IDTechEx 预测,到 2033 年,全球蓝氢市场将达到 340 亿美元的规模。

蓝氢生产和市场 2023-2033:技术、预测、参与者

蒸汽甲烷重整 (SMR)、自热重整 (ATR)、部分氧化 (POX) 和甲烷热解。市场展望、10 年市场预测、主要参与者、技术评估和对比。

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此报告评估蓝氢生产技术、供应链、主要参与者、材料、重大创新和项目。包括 6 种主要蓝氢技术的比较和该等技术的 10 年市场预测,以及 7 个应用领域和 3 个采用区域。报告还探讨相应的碳捕获、利用和储存 (CCUS) 技术,并讨论了生产蓝氢的前景和挑战。
Blue hydrogen is going to grow due to global decarbonization efforts in hard-to-abate sectors, such as oil refining and ammonia production. IDTechEx forecasts that the global blue hydrogen market will grow to reach US$34 billion by 2033. There are different routes to producing blue hydrogen, each with their own benefits and drawbacks. This report from IDTechEx assesses these different blue hydrogen processes as well as their associated supply chains, key players, materials, major innovations and projects. It includes a comparison of the 6 main blue hydrogen technologies and 10-year market forecasts for those technologies along with 7 application areas, and 3 regions of adoption. The report also examines applicable carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies and discusses the prospects and challenges of producing blue hydrogen.
What is blue hydrogen?
Blue hydrogen refers to the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels, mostly through natural gas reforming or coal gasification, in which most CO2 emissions are captured and stored or used in products via carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies. CO2 storage is typically accomplished by injecting the gas into geological formations such as saline aquifers or depleted oil fields, whilst utilization methods include uses such as cement manufacture. Carbon capture technologies can be fitted onto existing hydrogen processes in a technique called retrofitting or integrated into new hydrogen plants by-design. A section of the report is dedicated to CCUS specifically and discusses some key technologies that could be applied to blue hydrogen processes.
In contrast, conventional grey and black/brown hydrogen production processes emit the majority of their direct (Scope 1) CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, while green hydrogen, produced through electrolysis of water powered by renewable energy, has zero direct emissions.
A plethora of other hydrogen colors now exist to describe the various sub-routes to hydrogen production. Among them is turquoise hydrogen that is produced via methane pyrolysis, which uses heat generated by electricity to decompose methane molecules into hydrogen and solid carbon. This means that no carbon capture is required, and the solid carbon product can be used in a variety of applications depending on its form. Although not considered strictly blue, IDTechEx covers turquoise hydrogen production in this report as it uses natural gas, hence the hydrogen produced can still be classified as low-carbon hydrogen.
The spectrum of hydrogen colors. Source: IDTechEx
Why produce blue hydrogen?
Blue and green hydrogen production are the two main routes to decarbonizing hydrogen production. This can in turn decarbonize hard-to-abate sectors like oil refining and ammonia/fertilizer production, which are currently the largest applications for hydrogen and are expected to remain so in the medium-term. Hydrogen can also decarbonize other hard-to-abate sectors such as steel and methanol production as well as heavy-duty and long-haul transport. IDTechEx outlines some of these applications in the report and presented some example projects and case studies.
Example of a potential blue hydrogen supply chain. Source: IDTechEx
Having an extensive green hydrogen electrolyzer infrastructure would be ideal for long-term decarbonization in order to completely phase out fossil fuels and prevent further emissions. However, blue hydrogen is seen as the preferred medium-term solution due to challenges with green hydrogen, such as the high cost of electrolyzer technology and the heavy reliance on available renewable power (high percentage of total CAPEX), as well as the availability of natural gas infrastructure and grey hydrogen plants ready to be converted. Nonetheless, blue hydrogen does have many issues, such as the hindered growth due to the availability of CCUS sites being a bottleneck. More discussions on these issues can be found in the report.
Overview of the production methods covered in the report
Steam-methane reforming (SMR) is the most developed and widespread hydrogen production technology (grey hydrogen) used throughout the world. Coal gasification (CG) is another popular technology used to produce hydrogen (black/brown hydrogen), especially in China, which has some of the world's largest coal reserves. Other conventional hydrogen processes include partial oxidation (POX), which is useful in converting waste oil/refining products to hydrogen, as well as the more recently developed autothermal reforming (ATR) of methane, which is a self-heating steam reforming process that is more cost-effective than SMR for producing blue hydrogen.
This report also provides coverage of methane pyrolysis, which produces hydrogen and solid carbon products, the latter being carbon black in most cases. While conventional processes are dominated by established process and technology developers, such as Air Liquide and Topsoe, the methane pyrolysis field is mostly occupied by start-ups and smaller-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) some of which are quickly commercializing their technologies. IDTechEx compares the different methane pyrolysis technologies and identifies the most developed and promising technology. Other processes identified and appraised by IDTechEx fall under the categories of novel processes (purely thermochemical) and biomass processes (biological, biochemical and thermochemical using biomass feedstocks).
The report analyzes all of these technologies, presenting some key areas of innovation, materials used, players involved in the supply chains and projects/case studies for most. A section of the report is dedicated to comparing the processes against each other using general qualitative discussions and quantitative metrics, such as LCOH. These comparisons were used to drive IDTechEx's analysis on which technology is going to be the most successful and promising for the blue hydrogen industry.
Technology and market trends in blue hydrogen production
IDTechEx forecasts the global blue hydrogen market to reach US$34 billion by 2033. IDTechEx analysis shows that most of the capacity growth in blue hydrogen will come from Europe, particularly from countries such as the UK that aim to decarbonize their large industrial clusters using blue hydrogen and CCUS. Significant growth will also come from North America and an increase in the pace of development is seen from countries such as Australia. Applications that will dominate the market are refining and ammonia but other applications, such as methanol, will also see significant growth.
Key takeaways from this report:
  • Overview of hydrogen applications, national strategies and issues surrounding blue hydrogen
  • Analysis of blue hydrogen production technologies, materials, key players, supply chains and projects
  • Novel blue hydrogen production methods (thermochemical, biological, biochemical)
  • Technology comparisons based on metrics such as LCOH and emission intensity
  • Market analysis and forecasts
  • Background into CCUS and applicable technologies for blue hydrogen production
This report provides the following information:
Hydrogen market background:
  • Introduction to hydrogen and the colors of hydrogen, the need for blue hydrogen and the challenges with green hydrogen production
  • Overview of current and emerging applications for hydrogen
  • Analysis of national hydrogen strategies from countries around the world
  • Potential key challenges for blue hydrogen production
  • Technological challenges and opportunities for innovation
  • Summary of drivers for blue hydrogen development
Insight into blue hydrogen production technologies, materials, key players, projects and more:
  • Analysis of blue hydrogen production technologies, key players and projects for the following technologies: steam-methane reforming (SMR), autothermal reforming (ATR), partial oxidation (POX), coal gasification (CG), methane pyrolysis, biomass processes, novel thermochemical processes.
  • State of the art innovation in the blue hydrogen field.
  • Case studies and lists of key players involved in the blue hydrogen value chain from catalyst and technology suppliers to blue hydrogen end-uses.
  • Comparisons of blue hydrogen production technologies using qualitative analysis and quantitative metrics such as levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH), technological readiness level (TRL), carbon emissions and more.
  • Overview of key materials for blue hydrogen processes and players supplying them.
  • Includes catalysts, sorbents, membranes, vessel materials, by-product materials.
  • Discussion on carbon capture, utilization & storage (CCUS) relevant to blue hydrogen. Includes general information on CCUS, summary of point-source carbon capture methods for blue hydrogen, detailed analysis of carbon capture methods and players involved in supply chains.
Market forecasts & analysis:
  • 10-year capacity forecasts in million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) of hydrogen for the 6 major production technologies (including SMR, ATR & POX), 7 major application areas (including refining, ammonia & methanol), regions of installations (Asia & Australia, Europe, Americas) and type of installation (new or retrofit).
  • 10-year capacity forecasts in million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) of CO2 for the 6 major production technologies.
  • Blue hydrogen cost of installations (plant CAPEX) forecast in US$B for the 6 major production technologies.
  • Total blue hydrogen market forecast in US$B for the 6 major production technologies and type of installation (new or retrofit).
  • Comparison to national hydrogen targets for the major economies aiming to produce hydrogen.
  • Outlook on the hydrogen market.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Hydrogen as a clean-burning fuel is gaining momentum
1.2.Current hydrogen supply chain & blue hydrogen
1.3.Current state of hydrogen production
1.4.Removing CO₂ emissions from hydrogen production
1.5.Turquoise hydrogen from methane pyrolysis
1.6.The challenges in green hydrogen production
1.7.The case for blue hydrogen production
1.8.Potential key challenges with blue hydrogen
1.9.Technological challenges & opportunities for innovation
1.10.CCUS technological challenges & opportunities for innovation
1.11.Current & emerging applications for hydrogen
1.12.National hydrogen strategies
1.13.Blue hydrogen supply chain
1.14.Potential business model for blue hydrogen projects
1.15.Summary of drivers for blue hydrogen development
1.16.Overview of production methods covered
1.17.Key considerations in designing blue hydrogen processes
1.18.Blue hydrogen technologies overview
1.19.What is Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)?
1.20.Carbon capture technologies
1.21.Pre- vs post-combustion CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen
1.22.Novel processes for blue hydrogen production
1.23.Pros & cons of production technologies (1/3)
1.24.Pros & cons of production technologies (2/3)
1.25.Pros & cons of production technologies (3/3)
1.26.Levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) comparison
1.27.Cost breakdown comparison
1.28.CO₂ emission intensity comparison
1.29.Hydrogen production processes by stage of development
1.30.Process comparison summary & key takeaways
1.31.Blue hydrogen production value chain
1.32.SMR + CCUS value chain
1.33.POX + CCUS value chain
1.34.ATR + CCUS value chain
1.35.Methane pyrolysis activities around the world
1.36.CCUS company landscape
1.37.Leading blue hydrogen companies
1.38.The UK will be a leading blue hydrogen hub
1.39.Blue hydrogen project announcements
1.40.Blue hydrogen capacity forecast by technology
1.41.Blue hydrogen capacity forecast by end-use
1.42.Blue hydrogen capacity forecast by region
1.43.Blue hydrogen market forecast by technology
1.44.Key innovations in blue hydrogen technology (1/2)
1.45.Key innovations in blue hydrogen technology (2/2)
1.46.Is blue hydrogen production innovative?
1.47.IDTechEx's outlook on blue hydrogen
1.48.Companies profiled
2.1.Introduction to the hydrogen economy and blue hydrogen
2.1.1.The need for unprecedented emission reductions
2.1.2.Hydrogen as a clean-burning fuel is gaining momentum
2.1.3.Hydrogen economy & low-carbon hydrogen
2.1.4.Hydrogen economy development issues
2.1.5.Overview of hydrogen production methods
2.1.6.The colors of hydrogen
2.1.7.The colors of hydrogen & report scope
2.1.8.Current hydrogen supply chain & blue hydrogen
2.1.9.Current hydrogen supply chain & blue hydrogen (2/2)
2.1.10.Turquoise hydrogen from methane pyrolysis
2.1.11.The challenges in green hydrogen production
2.1.12.The case for blue hydrogen production
2.2.Drivers for blue hydrogen development
2.2.1.Current & emerging applications for hydrogen (1/2)
2.2.2.Current & emerging applications for hydrogen (2/2)
2.2.3.Example of a key emerging application - FCEVs
2.2.4.Role of hydrogen in synthetic fuel & chemical production
2.2.5.The need for carbon pricing
2.2.6.National hydrogen strategies (1/2)
2.2.7.National hydrogen strategies (2/2)
2.2.8.US' hydrogen strategy
2.2.9.Tax credit changes in the US IRA fostering blue hydrogen
2.2.10.The impact of IRA tax credits on the cost of hydrogen
2.2.11.UK's hydrogen strategy
2.2.12.The UK's CCUS clusters for blue hydrogen
2.2.13.UK's CCUS clusters: East Coast Cluster
2.2.14.UK's CCUS clusters: HyNet North West Cluster
2.2.15.Canada's hydrogen strategy
2.2.16.Netherlands' hydrogen strategy
2.2.17.Blue hydrogen supply chain
2.2.18.Potential business model for blue hydrogen projects
2.2.19.Potential key challenges with blue hydrogen
2.2.20.Technological challenges & opportunities for innovation
2.2.21.Summary of drivers for blue hydrogen development
3.1.1.Overview of production methods covered
3.1.2.Key considerations in designing blue hydrogen processes
3.1.3.Blue hydrogen technologies overview
3.1.4.Pre- vs post-combustion CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen
3.1.5.Blue hydrogen production value chain
3.2.Common features of blue hydrogen processes
3.2.1.Natural gas pre-treatment: desulfurization
3.2.2.Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)
3.2.3.Natural gas pre-treatment: Pre-reforming
3.2.4.Gas heated reformer (GHR) - Novel pre-reformer
3.2.5.Water-gas shift (WGS) & sour shift reactors
3.2.6.Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) (1/2)
3.2.7.Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) (2/2)
3.2.8.Other hydrogen separation options
3.2.9.Air separation units & oxygen generators
3.2.10.Auxiliary equipment
3.3.Steam-methane reforming (SMR)
3.3.1.Steam-methane reforming (SMR)
3.3.2.SMR process flow diagram (PFD)
3.3.3.CO₂ capture options for SMR
3.3.4.CO₂ capture retrofit options - Honeywell UOP example
3.3.5.SMR reformer unit
3.3.6.Steam reformer catalysts
3.3.7.SMR reformer tubes
3.3.8.New reformer designs: Bayonet reformer
3.3.9.New reformer designs: Convection reformers
3.3.10.Shell's Quest project - SMR + CCUS retrofit in Canada
3.3.11.SMR + CCUS value chain
3.3.12.SMR + CCUS players around the world
3.3.13.SMR SWOT Analysis
3.3.14.SMR summary & key takeaways
3.4.Partial oxidation (POX)
3.4.1.Partial oxidation (POX)
3.4.2.POX process flow diagram (PFD)
3.4.3.CO₂ capture options for POX
3.4.4.POX reactor
3.4.5.Catalyst deactivation mechanisms
3.4.6.POX catalyst & CPOX
3.4.7.Shell's blue hydrogen process & Pernis refinery
3.4.8.POX + CCUS value chain
3.4.9.POX + CCUS activities around the world
3.4.10.POX SWOT Analysis
3.4.11.POX summary & key takeaways
3.5.Autothermal reforming (ATR)
3.5.1.Autothermal reforming (ATR)
3.5.2.ATR comparison to SMR & POX
3.5.3.ATR process flow diagram (PFD)
3.5.4.CO₂ capture options for ATR
3.5.5.Autothermal reformer - Topsoe case study
3.5.6.Autothermal reformer materials - Topsoe case study
3.5.7.ATR catalysts - Topsoe case study
3.5.8.Current uses of ATR - Topsoe case study
3.5.9.Other players in ATR + CCUS
3.5.10.Air Products' ATR+CCS plant - Canada
3.5.11.ATR + CCUS value chain
3.5.12.ATR + CCUS players around the world
3.5.13.ATR SWOT Analysis
3.5.14.ATR summary & key takeaways
3.6.Coal gasification (CG)
3.6.1.Coal gasification (CG) process
3.6.2.Underground coal gasification (UCG)
3.6.3.Types of coal
3.6.4.Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants
3.6.5.CG process flow diagram (PFD)
3.6.6.CO₂ capture options for CG
3.6.7.CG process gasifiers
3.6.8.Updraft & downdraft coal gasifiers
3.6.9.Fluidized bed coal gasifiers
3.6.10.Entrained flow coal gasifiers
3.6.11.Coal gasifier performance comparison
3.6.12.Coal gasifiers pros & cons comparison
3.6.13.Commercial coal gasifier technologies
3.6.14.Ash, slag and char utilization
3.6.15.Blue hydrogen projects using CG
3.6.16.Major countries using CG
3.6.17.HESC Coal Gasification Project - Australia and Japan
3.6.18.CG SWOT Analysis
3.6.19.CG summary & key takeaways
3.7.Methane pyrolysis (turquoise hydrogen)
3.7.1.Turquoise hydrogen from methane pyrolysis
3.7.2.Methane pyrolysis - Turquoise hydrogen
3.7.3.Methane pyrolysis process flow diagram (PFD)
3.7.4.Thermal pyrolysis - BASF case study
3.7.5.Molten pyrolysis
3.7.6.Catalytic pyrolysis
3.7.7.Catalytic pyrolysis - Hazer Group case study
3.7.8.Plasma pyrolysis - Monolith case study
3.7.9.Monolith's Olive Creek 1 pyrolysis plant - USA
3.7.10.Microwave plasma pyrolysis - Transform Materials
3.7.11.Other pyrolysis methods
3.7.12.Overview of advanced carbon materials
3.7.13.Use of plasma processes for graphene production
3.7.14.Background on carbon black (1/2)
3.7.15.Background on carbon black (2/2)
3.7.16.Overview of carbon black market
3.7.17.Specialty carbon black analysis
3.7.18.Methane pyrolysis activities around the world
3.7.19.Key players in methane pyrolysis (1/2)
3.7.20.Key players in methane pyrolysis (2/2)
3.7.21.Comparison of pyrolysis processes
3.7.22.Methane pyrolysis SWOT analysis
3.7.23.Methane pyrolysis summary & key takeaways
3.8.Biomass processes
3.8.1.Blue hydrogen from biomass
3.8.2.Biomass & biomass-derived feedstocks
3.8.3.Pathways for hydrogen production from biomass
3.8.4.Anaerobic digestion (AD)
3.8.5.Biogas & RNG from anaerobic digestion
3.8.6.Anaerobic digestion & dark fermentation
3.8.8.Microbial electrolysis
3.8.9.Biomass gasification (BG) (1/2)
3.8.10.Biomass gasification (BG) (2/2)
3.8.11.Biomass pyrolysis
3.8.12.Novel thermochemical processes
3.8.13.Upstream, downstream & CCUS considerations
3.8.14.TRL comparison of biomass processes
3.8.15.Hydrogen from biomass gasification: Mote case study
3.8.16.Key players in biochemical processes
3.8.17.Key players in gasification processes
3.8.18.Key players in pyrolysis processes
3.8.19.Biomass processes SWOT Analysis
3.8.20.Biomass processes summary & key takeaways
3.9.Novel processes
3.9.1.Novel processes for blue hydrogen production
3.9.2.Sorption-enhanced SMR (SE-SMR)
3.9.3.Status of sorption-enhanced processes
3.9.4.Electrified SMR (eSMR) (1/2)
3.9.5.Electrified SMR (eSMR) (2/2)
3.9.6.Microwave-assisted steam reforming
3.9.7.Membrane-assisted reforming: Praxair's OTM reformer
3.9.8.Membrane-assisted reforming: CoorsTek's PCER
3.9.9.Dry methane reforming (DMR)
3.9.10.Catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX)
3.9.11.Advanced autothermal gasification (AATG)
3.9.12.Chemical looping combustion (CLC)
3.9.13.Status of chemical looping combustion (CLC)
3.9.14.Novel processes summary & key takeaways
3.10.Comparison of blue hydrogen processes
3.10.1.Pros & cons of production technologies (1/3)
3.10.2.Pros & cons of production technologies (2/3)
3.10.3.Pros & cons of production technologies (3/3)
3.10.4.Process comparison metrics
3.10.5.Levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) comparison
3.10.6.Cost breakdown comparison
3.10.7.CO₂ emission intensity comparison
3.10.8.The cost of CO₂ capture in blue hydrogen production
3.10.9.CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen production
3.10.10.Hydrogen production processes by TRL
3.10.11.Hydrogen production processes by stage of development
3.10.12.Key innovations in blue hydrogen technology (1/2)
3.10.13.Key innovations in blue hydrogen technology (2/2)
3.10.14.Process comparison summary & key takeaways
3.10.15.Leading blue hydrogen companies
4.1.Introduction to CCUS
4.1.1.What is Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)?
4.1.2.Carbon capture technologies
4.1.3.Main CO₂ capture systems
4.1.4.Overview of main CO₂ capture technologies
4.1.5.Carbon dioxide storage
4.1.6.Carbon dioxide utilization
4.1.7.CCUS company landscape
4.2.Summary of point-source carbon capture for blue hydrogen
4.2.1.Pre- vs post-combustion CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen
4.2.2.Post-combustion CO₂ capture
4.2.3.Pre-combustion CO₂ capture
4.2.4.Oxy-fuel combustion CO₂ capture
4.2.5.Comparison of point-source CO₂ capture systems
4.2.6.CO₂ capture retrofit options for blue H2 production (1/2)
4.2.7.CO₂ capture retrofit options for blue H2 production (2/2)
4.2.8.CO₂ capture retrofit options - Honeywell UOP example
4.2.9.Cost comparison: Commercial CO₂ capture systems for blue H2
4.2.10.The cost of CO₂ capture in blue hydrogen production
4.2.11.CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen production
4.2.12.Point-source capture: Cost, energy demand & CO₂ recovery
4.2.13.Comparison of CO₂ capture technologies
4.2.14.Summary of point-source carbon capture for blue H2
4.3.Solvent-based carbon capture
4.3.1.Solvent-based CO₂ capture
4.3.2.Amine-based chemical solvents
4.3.3.Solvent-based CO₂ capture process
4.3.4.Comparison of key chemical solvent-based systems (1/3)
4.3.5.Comparison of key chemical solvent-based systems (2/3)
4.3.6.Comparison of key chemical solvent-based systems (3/3)
4.3.7.Physical absorption solvents
4.3.8.Comparison of key physical absorption solvents
4.4.Sorbent-based carbon capture
4.4.1.Solid sorbent-based CO₂ separation
4.4.2.Solid sorbents for CO₂ capture (1/3)
4.4.3.Solid sorbents for CO₂ capture (2/3)
4.4.4.Solid sorbents for CO₂ capture (3/3)
4.4.5.Comparison of key solid sorbent systems
4.4.6.Solid sorbent methods for post-combustion
4.4.7.Solid sorbent methods for pre-combustion
4.4.8.Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift (SEWGS)
4.5.Membrane-based carbon capture
4.5.1.Membrane-based CO₂ separation
4.5.2.Membranes: Operating principles
4.5.3.Membranes for pre-combustion capture (1/2)
4.5.4.Membranes for pre-combustion capture (2/2)
4.5.5.Membranes for post-combustion & oxy-fuel combustion capture
4.5.6.Developments in membrane capture technologies
4.5.7.Technical pros & cons for membrane-based CO₂ separation
4.5.8.Comparison of CO₂ capture membranes
4.6.Cryogenic carbon capture
4.6.1.Cryogenic CO₂ capture
4.6.2.Cryogenic CO₂ capture in blue hydrogen: Cryocap™
4.7.Novel carbon capture methods
4.7.1.The Allam-Fetvedt Cycle for blue hydrogen production
4.7.2.CO₂ capture with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
4.7.3.CO₂ capture with Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs)
4.7.4.Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift (SEWGS)
4.8.CO₂ destination: Storage & utilization
4.8.1.Carbon storage or sequestration
4.8.2.CO₂ leakage is a small risk
4.8.3.CO₂ enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
4.8.4.Status and outlook of CO₂ destination in blue hydrogen
4.8.5.Can CO₂ storage be monetized?
4.8.6.The cost of carbon storage (1/2)
4.8.7.The cost of carbon storage (2/2)
4.8.8.CO₂ transport and storage business model
4.8.9.CO₂ transportation options
4.8.10.CO₂ transportation costs
4.8.11.Main emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
4.8.12.Description of emerging CO₂ utilization applications
4.8.13.Role of hydrogen in synthetic fuel & chemical production
4.8.14.Comparison of emerging CO₂ utilization applications
4.9.Challenges in CCUS & summary
4.9.1.The challenges in carbon capture
4.9.2.The challenges in CO₂ transport
4.9.3.The challenges in CO₂ storage
4.9.4.CCUS technological challenges & opportunities for innovation
5.1.1.Materials for blue hydrogen
5.2.1.Steam reformer catalysts
5.2.2.Catalyst deactivation mechanisms
5.2.3.Partial oxidation (POX) catalysts
5.2.4.Autothermal reforming (ATR) catalysts - Topsoe case study
5.2.5.Dry methane reforming (DMR) catalysts
5.2.6.Catalysts for auxiliary processes
5.2.7.Key catalyst suppliers (1/2)
5.2.8.Key catalyst suppliers (2/2)
5.3.1.PSA & sorbents for H2 purification (1/2)
5.3.2.PSA & sorbents for H2 purification (2/2)
5.3.3.Solid sorbent-based CO₂ separation
5.3.4.Solid sorbents for CO₂ capture (1/3)
5.3.5.Solid sorbents for CO₂ capture (2/3)
5.3.6.Solid sorbents for CO₂ capture (3/3)
5.3.7.Sorbents for sorption-enhanced processes
5.3.8.Players supplying sorbents
5.4.1.Membrane-based H2 & CO₂ separation
5.4.2.Membranes: operating principles
5.4.3.Membranes for pre-combustion capture (1/2)
5.4.4.Membranes for pre-combustion capture (2/2)
5.4.5.Membranes for post-combustion & oxy-fuel combustion capture
5.4.6.Developments in membrane capture technologies
5.4.7.Technical pros & cons for membrane-based CO₂ separation
5.4.8.Comparison of CO₂ capture membranes
5.4.9.Players supplying membranes
5.5.Vessel materials
5.5.1.SMR reformer tubes
5.5.2.Metal dusting resistance (1/2)
5.5.3.Metal dusting resistance (2/2) - Nichrome alloys
5.5.4.Autothermal reformer materials - Topsoe case study
5.5.5.Refractory lining for reformers & gasifiers
5.5.6.Players in vessel materials (1/2)
5.5.7.Players in vessel materials (2/2)
5.6.Utilization of by-product materials
5.6.1.Overview of advanced carbon materials
5.6.2.Background on carbon black (1/2)
5.6.3.Background on carbon black (2/2)
5.6.4.Overview of carbon black market
5.6.5.Specialty carbon black analysis
5.6.6.Ash, slag and char utilization
5.6.8.Biochar applications
6.1.Forecasting data collection & assumptions
6.2.Forecasting methodology
6.3.Blue hydrogen forecast breakdown
6.4.Blue hydrogen project announcements
6.5.Blue hydrogen capacity forecast by technology
6.6.Blue hydrogen capacity forecast by end-use
6.7.Blue hydrogen capacity forecast by region
6.8.CO₂ capture capacity forecast by technology
6.9.Blue hydrogen market forecast by technology
6.10.Blue hydrogen cost of installations forecast by technology
6.11.Blue hydrogen capacity & market forecast by installation type
6.12.IDTechEx's outlook on blue hydrogen
7.4.Hazer Group
7.7.Transform Materials
7.9.Johnson Matthey
7.10.Honeywell UOP
7.11.Air Liquide
7.13.FuelCell Energy
7.15.CO₂ Capsol
7.17.Chiyoda Corporation: CT-CO₂AR

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蓝氢生产和市场 2023-2033:技术、预测、参与者

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幻灯片 391
Companies 17
ISBN 9781915514516


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