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Wärmemanagement für Elektrofahrzeuge 2021-2031

Wärmemanagement von Lithium-Ionen-Batterien, Fahrmotoren und Leistungselektronik. Materialien, Technologien, OEM-Strategien, Spieleranalyse und Marktprognosen

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The electric vehicle (EV) market is growing rapidly and has even proved resilient to COVID-19 related shutdowns, seeing year on year growth throughout 2020. Within the EV market, we are seeing increases in battery capacity, range, charging rates, wide bandgap semiconductors and high-performance traction motors. Additionally, EV fires and related recalls have brought the concept of thermal runaway detection, prevention and protection to the fore. All of these trends demand more effective thermal management systems, solutions and materials.
This report from IDTechEx on Thermal Management for Electric Vehicles details the OEM strategies, trends and emerging alternatives around the thermal management of Li-ion batteries, electric traction motors and power electronics. This information is gathered from primary and secondary sources in combination with an extensive model database of over 250 EV models sold between 2015 and 2020, giving a comprehensive overview of the topic. The technologies and strategies currently in use are described, analysed and forecast. Emerging alternatives like immersion cooling are also addressed and discussed for their suitability in future applications along with adoption forecasts. All forecasts are given through to 2031 and include quantities such as EV battery demand, battery thermal management strategy, thermal interface materials, electric motor demand and Si IGBT or SiC MOSFET inverters.
The thermal management strategy of EV batteries has evolved rapidly and will continue to do so. Source: Thermal Management for Electric Vehicles 2021-2031
Fast charging is a key trend in the EV market. Range anxiety becomes less of an issue if a vehicle can be charged in less than 30 minutes. Several vehicles have entered the market with this capability. More examples are emerging for 800 V systems too with the likes of the Porsche Taycan/ Audi e-tron GT platform as well as the new Hyundai E-GMP architecture. These higher voltages also help enable faster charging. However, thermal management is a key consideration for fast charging, keeping the batteries cool during this process helps increase the longevity of the cells but is also a major safety feature to prevent thermal runaway. For this reason, we have also seen interest in more novel technologies like immersion cooling.
Immersion cooling has potential in the EV market, creating new demand for dielectric fluids. Source: Thermal Management for EVs 2021-2031
In 2020, there was a great emphasis on EV fires and manufacturers, with Hyundai and GM having to recall nearly 100,000 vehicles each. The estimated cost of these recalls was $900 million for Hyundai and $1.2 billion for GM, not to mention the harm to the reputation of their EVs and EVs in general. Whilst it is generally agreed that EV fires are less common than combustion vehicle fires, the EV fires tend to be much more severe and as more of an unknown quantity, gain more attention from the media. Detection and prevention of thermal runaway are extremely important, especially as regulations around EV safety start to be enforced. This also gives opportunities for fire-retardant or fire insulation materials to prevent or limit the progress of fire outside of the battery pack. Given there is no consensus on the design of an EV battery cell or pack, this makes the EV market an interesting landscape of potential for thermal management and fire protection component and material manufacturers.
Much like the batteries, there are several designs for cooling electric motors. The majority of the market is using permanent magnet-based traction motors with magnets that risk denaturing or becoming brittle at high temperatures. Even for motors without permanent magnets, the stator windings will increase in resistance at higher temperatures leading to decreased performance and lifetime as well as the potential to damage surrounding components. As manufacturers strive for higher efficiencies and power density, there are many developments and innovative designs such as the Audi e-tron's internal rotor water-glycol cooling system. The IDTechEx report covers thermal management of electric motors with EV use-cases, emerging technologies and a forecast of demand for EV traction motors.
Power electronics are often overlooked, but the main inverter is often the hottest component in an EV under normal operating conditions. Most of the market is using Si IGBTs which certainly generate significant heat and require effective thermal management which is often integrated into the motors coolant system. In recent years, we have seen significant adoption of SiC MOSFETs in the main traction inverter. This leads to higher switching frequencies and hence higher efficiency. The use of SiC also decreases the footprint of the package leading to higher power density and in turn a greater challenge in heat dissipation. In addition to the liquid cooling of these components, we see trends around the wire bonding, die-attach and substrate technology within the inverter packages themselves. Each OEM has its own strategy for power electronics and their implementation of options such as thermal interface materials. IDTechEx's report includes trends in power electronics design as well as several EV use-cases and forecasts the demand of Si IGBT and SiC MOSFET units.
Key topics:
  • Li-ion battery cooling: air, liquid, refrigerant and immersion
  • Thermal interface materials
  • Heat spreaders and cooling plates
  • Thermal runaway importance, detection and prevention
  • Fire safety: regulations and solutions
  • Electric motor thermal management
  • Power electronics thermal management
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Table of Contents
1.1.Introduction to Thermal Management
1.2.Optimal Temperatures for Multiple Components
1.3.Impact of External Ambient Temperature and Climate Control
1.4.Heat Pumps for BEVs Forecast
1.5.Analysis of Battery Cooling Methods
1.6.Future Global Trends in OEM Cooling Methodologies
1.7.Adoption of Cooling Methodologies Forecast
1.8.Immersion Fluids: Benchmarking
1.9.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast
1.10.Summary of Key Trends for Liquid Cooling
1.11.TIM for EV Battery Packs: Forecast by Vehicle Segment
1.12.Battery Fires and Related Recalls in 2020
1.13.Regulation Changes
1.14.Fire Retardant Battery Materials Benchmark
1.15.Fire Protection Materials Forecast
1.16.Electric Motors: Permanent Magnet vs Alternatives
1.17.Electric Motor Unit Forecast
1.18.Motor Cooling Technology: OEM Strategies
1.19.Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles
1.20.Benchmarking Silicon, Silicon Carbide & Gallium Nitride
1.21.The Transition to Silicon Carbide
1.22.Power Electronics Inverter Forecast
1.23.Traditional Power Module Packaging
2.1.Introduction to Thermal Management
2.2.Industry Terms
2.3.Optimal Temperatures for Multiple Components
3.1.Range Calculations
3.2.Impact of Ambient Temperature and Climate Control
3.3.Model Comparison with Ambient Temperature
3.4.Model Comparison with Climate Control
4.1.Holistic Vehicle Thermal Management
4.2.Technology Timeline
4.3.PTC vs Heat Pump
4.4.Recent EVs with Heat Pumps
4.5.Heat Pumps for BEVs Forecast
4.6.Further Innovations
4.7.Advantages of Sophisticated Thermal Management
4.8.Thermal Management Advanced Control: Key Players and Technologies
5.1.Current Technologies and OEM Strategies
5.1.1.Introduction to EV Battery Thermal Management
5.1.2.Material Opportunities In and Around a Battery Pack
5.1.3.Active vs Passive Cooling
5.1.4.Passive Battery Cooling Methods
5.1.5.Active Battery Cooling Methods
5.1.6.Air Cooling
5.1.7.Liquid Cooling
5.1.8.Liquid Cooling: Design Options
5.1.9.Liquid Cooling: Alternative Fluids
5.1.10.Liquid Cooling: Large OEM Announcements
5.1.11.Refrigerant Cooling
5.1.12.Hyundai's Timeline to Refrigerant Cooling
5.1.13.Coolants: Comparison
5.1.14.Cooling Strategy Thermal Properties
5.1.15.Analysis of Battery Cooling Methods
5.1.16.Main Incentives for Liquid Cooling
5.1.17.IONITY: a European Fast Charging Network
5.1.18.Shifting OEM Strategies - Liquid Cooling
5.1.19.Future Global Trends in OEM Cooling Methodologies
5.1.20.OEM Cooling Methodologies by Region
5.1.21.Adoption of Cooling Methodologies Forecast
5.1.22.IDTechEx Outlook
5.2.Immersion Cooling for Li-ion Batteries in EVs
5.2.1.Immersion Cooling: Introduction
5.2.2.Single-phase vs Two-phase Cooling
5.2.3.Immersion Cooling Fluids Requirements
5.2.4.Players: Immersion Fluids for Electric Vehicles (1)
5.2.5.Players: Immersion Fluids for Electric Vehicles (2)
5.2.6.Players: Immersion Fluids for Electric Vehicles (3)
5.2.7.Immersion Fluids: Density and Thermal Conductivity
5.2.8.Immersion Fluids: Operating Temperature
5.2.9.Immersion Fluids: Viscosity
5.2.10.Immersion Fluids: Costs
5.2.11.Immersion Fluids: Summary
5.2.12.Players: XING Mobility, 3M and Castrol
5.2.13.Players: Rimac and Solvay
5.2.14.Players: M&I Materials and Faraday Future
5.2.15.Players: Exoès, e-Mersiv and FUCHS Lubricants
5.2.16.Players: Kreisel and Shell
5.2.17.McLaren Speedtail and Artura
5.2.19.SWOT Analysis - Immersion Cooling for EVs
5.2.20.Immersion Market Adoption Forecast
5.2.21.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast
5.3.Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
5.3.1.Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Emerging for EVs
5.3.2.PCM Categories and Pros and Cons
5.3.3.Typical Materials
5.3.4.Phase Change Materials - Overview
5.3.5.Phase Change Materials - Overview (2)
5.3.6.Operating Temperature Range of Commercial PCMs
5.3.7.PCMs: Players in EVs
5.3.8.Phase Change Material as Thermal Energy Storage
5.3.9.PCM vs Battery Case Study
5.3.10.Player: Sunamp
5.4.Heat Spreaders and Cooling Plates
5.4.1.Heat Spreaders or Interspersed Cooling Plates
5.4.2.Chevrolet Volt and Dana
5.4.3.Advanced Cooling Plates
5.4.4.Advanced Cooling Plates: Roll Bond Aluminium
5.4.5.Graphite Heat Spreaders
5.5.Other Interesting Developments
5.5.1.Active Cell-to-cell Cooling Solutions: Cylindrical
5.5.2.Printed Temperature Sensors and Heaters
5.5.3.Is Tab Cooling a Solution?
5.5.4.Thermoelectric Cooling
5.5.5.Skin Cooling: Aptera Solar EV
5.6.Thermal Management of EV Batteries: OEM Use-cases
5.6.1.Audi e-tron
5.6.2.Audi e-tron GT
5.6.3.BMW i3
5.6.4.BYD Blade
5.6.5.Chevrolet Bolt
5.6.6.Faraday Future FF 91
5.6.7.Hyundai Kona
5.6.8.Hyundai E-GMP
5.6.9.Jaguar I-PACE
5.6.10.MG ZS EV
5.6.12.Romeo Power Thermal Management
5.6.13.Tesla Model S P85D
5.6.14.Tesla Model 3/Y
5.6.15.Tesla Eliminating the Battery Module
5.6.16.Toyota Prius PHEV
5.6.17.Toyota RAV4 PHEV
5.7.TIM for EV Battery Packs
5.7.1.Introduction to Thermal Management for EVs
5.7.2.TIM - Pack and Module Overview
5.7.3.TIM Application - Pack and Modules
5.7.4.TIM Application - Cell Format
5.7.5.Dow Battery Pack Materials
5.7.6.Henkel Battery Pack Materials
5.7.7.DuPont Battery Pack Materials
5.7.8.Key Properties for TIMs in EVs
5.7.9.Gap Pads in EV Batteries
5.7.10.Switching to Gap Fillers from Pads
5.7.11.Dispensing TIMs Introduction
5.7.12.Challenges for Dispensing TIM
5.7.13.Material Options and Market Comparison
5.7.14.The Silicone Dilemma for the Automotive Industry
5.7.15.Silicone Alternatives
5.7.16.Main Players and Considerations
5.7.17.Main Players and Recent Announcements (1)
5.7.18.Main Players and Recent Announcements (2)
5.7.19.EV Use-case: Audi e-tron
5.7.20.EV Use-case: Chevrolet Bolt
5.7.21.EV Use-case: Fiat 500e
5.7.22.EV Use-case: MG ZS EV
5.7.23.EV Use-case: Nissan Leaf
5.7.24.EV Use-case: Smart Fortwo (Mercedes)
5.7.25.EV Use-case: Tesla Model 3/Y
5.7.26.EV Use-cases: Tesla, Chevrolet, Hyundai
5.7.27.Tesla Eliminating the Battery Module
5.7.28.EV Use-case Summary
5.7.29.Commercial Benchmark for EV Battery TIMs
5.7.30.Battery and TIM Demand Trends
5.7.31.TIM for EV Battery Packs: Forecast by Vehicle Segment
5.7.32.TIM for EV Battery Packs: Forecast by TIM Type
5.7.33.Other Applications for TIM
5.8.Thermal Runaway Importance, Detection and Prevention
5.8.1.Thermal Runaway and Fires in EVs
5.8.2.Battery Fires and Related Recalls in 2020
5.8.3.Battery Fires in South Korea
5.8.4.Causes of Battery Fires
5.8.5.EV Fires Compared to ICE
5.8.6.Causes of Failure
5.8.7.The Nail Penetration Test
5.8.8.Stages of Thermal Runaway
5.8.9.Cell Chemistry and Stability
5.8.10.Thermal Runaway Propagation
5.8.11.Many Considerations to Safety
5.8.12.Prevention of Battery Shorting: Soteria
5.8.13.Regulation Changes
5.8.14.What Level of Prevention?
5.8.15.Detecting Thermal Runaway in a Battery Pack
5.8.16.Gas Generation / detection
5.8.17.Opportunities for Sensors
5.8.18.Commercial Gas Sensing for Thermal Runaway Detection
5.9.Fire Protection Materials
5.9.1.Module and Pack Thermal Insulation Materials
5.9.2.Pack Level Prevention Materials
5.9.3.Emerging Fire Safety Solutions
5.9.4.Aerogels in EV battery packs
5.9.5.Aspen Aerogels US OEM Contract
5.9.6.Fire Resistant Coatings
5.9.7.Thermal Runaway Prevention: Cylindrical Cell-to-cell - Insulation Materials
5.9.9.ADA Technologies - Thermal Runaway Propagation Prevention Materials
5.9.10.Dow Silicone Solutions
5.9.12.ITW Formex
5.9.13.Covestro Polycarbonates
5.9.14.Elkem Silicone Solutions
5.9.15.HeetShield - Ultra-Thin Insulations
5.9.16.H.B. Fuller
5.9.17.Fire Retardant Battery Materials Benchmark
5.9.18.Fire Retardant Battery Materials Outlook
5.9.19.Fire Protection Materials Forecast
5.10.Battery Enclosures
5.10.1.Lightweighting Battery Enclosures
5.10.2.Composite Battery Enclosures
5.10.3.Alternatives to Phenolic Resins
5.10.4.Composite Parts at a Scale to Drive Sustainable Transportation - TRB Lightweight Structures
5.10.5.Are Polymers Suitable Housings?
5.10.6.Towards Composite Enclosures?
5.10.7.Continental Structural Plastics - Honeycomb Technology
6.1.Basics of electric vehicle charging mechanisms
6.2.Conductive Charging Types
6.3.How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle?
6.4.The trend towards DC fast charging
6.5.Fast Charging Gains - 300 kW Needed for Cars?
6.6.Thermal Considerations for Fast Charging
6.7.Liquid Cooled Charging Stations
6.8.Tritium - DC Charging Solution Provider
6.9.Cable Cooling to Achieve High Power Charging
6.10.Tesla Adopts Liquid Cooled Cable for its Supercharger
6.11.Tesla: Liquid Cooled Connector for Ultra Fast Charging
6.12.ITT Cannon Liquid Cooled Charging
6.13.Brugg eConnect Liquid Cooled Cables
6.14.Immersion Cooled Charging Stations
7.1.Motor Cooling Strategies
7.1.1.Electric Traction Motors: Types
7.1.2.Electric Motors: Permanent Magnet vs Alternatives
7.1.3.Electric Motor Unit Forecast
7.1.4.Cooling Electric Motors
7.1.5.Current OEM Strategies: Air Cooling
7.1.6.Current OEM Strategies: Oil Cooling
7.1.7.Ricardo's New Motor
7.1.8.Current OEM Strategies: Water-glycol Cooling
7.1.9.Electric Motor Thermal Management Overview
7.1.10.Cooling Technology: OEM Strategies
7.1.11.Motor Cooling Technology Outlook
7.1.12.Recent Advancements in Liquid Cooling
7.1.13.Emerging Technologies: Immersion Cooling
7.1.14.Emerging Technologies: Refrigerant Cooling
7.1.15.Emerging Technologies: Phase Change Materials
7.1.16.Potting & Encapsulation
7.1.17.Potting & Encapsulation: Players
7.2.Emerging Motor Developments
7.2.1.Radial Flux vs Axial Flux Motors
7.2.2.Axial Flux Motors: Interesting Players
7.2.3.List of Axial Flux Motor Players
7.2.4.In-Wheel Motors
7.2.5.DHX Ultra High-torque Motors
7.2.6.Equipmake: Spoke Geometry for PM Motors
7.2.7.Diabatix: Rapid Design of Cooling Components
7.2.8.Integrated Stator Housings
7.2.9.Integration with Vehicle Thermal Management
7.3.Thermal Management of EV Motors: OEM Use-cases
7.3.1.Audi e-tron
7.3.2.BMW i3
7.3.3.Chevrolet Bolt
7.3.4.Hyundai E-GMP
7.3.5.Jaguar I-PACE
7.3.6.Nissan Leaf
7.3.7.Tesla Model S
7.3.8.Tesla Model 3
7.3.9.Toyota Prius
8.1.1.What is Power Electronics?
8.1.2.Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles
8.1.3.Power Electronics Device Ranges
8.1.4.Power Switches (Transistors)
8.1.5.Power Switch History
8.1.6.Wide-bandgap Semiconductors
8.1.7.Benchmarking Silicon, Silicon Carbide & Gallium Nitride
8.1.8.Applications for Silicon Carbide & Gallium Nitride
8.1.9.Inverter Power Modules
8.1.10.Inverter Package Designs
8.1.11.Power Module Packaging Over the Generations
8.1.12.Traditional Power Module Packaging
8.1.13.Inverter Benchmarking
8.1.14.Module Packaging Material Dimensions
8.1.15.Power Electronics Cooling
8.1.16.Double-sided Cooling
8.1.17.Baseplate, Heat Sink, Encapsulation Materials
8.1.18.Automotive Power Module Leaders
8.1.19.Power Module Supply Chain & Innovations
8.1.20.The Transition to SiC
8.1.21.Power Electronics Inverter Forecast
8.2.Beyond Wire Bonds
8.2.1.Wire Bonds
8.2.2.Al Wire Bonds: A Common Failure Point
8.2.3.Advanced Wire Bonding Techniques
8.2.4.Tesla's Novel Bonding Technique
8.2.5.Direct Lead Bonding (Mitsubishi)
8.2.6.Technology Evolution Beyond Al Wire Bonding
8.3.Beyond Solder
8.3.1.Die and Substrate Attach are Common Failure Modes
8.3.2.The Choice of Solder Technology
8.3.3.Technology Evolution: Ag Sintering
8.3.4.Sintering: Die-to-substrate, Substrate-baseplate or Heat sink, Die Pad to Interconnect, etc.)
8.3.5.Evolution of Tesla's Power Electronics
8.3.6.Die Attach Technology Trends
8.4.Advanced Substrates
8.4.1.The Choice of Ceramic Substrate Technology
8.4.2.AlN: Overcoming its Mechanical Weakness
8.4.3.Approaches to Metallisation: DPC, DBC, AMB and Thick Film Metallisation
8.4.4.Direct Plated Copper (DPC): Pros and Cons
8.4.5.Double Bonded Copper (DBC): Pros and Cons
8.4.6.Active Metal Brazing (AMB): Pros and Cons
8.4.7.Thick Film Printing
8.4.8.Ceramics: CTE Mismatch
8.5.Eliminating Thermal Interface Materials
8.5.1.Why use TIM in Power Modules?
8.5.2.Why the Drive to Eliminate the TIM?
8.5.3.Thermal Grease: Other Shortcomings
8.5.4.Has TIM Been Eliminated in any EV Inverter Modules?
8.6.Power Electronics Packages: EV Use-cases
8.6.1.Toyota Prius 2004-2010 Lexus
8.6.3.Toyota Prius 2010-2015
8.6.4.Nissan Leaf 2012
8.6.5.Renault Zoe 2013 (Continental)
8.6.6.Honda Accord 2014
8.6.7.Honda Fit (by Mitsubishi)
8.6.8.Toyota Prius 2016 onwards
8.6.9.Chevrolet Volt 2016 (by Delphi)
8.6.10.Cadillac 2016 (by Hitachi)
8.6.11.Audi e-tron 2018
8.6.12.BWM i3 (by Infineon)
8.6.13.Infineon's HybridPACK is used by Multiple Manufacturers
8.6.15.Delphi, Cree, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Volvo
8.6.16.Tesla's SiC Package
8.6.17.What Does This Mean for the MOSFET Package?
8.6.18.Tesla Model 3 2018 Liquid Cooling
8.6.19.Continental / Jaguar Land Rover Inverter
8.6.20.Jaguar I-PACE 2019 (Continental) Liquid Cooling
8.6.21.Nissan Leaf Custom Inverter Design
8.6.22.Nissan Leaf Liquid Cooling
8.6.23.Chevy Bolt Power Module (by LG Electronics / Infineon)
8.6.24.Hyundai E-GMP (Infineon)
9.1.1.Heat Pumps for BEVs Forecast
9.1.2.Future Global Trends in OEM Cooling Methodologies
9.1.3.Adoption of Cooling Methodologies Forecast
9.1.4.Immersion Market Adoption Forecast
9.1.5.Immersion Fluid Volume Forecast
9.1.6.Battery and TIM Demand Trends
9.1.7.TIM for EV Battery Packs: Forecast by Vehicle Segment
9.1.8.TIM for EV Battery Packs: Forecast by TIM Type
9.1.9.Fire Protection Materials Forecast
9.1.10.Electric Motor Unit Forecast
9.1.11.Power Electronics Inverter Forecast

Report Statistics

Slides 370
Forecasts to 2031
ISBN 9781913899554

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