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Elektrofahrzeuge im Bauwesen 2022-2042

Ausblick für die Elektrifizierung von Offroad-Baufahrzeugen; Bagger, Lader, Mobilkrane, Teleskoplader. Marktakteure, Technologielandschaft und granulare 20-Jahres-Prognosen nach Regionen; China, USA, Europa und RoW

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IDTechEx's report "Electric Vehicles in Construction 2022-2042" is a deep dive into the world of off-road zero emission construction machinery; the report explores the electrification efforts of key players operating in the construction machine market, highlighting technical and economic considerations of powertrain electrification over the diverse range of mobile construction machines, including excavators, loaders, cranes, and telehandlers. The report details a long-term 20-year outlook for the sector, with IDTechEx's independent sales, battery demand and market revenue forecasts for electric construction vehicles out to 2042 and broken down by region (China, US, Europe, RoW).
Construction machines are responsible for around 400 Mt of CO2 emission annually, which is around 1.1% of global CO2 emission. Decarbonisation of the construction industry will be a key element of countries meeting their Paris agreement commitments, and electric construction vehicles will play an important role in this. While the off-road electric construction vehicle market is at a much earlier stage of development than the on-road electric vehicle markets, there is increasing effort within the space to deliver zero emission solutions, with a growing number of prototypes. Key players battling in the arena include Volvo, Komatsu, Hyundai, Caterpillar, JCB and more.
Electrification Led by Compact Machines, Larger Machines to Follow
The electrification of construction vehicles is being led by the electrification of small compact machines including mini-excavators, small wheel loaders and dump trucks, primarily because these machines are deployed in urban environments, and cities are increasingly looking to lower exhaust emissions and noise. Their use in smaller projects means their daily duty cycle is lighter than larger machines, meaning the power demand can be met with a practical size of li-ion battery and electric motor.
Volvo Construction Equipment has already committed to move its entire range of compact wheel loaders and compact excavators to electric powertrains, completely stopping the development of new diesel models. We expect other OEMs will follow suit. Development work is also being conducted by many OEMs for the electrification of larger construction machines, although most are still in a prototyping or piloting phase, with the high upfront CAPEX cost meaning they are not yet a viable commercial product.
Electrification of Mini-Excavators
Source: IDTechEx "Electric Vehicles in Construction 2022-2042"
Local Air Quality Regulations a Primary Driver
Reducing carbon emissions is important and is spurring major construction companies to make large commitments (e.g. Volvo CE are aiming for their entire rolling fleet to have net-zero emission by 2050), however meeting local air quality standards is also a key driver for construction electrification. Many cities are looking to either ban or charge for operation of heavily polluting vehicles in urban environments, through the introduction of low emission zones. This could be a mechanism to incentivise zero-emission machines by adding substantial cost to construction projects that continue to rely on only diesel equipment.
For example, Oslo, Norway, will require all municipal construction sites to operate emission free vehicles by 2025, moving to all construction projects by 2030. This has spurred the development of many of the heavy-duty electric construction vehicle prototypes in Europe. We expect other cities to follow suit in future, though likely with less aggressive timelines.
Multitude of Performance Benefits for Electrification
Electrification has the potential to greatly improve the working environment for machine operators, with lower noise and vibration and reduced exposure to pollutants. The elimination of exhaust pollutants enables electric vehicles to operate in indoor environments, particularly useful for demolition projects, whilst noise reduction offers the possibility to improve on site communication, improving site safety, as well as potentially enabling site operations to continue outside of normal daytime working hours.
Generally electric powertrains provide superior vehicles, with lower maintenance and servicing costs, that are more straightforward to operate, and which facilitate precise autonomous controls, with the battery efficiently powering computers and sensors.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Key Report Findings
1.2.Report Summary
1.3.Drivers for Construction Vehicle Electrification
1.4.Advantages of / Barriers to Machine Electrification
1.5.Construction Vehicles
1.6.Key Construction Machine Types for Electrification
1.7.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs
1.8.Technology Positioning for Construction Equipment
1.9.Performance Advantages of an Electric Excavator
1.10.Mini Excavator: Battery Capacity Requirements
1.11.Options for Meeting Power Duty Cycle Power Demand
1.12.Mini Excavator: IDTechEx TCO (without subsidies)
1.13.Mini Excavator: IDTechEx TCO (with subsidies)
1.14.OEM Dealer Electric Retrofitting Partnerships
1.15.Volvo Group Fossil Fuel Free Timeline
1.16.Engine Manufacturers Looking Toward Electrification
1.17.Dealer Driven Electrification Development
1.18.Chinese OEMs Large Battery Excavators
1.19.Hydraulic Hybrid Excavators - Not Electric Machines
1.20.Large Electric Excavator Price Premium
1.21.Electric Compact Loader Price Premium
1.22.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities
1.23.EV Construction Machines Sales Forecast by Region
1.24.Global Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
1.25.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand (GWh)
1.26.EV Construction Machines Market Size ($USD Billions)
2.1.Construction Vehicles
2.2.Types of Construction Vehicle
2.3.Top-20 Global Construction Equipment Manufacturers
2.4.Construction Vehicle Revenue by OEM Region
2.5.CO2 Emission Contribution of Construction Machines
2.6.CO2 Emissions Driver for Construction Machine Electrification
2.7.GHG Emissions: China, US & Europe
2.8.Vehicles a Major Source of Greenhouse Gas Emission
2.9.Emissions by Construction Machine Type
2.10.Urban Air Quality
2.11.Construction Worksite Air Quality
2.12.Fossil Fuel Bans (Cities)
2.13.Emission Standards Target Air Quality not GHG Emission
2.14.Drivers for Construction Vehicle Electrification
2.15.Regional & Company Emissions Policy & Case Studies
2.15.1.Norway Pioneering Zero Emission Construction Machines
2.15.2.The Netherlands, Denmark and Finland
2.15.3.Electrifying Construction Sites
2.15.4.Colorado Clean Diesel Program
2.15.5.Construction Industry Committing to GHG Reductions
2.15.6.Construction Firms Addressing GHG Emission
2.15.7.Noise Reduction
2.15.8.What do Electric Machines Need to Deliver
2.15.9.Power Demand for Electric Construction Vehicles
2.15.10.Technology Positioning for Construction Equipment
2.15.11.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities
2.15.12.Future Opportunities in Electric Mobile Machinery
2.15.13.Mobile Equipment Chargers / Hydrogen Fuelling
2.15.14.Zero Emission Gensets / Microgrids / Energy Storage
2.15.15.Autonomous Systems and Digitalization
3.1.Electric Mini-Excavators Summary
3.2.Mini Excavators Leading CE Electrification
3.3.Performance Advantages of an Electric Excavator
3.4.Mini Excavator OEMs
3.5.Electric Mini Excavator Example Specifications
3.6.Mini Excavator: ICE Engine vs Electric Motor Size (kW)
3.7.Mini Excavator Size vs Battery Capacity
3.8.Examples Battery Capacity and Operational Runtime
3.9.Battery Capacity and Operation Runtime
3.10.Options for Meeting Power Duty Cycle Power Demand
3.11.Electric Mini-Excavator Price Premium
3.12.ICE Mini-Excavator Fuel Consumption Cost
3.13.Electrification Fuel Cost Saving
3.14.Electric vs Diesel Break-even: Fuel Cost Saving
3.15.Total Cost of Ownership: Maintenance
3.16.Cummins Electric Mini Excavator Analysis
3.17.Electric vs Diesel Break-even: Fuel + Maintenance
3.18.Incentivising Electric Machines: Low Emission Zones
3.19.Incentivising Electric Machine Purchase
3.20.Early Electric Machine Deployment: Rental Companies
3.21.OEM Dealer Electric Retrofitting Partnerships
3.22.Engine Manufacturers Looking Toward Electrification
3.23.Electric Mini-Excavators CO2 Emission Saving
3.24.Mini Excavators: OEM Models & Case Studies
3.24.1.Volvo Construction Equipment
3.24.2.Volvo Group
3.24.3.Volvo Expanding Their Electric CE Portfolio
3.24.4.Volvo EC55 Electric
3.24.5.Komatsu PC30E-5 Electric Mini-Excavator
3.24.6.Komatsu Remote Controlled Electric Mini Excavator
3.24.7.Komatsu / Honda Micro Electric Excavators
3.24.8.Hyundai Construction Equipment
3.24.9.Yanmar Construction Equipment
3.24.10.Yanmar Prototype
3.24.11.Doosan Electric DX17Z-5 Prototype
3.24.12.Doosan / Staad Groep DX19
3.24.13.Doosan Bobcat E10e / E19e
3.24.14.JCB E-TECH Electric Mini Excavator
3.24.15.XCMG XE35U_E
3.24.16.Wacker Neuson EZ17e
3.24.17.Takeuchi TB220e
3.24.18.SUNCAR HK 216E / Takeuchi
3.24.19.KTEG ZE19 / Hitachi / Suncar HK
3.24.21.LiuGong 906E-EV Mini-Excavator
3.24.22.Caterpillar / Avesco 301.7
3.24.23.Limach Electric Mini Excavators
3.24.24.Kubota Prototype Mini Excavator
3.24.25.Hybrid Dual Power Diesel-Electric Tethered Excavators
4.1.Large Electric Excavators Summary
4.2.Medium / Large Excavator OEMs
4.3.Electric Excavators >6t, Summary of 15 Models
4.4.Large Electric Excavator Emission / Cost Saving
4.5.Excavator (>6t): ICE Engine vs Electric Motor Size (kW)
4.6.Examples Battery Capacity and Operational Runtime
4.7.Battery Capacity and Operation Runtime >6t Excavators
4.8.Annual Fuel Cost Saving Diesel vs Electric Excavators
4.9.>6t Excavator CO2 Emission Saving
4.10.Dealer Driven Electrification Development
4.11.Large Electric Excavator Price Premium
4.12.OEM Models & Case Studies
4.12.1.Pon Equipment: CAT Zero Emission Excavators
4.12.2.Pon Cat 323F Z-line Power Schematic
4.12.3.Pon Equipment: NextGen Electric Excavators
4.12.4.Volvo EC230 Electrified Excavator
4.12.5.Volvo R&D: Large Rear Screen
4.12.6.Mecalac e12 Electric Wheeled Excavator
4.12.7.Hidromek HICON 7W
4.12.8.Hyundai Excavator HX260AL Electric
4.12.9.Doosan DX300LC Electric
4.12.10.Doosan Tethered Electric Excavator System
4.12.11.KTEG ZECOM ZE85 Electric Excavator
4.12.12.NASTA ZERON Electric Excavators
4.12.13.Liebherr R922 BE Electric Crawler
4.12.14.Limach E88.1 Excavator
4.12.15.Chinese OEMs Large Battery Excavators
4.12.16.Komatsu Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator
4.12.17.Kobelco SK210H Electric Hybrid
4.12.18.Hydraulic Hybrid Excavators - Not Electric Vehicles
5.1.Electric Compact Loaders Summary
5.2.Compact Loaders / Skid Steer / Dumpers
5.3.Sales of Compact Loaders
5.4.Electric Compact Loaders / Dumper Example Specs
5.5.Electric Compact Loaders Motor Size (kW)
5.6.Electric Loader / Dumper Size vs Battery Capacity
5.7.Battery Capacity for Compact Machines
5.8.Electric Compact Loader Price Premium
5.9.Compact / Skid-steer Loaders OEMs
5.10.OEM Models & Case Studies
5.10.1.Volvo L25 Electric Compact Wheel Loader
5.10.2.Volvo L20 Electric Wheel Loader
5.10.3.Schäffer 24E Electric Wheel Loader
5.10.4.Next Generation Pon Cat Excavators
5.10.5.Bobcat (Doosan Group)
5.10.6.Bobcat / Moog: T7X All Electric System
5.10.7.Gehl Electric Skid Steer with Battery Swap
5.10.8.Tobroco-Giant G2200E Wheel Loader
5.10.9.Cat 906 Electric Wheel Loader Concept
5.10.10.JCB 1T-E Electric Site Dumper
5.10.11.AUSA D100AHA Electric Dumper
5.10.12.XCMG XC918-EV Electric Loader
5.10.13.Poclain Hydraulics 1.8t Wheel Loader
5.10.14.Avant Techno e Series Loaders
5.10.15.Wacker Neuson WL20e Wheel Loader
5.10.16.Kovaco Elise 900
5.10.17.Kramer 5055e Wheel Loader
6.1.Electric Backhoe Loaders Summary
6.2.Backhoe Loaders
6.3.Backhoe: ICE Engine Size (kW)
6.4.Backhoe Loaders
6.5.OEM Models & Case Studies
6.5.1.CASE Construction: Project Zeus
6.5.2.CASE Construction 580 EV
6.5.3.John Deere 310X E-Power
6.5.4.Huddig Electric PHEV Backhoe
6.5.5.Huddig 1260T: Hybrid Operating Modes
6.5.6.Huddig Battery / Motor Suppliers
7.1.Electric Large Loader Summary
7.2.Wheel Loaders
7.3.Electric Large Loaders Example Specifications
7.4.Many Chinese Electric Loader Models Emerging
7.5.Dual Gun Ultra-Fast Charging
7.6.OEM Models & Case Studies
7.6.1.LiuGong 856E-MAX 18.8t Electric Loader
7.6.2.Danfoss Editron Full Electric Wheel Loader
7.6.3.Ahlmann AZ 95 Electric Swing Loader
7.6.4.Greenland GEL-5000 Electric Loader
7.6.5.XCMG XC958-EV Electric Loader
7.6.6.Volvo LX01 Prototype Electric Hybrid Loader
7.6.7.Volvo Electric Site Research Project
7.6.8.Diesel Electric Hybrid Wheel Loaders
7.6.9.Diesel Electric Hybrid Wheel Loader Examples
7.6.10.Cat 988K XE: Electric Drive Wheel Loader
8.1.Electric Telehandlers Summary
8.2.Telescopic Handlers
8.3.Telehandler: ICE Engine vs Electric Motor Size (kW)
8.5.Electric Telehandler Example Specifications
8.6.OEM Models & Case Studies
8.6.1.Liebherr Electric Telescopic Handler - DEUTZ
8.6.2.JCB 525-60E Electric Telehandler
8.6.3.JLG Full Electric Telehandler Concept
8.6.4.Manitou Electric Telehandlers
8.6.5.Manitou MTE 625 Electric
8.6.6.Faresin / Snorkel Full Electric Telehandler
8.6.7.Faresin: Aliant Battery Assembly
9.1.Electric Mobile Cranes Summary
9.2.Mobile Cranes
9.3.Electric Crane Example Specifications
9.4.Mobile Cranes
9.5.OEM Models & Case Studies
9.5.1.Liebherr Electric Crawler Cranes
9.5.2.Liebherr Electric Crawler Cranes Schematic
9.5.3.Liebherr Expand Range of Electric Crawler
9.5.4.Liebherr LR1250.1 Deployed at HS2 Station Site
9.5.5.PV-E Crane 100% Electric Crawler Cranes
9.5.6.Madea All-Electric Mini Crawler Crane
9.5.7.Zoomlion ZTC250N-EV Electric Truck Crane
9.5.8.Sany STC250HBEV Electric Truck Crane
9.5.9.XCMG XCT25EV PHEV Truck Crane
10.1.Other Construction Vehicles
10.2.Liebherr Hybrid Concrete Mixer Truck - Not Electric
10.3.Futuricum Electric Concrete Mixer Truck
10.4.Chinese OEMs Electric Mixer Trucks
10.5.Volvo FMX
10.6.Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E.
10.7.Chinese Battery Swapping Dump Trucks
10.8.Sany Electric Dump Trucks
10.9.BYD Electric Dump Trucks For Shenzhen
10.10.Truck OEMs Commit to Electrification
10.11.Junttan Electric Pile Driving Rig
10.12.Liebherr LB 16 Electric Drilling Rig
10.13.BAM Electric Road Roller
10.14.Electric Asphalt Rollers
10.15.Cat / Medatech Electric Road Grader
10.16.Cat Electric Drive (hybrid) Dozer
11.1.What is a Li-ion Battery?
11.2.Commercial Battery Packaging Technologies
11.3.LFP or NMC Comparison
11.4.Li-ion Cell Chemistries in Construction
11.5.Timeline and Outlook for Li-ion Cell Energy Densities
11.6.Li-ion Batteries: From Cell to Pack
11.7.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Runtime
11.8.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Charging
11.9.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Cost
11.10.Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Reliability
11.11.Role of Battery Pack Manufacturers
11.12.Battery Pack Manufacturers - Europe
11.13.Battery Pack Manufacturers - Europe
11.14.Battery pack manufacturers - North America
11.15.Asian Module and Pack Manufacturers
11.16.Battery pack comparison
11.18.Akasol AKASYSTEM
11.19.Northvolt Voltpack Core
11.20.Webasto Modular Battery System
11.21.Webasto & ECE - Large Electric Excavator
11.22.Doosan / Webasto / UMS Swappable Batteries
11.24.Hyperdrive Innovation
11.26.Deutz AG
11.27.Other European Battery Manufacturers
11.28.WATTALPS: Non-Road Mobile Machinery Batteries
11.29.WATTALPS Battery Pack
11.30.Chemistry Choice - Europe and North America
11.31.Chinese Electric Heavy-Duty Battery Suppliers
12.1.Comparison of Traction Motor Construction and Merits
12.2.Summary of Traction Motor Types
12.3.Dana TM4
12.4.Dana E-Axles
12.5.ZF Friedrichshafen AG
12.6.ZF Preferred Electric Drivetrain Architecture
12.7.Timeline for ZF Electrification Solutions
12.9.Danfoss Editron
12.11.Artemis / Danfoss
12.12.Electric Motor Performance Designed to Match ICE
12.13.Electrically Powered Hydraulic Systems
12.14.All-Electric Systems
13.1.Hydrogen for Construction Vehicles?
13.2.What is a Fuel Cell?
13.3.Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
13.4.Fuel Cells Technologies Overview
13.5.Attraction of Fuel Cell Vehicles
13.6.Deployment Barriers for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
13.7.A Kaleidoscope of Hydrogen Colours
13.8.Must be Green H2 for Fuel Cell Machines to be 'Green'
13.9.Battery Electrification More Efficient than Fuel Cell EV
13.10.The Key Challenge: Green Hydrogen Cost Reduction
13.11.Power-to-Liquid Fuels - Terrible Efficiency
13.12.PEMFC Market Players
13.13.Hyundai Fuel Cell Construction Equipment
13.14.Bumhan Industry Fuel Cell Mini-Excavator
13.15.SANY Fuel Cell Construction Machines
13.16.Chinese Fuel Cell Dump Trucks
13.17.Comparison Hydrogen Fuel Cost vs Diesel Cost
13.18.The Cost of Green Hydrogen - Montpellier FCEV Buses
13.19.JCB Hydrogen Combustion Engines
13.20.JCB / Ryze / Fortescue Green Hydrogen Deal
13.21.AVL H2 Combustion Engines
13.23.KEYOU Hydrogen ICE
13.24.Hydrogen Combustion Engines
13.25.Advantages and Disadvantages of BEV, FCEV, H2ICE
13.26.Summary Hydrogen Fuelled Construction Vehicles
14.1.Forecast Methodology
14.2.Fuel Cells in Construction Commentary
14.3.Other Alternative Powertrains in Construction
14.4.Forecast Assumptions
14.5.EV Construction Machine Sales Forecast by Region
14.6.Global Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
14.7.Europe Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
14.8.US Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
14.9.China Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
14.10.RoW Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
14.11.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand (GWh)
14.12.EV Construction Machines Market Size ($USD Billions)

Report Statistics

Slides 343
Forecasts to 2042
ISBN 9781913899905

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