.What is driving the hydrogen market?
2.1.4.Hydrogen economy and its key components
2.1.5.Production: the colors of hydrogen (1/2)
2.1.6.Production: the colors of hydrogen (2/2)
2.1.7.Why produce green hydrogen?
2.1.8.National hydrogen strategies focus on green hydrogen
2.1.9.Important competing factors for the green H2 market
2.2.Introduction to electrolyzer technologies
2.2.1.Overview of electrolyzer technologies
2.2.2.Electrolyzer performance characteristics
2.2.3.Factors to consider in electrolyzer choice
2.2.4.Cost challenges in green hydrogen production
2.2.5.Why innovate electrolyzer materials & components?
2.2.6.Future trends in the electrolyzer market
2.3.Electrochemistry basics
2.3.1.Importance of active & stable electrocatalysts
2.3.2.Electrocatalyst activity metrics
2.3.3.Electrocatalyst stability & efficiency metrics
2.3.4.Origin of the volcano plot in electrocatalysis
3.1.1.Alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE)
3.1.2.Atmospheric vs pressurized AWEs
3.1.3.AWE cell designs - Nel ASA & Accelera (Hydrogenics)
3.1.4.Classifications of alkaline electrolyzers
3.1.5.US DOE technical targets for AWE
3.1.6.AWE materials & components summary
3.1.7.AWE materials & components summary
3.1.8.Innovation priorities for AWE materials & components
3.1.9.AWE stack cost & potential in cost reduction
3.2.AWE catalysts & electrodes
3.2.1.Cathode: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
3.2.2.Alkaline HER volcano & cathode catalysts
3.2.3.Nickel-based & Raney Ni electrocatalysts
3.2.4.Comparison of HER electrocatalysts (1/3)
3.2.5.Comparison of HER electrocatalysts (2/3)
3.2.6.Comparison of HER electrocatalysts (3/3)
3.2.7.Comparison of HER electrocatalysts (4/4)
3.2.8.Approaches to improved HER catalyst design
3.2.9.Anode: oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
3.2.10.OER intermediate steps & scaling relationships
3.2.11.Alkaline OER volcano plot & anode catalysts
3.2.12.Nickel-based & mixed metal oxide (MMO) anodes
3.2.13.Comparison of OER electrocatalysts (1/3)
3.2.14.Comparison of OER electrocatalysts (2/3)
3.2.15.Comparison of OER electrocatalysts (3/3)
3.2.16.Approaches to improved OER catalyst design
3.2.17.Bifunctional catalysts for alkaline & seawater electrolysis
3.2.18.Considerations in AWE electrode design
3.2.19.Metal supports for electrocatalysts
3.2.20.Veco - high surface area electrodes
3.2.21.Stargate Hydrogen - new ceramic-based electrodes
3.2.22.Catalyst coating techniques for electrodes (1/2)
3.2.23.Catalyst coating techniques for electrodes (2/2)
3.2.24.Electrochemistry of nickel
3.2.25.Electrode activation processes
3.2.26.Electrode manufacturing case study: Nel ASA (1/2)
3.2.27.Electrode manufacturing case study: Nel ASA (2/2)
3.2.28.Degradation of electrodes (1/2)
3.2.29.Degradation of electrodes (2/2)
3.2.30.AWE cathode & anode catalysts summary
3.3.AWE diaphragms
3.3.1.AWE separator / diaphragm
3.3.2.Comparison of common diaphragms
3.3.3.Commercial AWE diaphragm - Zirfon (1/2)
3.3.4.Commercial AWE diaphragm - Zirfon (2/2)
3.3.5.Future directions for AWE separators
3.3.6.Improving porous diaphragms (1/2)
3.3.7.Improving porous diaphragms (2/2)
3.4.AWE bipolar plates, gaskets & stack assembly components
3.4.1.Hydrogen embrittlement & compatible metal alloys
3.4.2.AWE bipolar plate characteristics
3.4.3.AWE bipolar plate materials
3.4.4.Other bipolar plate designs
3.4.5.AWE gaskets
3.4.6.AWE gasket materials (1/2)
3.4.7.AWE gasket materials (2/2)
3.4.8.AWE cell frame
3.4.9.AWE end plates & stack assembly (1/2)
3.4.10.AWE end plates & stack assembly (2/2)
3.4.11.Röchling Group - PEEK end plates & bolts
3.5.Zero-gap AWE materials & components and advanced AWE designs
3.5.1.Zero-gap AWE materials & components summary
3.5.2.Zero-gap AWE component summary
3.5.3.Zero-gap alkaline electrolyzers
3.5.4.Motivation for improving the AWE
3.5.5.Key innovation focuses for AWE improvement
3.5.6.Zero-gap AWE stack design
3.5.7.AWE membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
3.5.8.Porous transport layers (PTLs) (1/2)
3.5.9.Porous transport layers (PTLs) (2/2)
3.5.10.De Nora's zero-gap cell design
3.5.11.Ion-solvating membranes (ISMs)
3.5.12.Polybenzimidazole (PBI) ion-solvating membranes
3.5.13.Notable projects developing advanced AWE
3.5.14.Other advanced design features
3.5.15.Next Hydrogen: new AWE cell architecture
3.5.16.AquaHydrex: AWE system redesign
3.5.17.Hysata: capillary-fed cell design
3.5.18.Hysata: capillary-fed cell design
3.6.AWE stack, material & component suppliers
3.6.1.AWE materials & components supplier summary
3.6.2.AWE system suppliers
3.6.3.AWE component supply chain
3.6.4.AWE membrane & cell frame
3.6.5.AWE gasket / seal suppliers
3.6.6.AWE electrodes, catalysts & PTL/GDL suppliers
3.6.7.AWE electrodes, catalysts & PTL/GDL suppliers
3.6.8.AWE bipolar plate suppliers
4.1.AEMEL materials & components summary
4.2.Innovation priorities for AEMEL materials & components
4.3.The case for AEMEL development
4.4.AEMEL's similarities to AWE & PEMEL
4.5.AEMEL catalysts overview
4.6.AEMEL catalysts summary
4.7.Anion exchange membranes (AEMs)
4.8.Anion exchange membrane (AEM) materials
4.9.AEM material challenges & prospects
4.10.Comparison of commercial AEM materials
4.11.Commercial AEM material examples
4.12.AEMEL membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
4.13.Commercial AEMEL MEA design
4.14.Other AEMEL components: GDL/PTL, bipolar plates, sealants, end plates
4.15.Enapter - the leading AEMEL company
4.16.AEMEL stack & anion exchange membrane suppliers
5.1.1.Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL)
5.1.2.US DOE technical targets for PEMEL
5.1.3.PEMEL cell design example - Siemens Energy
5.1.4.PEMEL & PEMFC component overlap
5.1.5.PEMEL materials & components summary
5.1.6.PEMEL materials & components summary
5.1.7.Innovation priorities for PEMEL materials & components
5.1.8.PEMEL stack cost & potential in cost reduction
5.2.PEMEL catalysts & electrodes
5.2.1.Cathode: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
5.2.2.Acidic HER volcano & cathode catalysts
5.2.3.Commercial platinum on carbon (Pt/C) catalysts
5.2.4.Influence of carbon black support on Pt/C
5.2.5.Comparison of HER electrocatalysts
5.2.6.Future directions for HER catalysts
5.2.7.Anode: oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
5.2.8.Acidic OER volcano & cathode catalysts
5.2.9.Commercial iridium-based catalysts
5.2.10.Ir-Ru mixed metal oxide (MMO) catalysts
5.2.11.Ames Goldsmith Ceimig case study (1/2)
5.2.12.Ames Goldsmith Ceimig - new Ir-Pt OER catalyst
5.2.13.Heraeus - new supported IrOx OER catalyst
5.2.14.Smoltek - new nanostructured catalysts
5.2.15.Comparison of OER electrocatalysts
5.2.16.Future directions for OER catalysts
5.2.17.Catalyst degradation mechanisms
5.2.18.Catalyst degradation examples
5.2.19.Electrocatalyst production overview
5.2.20.Example Pt/C production process
5.2.21.PEMEL cathode & anode catalysts summary
5.3.Proton exchange membranes
5.3.1.Proton exchange membrane overview
5.3.2.Overview of PFSA membranes
5.3.3.Overview of PFSA membranes
5.3.4.Nafion - the market leading membrane
5.3.5.PFSA membrane extrusion casting process
5.3.6.PFSA membrane solution casting process
5.3.7.PFSA membrane dispersion casting process
5.3.8.Nafion properties & grades
5.3.9.PFSA membrane property comparison
5.3.10.Property benchmarking of alternative membranes
5.3.11.Membrane degradation processes overview
5.3.12.Membrane degradation processes
5.3.13.Membrane degradation processes
5.3.14.Pros & cons of Nafion & PFSA membranes
5.3.15.Improvements to PFSA membranes
5.3.16.Trade-offs in optimizing membrane performance
5.3.17.Gore reinforced SELECT membranes
5.3.18.Chemours reinforced Nafion membranes
5.3.19.Chemours gas recombination catalyst additive research
5.3.20.Innovations in PEMFC membranes may influence PEMEL (1/2)
5.3.21.Innovations in PEMFC membranes may influence PEMEL (2/2)
5.3.22.Alternative polymer materials Energy - boron-containing membrane
5.3.24.Metal-organic frameworks for membranes
5.3.25.Graphene in the membrane
5.3.26.Implications of potential PFAS bans
5.4.PEMEL porous transport layers (PTLs) & gas diffusion layers (GDLs)
5.4.1.Gas diffusion layer (GDL) vs porous transport layer (PTL)
5.4.2.PTL/GDL characteristics & materials
5.4.3.Cathode GDL: carbon paper
5.4.4.Cathode GDL: hydrophobic treatment
5.4.5.Wet vs dry GDL performance
5.4.6.Cathode GDL production process
5.4.7.Cellulosic fiber GDL: No MPL required
5.4.8.GDL latest research: focus on dual hydrophobic and hydrophilic behaviour
5.4.9.Anode PTL: sintered porous titanium
5.4.10.Interactions between PTL & catalyst layer
5.4.11.Bekaert - sintered titanium PTL
5.4.12.Caplinq - example Ti PTL production process
5.4.13.Sintered powder Ti felt production
5.4.14.Future directions for anode Ti PTL
5.5.PEMEL membrane electrode assembly (MEA)
5.5.1.Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) overview
5.5.2.PEMEL vs PEMFC membrane electrode assembly
5.5.3.MEA functions & requirements
5.5.4.Typical catalyst coated membrane (CCM)
5.5.5.CCM production technologies
5.5.6.Comparison of coating processes
5.5.7.Roll-to-roll CCM production processes (1/2)
5.5.8.Roll-to-roll CCM production processes (2/2)
5.5.9.New research in CCM production
5.5.10.Catalyst ink formulation - key considerations
5.5.11.Future directions for MEAs: understanding degradation mechanisms
5.5.12.Future directions for MEAs: iridium deposition on GDL/PTL using SparkNano's sALD
5.5.13.Future directions for MEAs: iridium deposition on GDL/PTL using Toshiba's vacuum sputtering technology
5.5.14.Future directions for MEAs: direct membrane deposition (DMD)
5.5.15.Future directions for MEAs: H2/O2 recombination layer
5.6.PEMEL bipolar plates (BPPs)
5.6.1.Bipolar plate functions & characteristics
5.6.2.Bipolar plate flow fields
5.6.3.Comparison of flow fields
5.6.4.Future directions for bipolar plate flow fields
5.6.5.Bipolar plate materials overview
5.6.6.Metal-based bipolar plate materials
5.6.7.Commercial bipolar plate: platinum-coated titanium
5.6.8.Gold cathode & platinum anode BPP coating
5.6.9.Ionbond - new coating technology
5.6.10.Ti-coated stainless steel BPPs
5.6.11.Future coatings for metal bipolar plates
5.6.12.Carbon composite bipolar plate materials
5.6.13.Conventional metallic bipolar plate process
5.6.14.Advanced photochemical etching processes
5.6.15.Comparison of production methods
5.7.PEMEL gaskets & stack assembly components
5.7.1.PEMEL gasket functions & requirements
5.7.2.Gasket design considerations
5.7.3.Gasket material selection (1/2)
5.7.4.Gasket material selection (2/2)
5.7.5.O-ring & injection molded gaskets
5.7.6.WEVO-CHEMIE - liquid gaskets for electrolyzers
5.7.7.PEMEL cell frames
5.7.8.PEMEL end plates & stack assembly (1/2)
5.7.9.Stack assembly example - Plug Power
5.8.Advanced PEMEL designs
5.8.1.Hoeller Electrolyzer - next generation PEM stacks
5.8.2.Hystar - reducing PEMEL membrane thickness without impacting safety (1/2)
5.8.3.Hystar - reducing PEMEL membrane thickness without impacting safety (2/2)
5.8.4.H2U Technologies - PGM-free PEM electrolyzer
5.8.5.Fusion Fuel - miniaturized PEMEL
5.9.PEMEL stack, material & component suppliers
5.9.1.PEMEL materials & components supplier summary (1/2)
5.9.2.PEMEL materials & components supplier summary (2/2)
5.9.3.PEMEL stack suppliers
5.9.4.PEMEL component supply chain (1/2)
5.9.5.PEMEL component supply chain (2/2)
5.9.6.PEMEL membrane suppliers
5.9.7.PEMEL gasket / seal suppliers
5.9.8.PEMEL anode titanium PTLs
5.9.9.PEMEL cathode carbon GDLs
5.9.10.PEMEL bipolar plate manufacturers
5.9.11.PEMEL catalyst suppliers
5.9.12.PEMEL catalyst coated membrane (CCM) suppliers
5.9.13.PEMEL coating equipment / services suppliers
6.1.1.Solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC)
6.1.2.US DOE technical targets for SOEC
6.1.3.SOEC materials & components summary
6.1.4.SOEC materials & components summary
6.1.5.Innovation priorities for SOEC materials & components
6.1.6.SOEC stack cost & potential in cost reduction
6.2.SOEC electrolytes
6.2.1.SOEC electrolyte functions & requirements
6.2.2.Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte
6.2.3.YSZ electrolyte technical & commercial considerations
6.2.4.Alternative electrolyte materials
6.2.5.Impact of LT-SOFC electrolyte development
6.2.6.Comparison of electrolyte materials
6.3.SOEC catalysts & electrodes
6.3.1.Cathode: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)
6.3.2.Ni cermet - the conventional material
6.3.3.Improving cathode materials
6.3.4.Anode: oxygen evolution reaction (OER)
6.3.5.LSM-YSZ - the conventional material
6.3.6.LSC & LSCF - new state-of-the-art materials (1/2)
6.3.7.LSC & LSCF - new state-of-the-art materials (2/2)
6.3.8.Alternative anode materials & innovations
6.3.9.SOEC component degradation challenges
6.3.10.Degradation mechanisms & mitigation strategies for SOECs & SOFCs
6.4.SOEC interconnects, coatings & contact layers
6.4.1.SOEC interconnect functions & requirements
6.4.2.Ceramic interconnects
6.4.3.Improving ceramic interconnects
6.4.4.Metallic interconnects
6.4.5.Protective coatings for metallic interconnects
6.4.6.fuelcellmaterials' coating for metallic interconnects
6.4.7.Contact layers for metallic interconnects
6.4.8.Contact layer commercial example
6.5.SOEC sealants & insulating materials
6.5.1.SOEC sealant functions & requirements
6.5.2.Compressive sealants
6.5.3.Flexitallic - Thermiculite sealing technology
6.5.4.Glass-ceramic sealants
6.5.5.Mo-Sci - viscous compliant sealants
6.5.6.SOEC insulation functions & requirements
6.5.7.SOEC insulating materials
6.6.SOEC cell manufacturing & stack assembly
6.6.1.Tubular vs planar SOEC & SOFC cells
6.6.2.Solid oxide cell configurations
6.6.3.Ceramic cell manufacturing process (1/2)
6.6.4.Ceramic cell manufacturing process (2/2)
6.6.5.Manufacturing process variations & new processes
6.6.6.Metal-supported cell features & manufacturing
6.6.7.Metallic component manufacturing, component integration & assembly
6.6.8.Elcogen - commercial SOEC cell example
6.6.9.Topsoe's SOEC cell development & outlook
6.6.10.Ceres Power - commercial SOFC example
6.7.SOEC stack, material & component suppliers
6.7.1.SOEC materials & components supplier summary
6.7.2.SOEC & SOFC stack suppliers
6.7.3.SOEC component supply chain
6.7.4.SOEC electrolyte & electrode material suppliers
6.7.5.SOEC sealing & insulating material suppliers
6.7.6.SOEC interconnect metals & coatings material suppliers
7.1.1.Forecasting methodology
7.1.2.Forecasting assumptions (1/2)
7.1.3.Forecasting assumptions (2/2)
7.1.4.Annual electrolyzer demand by type (GW)
7.1.5.Breakdown of stack costs by electrolyzer type (US$/kW)
7.1.6.Total electrolyzer component market forecast (US$M)
7.2.Alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE) component forecasts
7.2.1.AWE raw materials demand forecast (ktpa)
7.2.2.AWE components demand forecast (ktpa)
7.2.3.AWE components demand forecast (million m2)
7.2.4.AWE components market forecast (US$M)
7.3.Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL) component forecasts
7.3.1.PEMEL catalyst loading forecast (g/kW or t/GW)
7.3.2.PEMEL titanium & coating loading forecast (g/kW)
7.3.3.PEMEL stainless steel & titanium demand forecast (tpa)
7.3.4.PEMEL precious metals demand forecast (tpa)
7.3.5.PEMEL components demand forecast (tpa)
7.3.6.PEMEL components demand forecast (1000's m2)
7.3.7.PEMEL components market forecast (US$M)
7.4.Solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC) component forecasts
7.4.1.SOEC raw materials demand forecast (tpa)
7.4.2.SOEC metallic components demand forecast (tpa)
7.4.3.SOEC ceramic components demand forecast (tpa)
7.4.4.SOEC components demand forecast (1000's m2)
7.4.5.SOEC components market forecast (US$M)
8.1.Electrolyzer manufacturing influence
8.1.1.Manufacturing scale-up as a key lever for electrolyzer cost reductions
8.1.2.Electrolyzer manufacturing challenges overview
8.1.3.Simultaneous engineering in electrolyzer design
8.2.Platinum group metal (PGM) supply chain considerations
8.2.1.Critical minerals for the hydrogen economy
8.2.2.Green hydrogen's influence on minerals
8.2.3.Global critical mineral supply chains
8.2.4.Platinum & iridium supply chain considerations
8.2.5.Historical iridium price volatility
8.2.6.Historical iridium supply and demand
8.2.7.Will iridium supply limit the growth of PEMEL?
8.2.8.Importance of technological advancements & PGM recycling
8.2.9.Potential learnings from the LIB & EV industries
8.2.10.Clean energy applications competing for raw materials

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