Festkörper- und Polymerbatterien 2021-2031: Technologie, Prognose, Spieler: IDTechEx

Solid-state batteries market will reshuffle supply chain and reach over $8 billion by 2031

Festkörper- und Polymerbatterien 2021-2031: Technologie, Prognose, Spieler

Revolutionärer Ansatz für das Batteriegeschäft und potenzielle EV-Game-Raisers


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A typical commercial battery cell usually consists of cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. One of the most successful commercial batteries we have so far is based on lithium-ion technology, which has been commercialized since 1991. However, their worldwide success and diffusion in consumer electronics and electric vehicles (EV) cannot hide their limitations in terms of safety, performance, and form factor due to the underlying technology.
 
Illustration of a typical cell
Most widely used commercial lithium-ion technologies employ liquid electrolyte, with lithium salts such as LiPF6, LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent. However, the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), which is a result of the de-composition of the electrolyte at the negative electrode, limits the effective conductance. Furthermore, liquid electrolyte needs expensive membranes to separate the cathode and anode, as well as an impermeable casing to avoid leakage. Therefore, the size and design freedom for these batteries are constrained. Furthermore, liquid electrolytes have safety and health issues as they use flammable and corrosive liquids. Samsung's Firegate and dozens of EV combustions have particularly highlighted the risks that even large companies incur when flammable liquid electrolytes are used.
 
Solid-state electrolytes have the potential to address all of those aspects, particularly in the electric vehicle, wearable, and drone markets. Their first application was in the 70s as primary batteries for pacemakers, where a sheet of Li metal is placed in contact with solid iodine. The two materials behave like a short-circuited cell and their reaction leads to the formation of a lithium iodide (LiI) layer at their interface. After the LiI layer has formed, a very small, constant current can still flow from the lithium anode to the iodine cathode for several years. Fast forward to 2011, and researchers from Toyota and the Tokyo Institute of Technology have claimed the discovery of a sulphide-based material that has the same ionic conductivity of a liquid electrolyte, something unthinkable up to a decade ago. Five years later, they were able to double that value, thus making solid-state electrolytes appealing also for high power applications and fast charging. Until recently, we have heard multiple plans that solid-state batteries will be deployed in EVs in a few years' time. These interests and developments have fuelled research and investments into new categories of materials and energy storage systems that can triple current Li-ion energy densities.
 
In solid-state batteries, both the electrodes and the electrolytes are solid state. Solid-state electrolyte normally behaves as the separator as well, allowing downscaling due to the elimination of certain components (e.g., separator and casing). Therefore, they can potentially be made thinner, flexible, and contain more energy per unit weight than conventional Li-ion. In addition, the removal of liquid electrolytes can be an avenue for safer, long-lasting batteries as they are more resistant to changes in temperature and physical damages occurred during usage. Solid state batteries can handle more charge/discharge cycles before degradation, promising a longer lifetime.
 
With a battery market currently dominated by Asian companies, European and US firms are striving to win this arms race that might, in their view, shift added value away from Japan, China, and South Korea. Different material selections and change of manufacturing procedures show an indication of reshuffle of the battery supply chain. From both technology and business point of view, development of solid-state battery has formed part of the next generation battery strategy. It has become a global game with regional interests and governmental supports.
 
In addition, with the rapid growth of the EV market and regulation requirement for longer range, battery technologies with better performance - including better safety and higher energy density - are drawing attention from battery vendors, automotive OEMs, material suppliers and investors. Geographically closer to the application market, complete and secure supply chain, superior performance, and potential for cost comparison or even reduction - all these factors drive dozens of players plunging into the solid-state battery business.
 
Major solid-state battery players globally
This report covers the solid-state electrolyte industry by giving a 10-year forecast till 2031 in terms of capacity production and market size, predicted to reach over $8B. A special focus is placed on winning chemistries, with a full analysis of the 8 inorganic solid electrolytes and of organic polymer electrolytes.
 
Solid-state electrolyte technology approach (source: IDTechEx)
 
Additionally, the report covers the manufacturing challenges related to solid electrolytes and how large companies (Toyota, Toshiba, etc.) try to address those limitations, as well as research progress and activities of important players. A study of lithium metal as a strategic resource is also presented, highlighting the strategic distribution of this material around the world and the role it will play in solid-state batteries. Some chemistries will be quite lithium-hungry and put a strain on mining companies worldwide.
 
Finally, over 20 different companies are compared and ranked in terms of their technology and manufacturing readiness, with a watch list and a score comparison.
 
Players discussed in this report:
 
24M, Applied Materials, BatScap (Bolloré Group) / Bathium, Beijing Easpring Material Technology, BMW, BrightVolt, BYD, CATL, Cenat, CEA Tech, China Aviation Lithium Battery, Coslight, Cymbet, EMPA, Enovate Motors, FDK, Fisker Inc., Flashcharge Batteries, Fraunhofer Batterien, Front Edge Technology, Ganfeng Lithium, Giessen University, Guangzhou Great Power, Guoxuan High-Tech Power Energy, Hitachi Zosen, Hyundai, Ilika, IMEC, Infinite Power Solutions, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ionic Materials, ITEN, Jiawei Long powers Solid-State Storage Technology RuGao City Co.,Ltd, JiaWei Renewable Energy, Johnson Battery Technologies, Kalptree Energy, Magnis Energy Technologies, Mitsui Metal, Murata, National Battery, National Interstellar Solid State Lithium Electricity Technology, NGK/NTK, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS, Oak Ridge Energy Technologies, Ohara, Panasonic, Planar Energy, Polyplus, Prieto Battery, ProLogium, Qing Tao Energy Development Co., QuantumScape, Sakti 3, Samsung SDI, Schott AG, SEEO, Solidenergy, Solid Power, Solvay, Sony, STMicroelectronics, Taiyo Yuden, TDK, Tianqi Lithium, Toshiba, Toyota, ULVAC, University of Münster, Volkswagen, Wanxian A123 Systems, WeLion New Energy Technology, Zhongtian Technology
 
Breakdown of the main parts of the report:
CHAPTER 1 - LATEST DISCUSSIONS FOR SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
CHAPTER 2 - BACKGROUND
CHAPTER 3 - DESIRE FOR ALL SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
CHAPTER 3 - SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
CHAPTER 4 - SOLID-STATE BATTERY MANUFACTURING
CHAPTER 5 - COMPANY ACTIVITIES AND PROFILES ON SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
 
Full Table of Contents below.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Players talked in this report
1.2.Status and future of solid state battery business
1.3.Regional efforts
1.4.Factors affecting the European market
1.5.Location overview of major solid-state battery companies
1.6.Solid-state battery partner relationships
1.7.Solid-state electrolyte technology approach
1.8.Summary of solid-state electrolyte technology
1.9.Comparison of solid-state electrolyte systems
1.10.Technology evaluation
1.11.Technology evaluation (continued)
1.12.Technology summary of various companies
1.13.Solid state battery collaborations / investment by Automotive OEMs
1.14.Technology and manufacturing readiness
1.15.Score comparison
1.16.Solid-state battery value chain
1.17.Timeline for mass production
1.18.Are mass production coming?
1.19.Market forecast methodology
1.20.Assumptions and analysis of market forecast of SSB
1.21.Price forecast of solid state battery for various applications
1.22.Solid-state battery addressable market size
1.23.Solid-state battery forecast 2021-2031 by application
1.24.Market size segmentation in 2025 and 2031
1.25.Solid-state battery forecast 2021-2031 by technology
1.26.Solid-state battery forecast 2021-2031 for car plug in
2.LITHIUM METAL ANODE
2.1.Lithium metal is required for high energy density
2.2.Why is lithium so important?
2.3.Lithium metal may make a difference
2.4.Specific energy comparison of different electrolytes
2.5.Lithium metal challenge
2.6.Lithium metal foils
2.7.Where is lithium?
2.8.How to produce lithium
2.9.Lithium hydroxide vs. lithium carbonate
2.10.Lithium in solid-state batteries
2.11.Resources considerations
2.12."Anode-free" batteries
2.13.Challenges of anode free batteries
3.FROM CELL TO PACK
3.1.Business models between battery-auto companies
3.2.Pack parameters mean more than cell's
3.3.Influence of the pack design
3.4.CATL's CTP design
3.5.BYD's blade battery: overview
3.6.BYD's blade battery: structure and composition
3.7.BYD's blade battery: design
3.8.BYD's blade battery: pack layout
3.9.BYD's blade battery: energy density improvement
3.10.BYD's blade battery: thermal safety
3.11.BYD's blade battery: structural safety
3.12.Cost and performance
3.13.BYD's blade battery: what CTP indicates
3.14.Summary
4.FAST CHARGING
4.1.Fast charging at each stage
4.2.The importance of battery feature for fast charging
4.3.Fast charging for solid-state batteries
5.COMPOSITE ELECTROLYTES
5.1.The best of both worlds?
5.2.Chapter 2 introduction
6.WHY IS BATTERY DEVELOPMENT SO SLOW?
6.1.What is a battery?
6.2.A big obstacle — energy density
6.3.Battery technology is based on redox reactions
6.4.Electrochemical reaction is essentially based on electron transfer
6.5.Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
6.6.The importance of an electrolyte in a battery
6.7.Cathode & anode need to have structural order
6.8.Failure story about metallic lithium anode
7.SAFETY ISSUES WITH LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES
7.1.Safety of liquid-electrolyte lithium-ion batteries
7.2.Modern horror films are finding their scares in dead phone batteries
7.3.Samsung's Firegate
7.4.Safety aspects of Li-ion batteries
7.5.LIB cell temperature and likely outcome
8.LI-ION BATTERIES
8.1.Food is electricity for humans
8.2.What is a Li-ion battery (LIB)?
8.3.Anode alternatives: Lithium titanium and lithium metal
8.4.Anode alternatives: Other carbon materials
8.5.Anode alternatives: Silicon, tin and alloying materials
8.6.Cathode alternatives: LNMO, NMC, NCA and Vanadium pentoxide
8.7.Cathode alternatives: LFP
8.8.Cathode alternatives: Sulphur
8.9.Cathode alternatives: Oxygen
8.10.High energy cathodes require fluorinated electrolytes
8.11.How can LIBs be improved?
8.12.Milestone discoveries that shaped the modern lithium-ion batteries
8.13.Push and pull factors in Li-ion research
8.14.The battery trilemma
8.15.Form factor
9.CONCLUSIONS
9.1.Conclusions
9.2.Introduction
10.WHY SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
10.1.A solid future?
10.2.Worldwide battery target roadmap
10.3.Evolution of battery technology
10.4.Lithium-ion batteries vs. solid-state batteries
10.5.What is a solid-state battery (SSB)?
10.6.How can solid-state batteries increase performance?
10.7.Close stacking
10.8.Energy density improvement
10.9.Value propositions and limitations of solid state battery
10.10.Flexibility and customisation provided by solid-state batteries
11.INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES ON SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
11.1.Solid-state battery literature analysis
11.2.Interests in China
11.3.15 Other Chinese player activities on solid state batteries
11.4.Chinese car player activities on solid-state batteries
11.5.Regional interests: Japan
11.6.Technology roadmap according to Germany's NPE
11.7.Roadmap for battery cell technology
12.INTRODUCTION TO SOLID-STATE BATTERIES
12.1.History of solid-state battery development
12.2.History of solid-state batteries
12.3.Solid-state battery configurations
12.4.Solid-state electrolytes
12.5.Differences between liquid and solid electrolytes
12.6.How to design a good solid-state electrolyte
12.7.Classifications of solid-state electrolyte
12.8.Thin film vs. bulk solid-state batteries
12.9.Companies working on different sizes
12.10.Scaling of thin ceramic sheets
12.11.Requirements for solid-state electrolyte with multifunctions
12.12.How safe are solid-state batteries?
12.13.Major issues of solid-state batteries
13.SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTES
13.1.Applications of polymer-based batteries
13.2.LiPo batteries, polymer-based batteries, polymeric batteries
13.3.Types of polymer electrolytes
13.4.Electrolytic polymer options
13.5.Advantages and issues of polymer electrolytes
13.6.PEO for solid polymer electrolyte
13.7.Companies working on polymer solid state batteries
14.SOLID INORGANIC ELECTROLYTES
14.1.Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion
14.2.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes
14.3.Dendrites - ceramic fillers and high shear modulus are needed
14.4.Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes
14.5.Oxide Inorganic Electrolyte
14.6.Oxide electrolyte
14.7.Garnet
14.8.Estimated cost projection for LLZO-based SSB
14.9.NASICON-type
14.10.Perovskite
14.11.LiPON
14.12.LiPON: construction
14.13.Players worked and working LiPON-based batteries
14.14.Cathode material options for LiPON-based batteries
14.15.Anodes for LiPON-based batteries
14.16.Substrate options for LiPON-based batteries
14.17.Trend of materials and processes of thin-film battery in different companies
14.18.LiPON: capacity increase
14.19.Comparison of inorganic oxide solid-state electrolyte
14.20.Thermal stability of oxide electrolyte with lithium metal
14.21.Companies working on oxide solid state batteries
14.22.Sulphide Inorganic Electrolyte
14.23.LISICON-type
14.24.Argyrodite
14.25.Companies working on sulphide solid state batteries
14.26.Others
14.27.Li-hydrides
14.28.Li-halides
15.SOLID-STATE BATTERY MATERIALS BEYOND ELECTROLYTE
15.1.Pouch cells
15.2.Techniques to fabricate aluminium laminated sheets
15.3.Packaging procedures for pouch cells
15.4.Material costs take significant portion and can fluctuate
15.5.Cathode price track
15.6.Other material price track
16.SOLID-STATE ELECTROLYTES BEYOND LI-ION
16.1.Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-sulphur batteries
16.2.Lithium sulphur solid electrode development phases
16.3.Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-air batteries
16.4.Solid-state electrolytes in metal-air batteries
16.5.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries
16.6.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries
17.SOLID-STATE BATTERY MANUFACTURING
17.1.The real bottleneck
17.2.The incumbent process: lamination
17.3.Summary of processing routes of solid-state battery components fabrication
17.4.Oxide electrolyte thickness and processing temperatures
17.5.Wet-chemical & vacuum-based deposition methods for Li-oxide thin films
17.6.Current processing methods and challenges for mass manufacturing of Li-oxide thin-film materials
17.7.Process chains for solid electrolyte fabrication
17.8.Process chains for anode fabrication
17.9.Process chains for cathode fabrication
17.10.Process chains for cell assembly
17.11.Cell stacking options
17.12.Solid battery fabrication process
17.13.Manufacturing equipment for solid-state batteries
17.14.Solid Power's ASSB manufacturing
17.15.Industrial-scale fabrication of Li metal polymer batteries
17.16.Typical manufacturing method of the all solid-state battery (SMD type)
17.17.Are thin film electrolytes viable?
17.18.Summary of main fabrication technique for thin film batteries
17.19.PVD processes for thin-film batteries
17.20.Ilika's PVD approach
17.21.Avenues for manufacturing
17.22.Toyota's approach
17.23.Hitachi Zosen's approach
17.24.Sakti3's PVD approach
17.25.Planar Energy's approach
17.26.Solid-State Battery Applications
17.27.Potential applications for solid-state batteries
17.28.Market readiness
17.29.Solid-state batteries for consumer electronics
17.30.Performance comparison: CEs & wearables
17.31.Solid-state batteries for electric vehicles
17.32.Batteries used in electric vehicles
17.33.ProLogium: "MAB" EV battery pack assembly
17.34.24M
17.34.1.Innovative electrode for semi-solid electrolyte batteries
17.34.2.Redefining manufacturing process by 24M
17.35.BAIC Group
17.35.1.BAIC's prototype
17.36.BMW
17.36.1.Automakers' efforts - BMW
17.37.Bolloré
17.37.1.Bolloré's LMF batteries
17.37.2.Automakers' efforts - Bolloré
17.38.BrightVolt
17.38.1.BrightVolt batteries
17.38.2.BrightVolt product matrix
17.38.3.BrightVolt electrolyte
17.39.CATL
17.39.1.CATL
17.39.2.CATL's energy density development roadmap
17.40.CEA Tech
17.40.1.CEA Tech
17.41.Coslight
17.41.1.Coslight
17.42.Cymbet
17.42.1.Micro-Batteries suitable for integration
17.43.Enovate Motors
17.43.1.Enovate Motors
17.44.Excellatron
17.44.1.Thin-film solid-state batteries made by Excellatron
17.45.FDK
17.45.1.FDK
17.45.2.Applications of FDK's solid state battery
17.46.Fisker
17.46.1.Automakers' efforts - Fisker Inc.
17.47.Fraunhofer Batterien
17.47.1.Academic views - Fraunhofer Batterien
17.48.Front Edge Technology
17.48.1.Ultra-thin micro-battery—NanoEnergy®
17.49.Ganfeng Lithium
17.49.1.Ganfeng Lithium
17.50.Giessen University
17.50.1.Academic views - Giessen University
17.51.Hitachi Zosen
17.51.1.Hitachi Zosen's solid-state electrolyte
17.51.2.Hitachi Zosen's batteries
17.52.Hozon Automobile
17.52.1.Hozon Automobile's prototype
17.53.Hydro-Québec
17.53.1.Hydro-Québec 1
17.53.2.Hydro-Québec 2
17.54.Hyundai
17.54.1.Automakers' efforts - Hyundai
17.55.Ilika
17.55.1.Introduction to Ilika
17.55.2.Ilika's business model
17.55.3.Ilika's microtechnology
17.55.4.Ilika: Stereax
17.55.5.Ilika: Goliath
17.56.IMEC
17.56.1.IMEC
17.57.Infinite Power Solutions
17.57.1.Technology of Infinite Power Solutions
17.57.2.Cost comparison between a standard prismatic battery and IPS' battery
17.58.Ionic Materials
17.58.1.Ionic Materials
17.58.2.Technology and manufacturing process of Ionic Materials
17.59.JiaWei Renewable Energy
17.59.1.JiaWei Renewable Energy
17.60.Johnson Battery Technologies
17.60.1.Johnson Battery Technologies
17.60.2.JBT's advanced technology performance
17.61.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
17.61.1.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
17.62.Konan University
17.62.1.Solid-state electrolytes - Konan University
17.63.Nagoya University
17.63.1.Nagoya University
17.64.Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
17.64.1.Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
17.65.NIO
17.65.1.NIO
17.66.Ohara Corporation
17.66.1.Lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic powder-01
17.66.2.LICGCTM PW-01 for cathode additives
17.66.3.Ohara's products for solid state batteries
17.66.4.Ohara / PolyPlus
17.66.5.Application of LICGC for all solid state batteries
17.66.6.Properties of multilayer all solid-state lithium ion battery using LICGC as electrolyte
17.66.7.LICGC products at the show
17.66.8.Manufacturing process of Ohara glass
17.67.Panasonic
17.67.1.Battery vendors' efforts - Panasonic
17.68.Polyplus
17.68.1.Polyplus
17.69.Prieto Battery
17.69.1.Prieto Battery
17.70.ProLogium
17.70.1.Introduction to ProLogium
17.70.2.ProLogium's technology
17.70.3.Technology breakthrough
17.70.4.Product types
17.70.5.ProLogium: Solid-state lithium ceramic battery
17.70.6.MAB technology
17.71.Qingtao Energy Development
17.71.1.Qingtao Energy Development
17.71.2.History of Qingtao Energy Development
17.72.QuantumScape
17.72.1.Introduction to QuantumScape
17.72.2.Introduction to QuantumScape's technology
17.72.3.QuantumScape patent summary
17.72.4.QuantumScape patent analysis
17.72.5.Garnet electrolyte/catholyte
17.72.6.QuantumScape patent analysis
17.72.7.Test analysis of QuantumScape's cells
17.72.8.Tests of QuantumScape's cells
17.72.9.Challenges of QuantumScape's technology
17.72.10.Features of garnet electrolyte in SSBs
17.72.11.QuantumScape's technology 6
17.72.12.QuantumScape's manufacturing timeline
17.73.Samsung
17.73.1.Battery vendors' efforts - Samsung SDI
17.73.2.Samsung's work with argyrodite
17.74.Schott
17.74.1.SEEO
17.75.SES
17.75.1.Introduction to SES
17.75.2.Polymer-based battery: SES
17.76.Solid Power
17.76.1.Introduction to Solid Power
17.76.2.Solid Power's offering
17.76.3.Solid Power's technology roadmap
17.76.4.Solid Power test graphs
17.76.5.Solid Power's product roadmap
17.77.Solvay
17.78.STMicroelectronics
17.78.1.From limited to mass production—STMicroelectronics
17.78.2.Summary of the EnFilm™ rechargeable thin-film battery
17.79.Taiyo Yuden
17.79.1.Taiyo Yuden
17.80.TDK
17.80.1.CeraCharge's performance
17.80.2.Main applications of CeraCharge
17.81.Ensurge Micropower (Former Thin Film Electronics ASA )
17.81.1.Introduction to the company
17.81.2.Ensurge's execution plan
17.81.3.Ensurge's technology
17.81.4.Business model and market
17.81.5.Key Customers, partners and competitors
17.81.6.Company financials
17.82.Tokyo Institute of Technology
17.83.Toshiba
17.83.1.Composite solid-state electrolyte
17.84.Toyota
17.84.1.Toyota's activities
17.84.2.Toyota' efforts
17.84.3.Toyota's prototype
17.84.4.University of Münster
17.84.5.Academic views - University of Münster
17.85.Volkswagen
17.85.1.Automakers' efforts - Volkswagen
17.85.2.Volkswagen's investment in electric vehicle batteries
17.86.WeLion New Energy Technology
18.APPENDIX
18.1.Glossary of terms - specifications
18.2.Useful charts for performance comparison
18.3.Battery categories
18.4.Commercial battery packaging technologies
18.5.Comparison of commercial battery packaging technologies
18.6.Actors along the value chain for energy storage
18.7.Primary battery chemistries and common applications
18.8.Numerical specifications of popular rechargeable battery chemistries
18.9.Battery technology benchmark
18.10.What does 1 kilowatthour (kWh) look like?
18.11.Technology and manufacturing readiness
18.12.List of acronyms
 

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Slides 468
Forecasts to 2031
Published Jun 2021
ISBN 9781913899547
 

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