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量子点材料和技术 2020-2030:趋势、市场、参与者

材料、参与者和应用,如显示屏(边缘光学、QD 增强膜、滤色镜、芯片内、放射性)、照明、可见和 IR/NIR 图像传感器、光伏等。

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自 2013 年以来,IDTechEx Research 一直在分析量子点技术和市场。自那时起,IDTechEx 便通过采访计划以及企业和会议拜访密切关注最新的研究和市场发展。
IDTechEx Research has been analysing the technologies and markets for quantum dots since 2013. Since that time, it has stayed extremely close to the latest research and market developments via its interview programme and company and conference visits.
Furthermore, IDTechEx Research has engaged closely with many of its clients, helping them better understand the technology and market landscape and helping them set their innovation and commercialization strategies.
In its analysis of quantum dots, IDTechEx Research brings its wealth of expertise in analysing advanced electronic materials and devices. We have been in this business for the past 20 years and in this time have closely observed the rise and/or fall, and the success and/or disappointment, of many emerging technologies.
This gives us a uniquely experienced eye when it comes to analysing emerging electronic material technologies. This is crucial because it helps us establish a realistic market and technology roadmap that reflects the true potential of the technology based on its intrinsic characteristics and on the true level of technical and commercial challenges that it faces.
The depth and breadth of our expertise in these fields is reflected in our report portfolio which covers numerous advanced materials, many emerging electronic devices such as printed and/or flexible electronics, and novel manufacturing processes.
What this report offers
This report provides a detailed technology analysis. It considers various quantum dot compositions such as Cd-based, In-based QDs as well as the likes of emerging organic and inorganic perovskites, PbS, CuInS2, InGaN, quantum rods, and so on. It also provides a detailed benchmarking of QDs vs existing phosphor technology. Our analysis is data driven, reflecting the latest commercial and academic results. For each material, as appropriate, we assess its performance, its key remaining material challenges, its production processes, and its directions/strategies of improvement.
Our technology roadmap also considers how the technology mix in various applications will be transformed with time. In displays, it considers the rise and fall of various QD integration approaches. It shows that film-type now reigns supreme after edge optic went obsolete. It however also shows the emerging approaches such as color filter (LCD and OLED) or on-chip type (LCD and microLED), enabled by material improvements, will eventually unseat it. Furthermore, it will consider QDs as the ultimate emissive material for displays, tracing the trends in efficiency and lifetime improvements whilst exploring the remaining challenges in terms of performance, lifetime, deposition/patterning, device design, and so on.
In lighting, our roadmap considers how and when QDs will become used in LED lights either as direct or remote downconverters and either in general lighting or specialized niche applications. In sensors, it will explore hybrid QD-Si visible image sensors can simultaneously achieve high resolution and global shutter, whilst it shows how QD-Si NR and SWIR image sensors can overcome current resolution issues imposed unmonolothic integration. In photovoltaics, it reports the latest progress worldwide whilst stating the might commercial and technical challenges that are yet to be overcome and considers novel uses cases such as LCS.
Crucially, our technology analysis considers the requirements that must be met to enable each application and outlines the current progress and future strategies in achieving targets. Here, we will consider parameters such as stability (air, heat, light), self-absorption, blue absorbance, efficiency (QY), narrowband emission (FWHM) and so on.
This report also provides ten-year market forecasts in sqm (or Kg) and value, and at material and solution level, for 15 technologies: edge optic displays, film type displays, color filter QD display, on-chip QD display, emissive QD displays, QD-Si hybrid visible image sensors, NIR/SWIR image sensors, remote QD LED lights and on-chip QD LED lights, QD photovoltaics, researchers and more.
Our forecasts draw heavily from our technology analysis which gives us realistic and expert view of when and how various technologies can become commercially viable compared incumbents, and also from our detailed interviews, deep market insights, and close trend tracking.
This report also provides detailed overviews of 37 players in the value chain. In many cases, our overviews also include a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, threats) analysis of the key players.
Quantum Dots: The Long Road Towards Emissive QLEDs
In this article, we highlight the trends, challenges, and innovation opportunities, shedding light on the likely technology roadmap towards QLED.
Quantum dots: changing and expanding application landscape
In this article we provide a brief look at multiple key applications considering different integration modes in displays as well as new applications beyond displays. The non-display applications covered (also addressed in the report) include image sensors, lighting, solar, security tagging, agricultural films, phototherapy, etc.
Quantum dots: technology evolution display, lighting, sensor material
In this article, we discuss multiple innovation and commercialization frontiers of this technology covering displays, lighting, and SWIR sensing
Quantum Dots: Material Innovation Trends
In this article, we will briefly outline some of the key material development trends. Here, we will touch on different materials compositions and different applications.
Quantum dots: time of change and growth
Quantum dots (QDs) are no longer a young technology. Even their commercialization process is not new since the pioneering companies were formed in the 2001-2005 period. The QDs are also not commercially novice: they have been employed in LCD displays as remote phosphors for several years.
One might then be tempted to assume that QDs are now a stagnant technology with slow and unchanging commercial prospects. This assumption would however be very wrong. This article sets out to make this point, demonstrating that QDs have now entered a time of growth, and crucially, rapid technological change.
Quantum dot films in displays: past and present
QDs' first success beyond research uses came in the display industry. Here, first high-performance Cd-based QDs were adopted in LCDs either in edge-optic or film-type implementations. The industry however has already evolved beyond that status: the edge optic has largely become obsolete and the transition away from Cd based towards Cd-free/less QDs is in full swing. In parallel, improvements in QD yield, stability and production processes driving down costs, fully reshaping the end users' display-level pricing strategies. To read more on these trends see this article.
Quantum dots: when will color filter or on-chip QD displays arrive?
Quantum dots in displays are set to experience growth and major technology transitions. These is becoming technology improvements are enabling new integration approaches such as color filter and on-chip types. These developments threating the exclusive dominance of QD films in QD displays, thereby transforming the technology mix. Read this article to learn more about how, and when, these technologies are likely to commercially rise and fall.
Quantum dots: the ultimate emissive display material?
Many consider quantum dots (QDs) as the ultimate emissive (electroluminescent) material, one day representing the future of display and one day evolving emissive displays beyond the level that organic LEDs offer today. This is because potentially QD emissive displays offer extremely wide color gamut through their direct narrow band emission, high efficiency, high contrast, solution processing, and thinness. The latter attribute also gives a degree of future proofing as display technology finally transitions towards flexible and foldable screens.
But what is the reality? What is the status of performance and technology readiness? What are the challenges to overcome? And whether, and when, will it reach the market? To learn more, read this article.
Quantum dots: evolving downconverter technology beyond phosphors?
Quantum dots (QDs) are often billed as the ultimate, or at least as the next generation of, phosphors. The main driver often is the QDs' ability to act as ultra-narrowband downconverters, resulting in extremely wide color gamut displays and efficient and high CRI solid state LED lights. Read this article to explore the merits of quantum dots as ultimate phosphors.
Quantum dots: changes in material composition
The first successful QD was Cd based thanks to its high performance in displays. This material (e.g., CdSe) was however always on borrowed time due to its toxicity. Announced legislation in the EU has now accelerated the transition towards Cd-free or Cd-less compositions often based on an InP chemistry. There is still a penalty; the QY gap has been narrowed but the FWHM difference persists.
In additional, there are many novel material engineering progresses that are taking place. These seek to improve heat, light, and air stability, reduce self-absorption, improve dispersion in inks or photoresist, and so on.
In parallel, novel materials such as organic and organic perovskite QDs are also emerging whilst novel chemistries such as PbS or CuInS2 are being explored for sensor and photovoltaic applications. New material shapes such as rods are also being examined. All this makes for a dynamic and innovative industry driven by material improvements. To learn more consult the report.
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Table of Contents
1.2.What are quantum dots?
1.3.An old technology?
1.4.Snapshot of readiness level of various QD applications
1.5.Displays: benchmarking various integration methods
1.6.QD Technology and Market Roadmap (10 year view)
1.7.Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics and so on
1.8.Ten-year quantum material market forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2.1.1.Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2.1.2.Ten-year quantum material market forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2.2.1.Ten-year forecast of change in QD technology mix in display sector (%)
2.2.2.Ten-year forecast for different QD solutions in displays in area or M sqm (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.2.3.Ten-year forecast for different QD solutions in displays in TONNES (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.2.4.Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value in displays (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.2.5.Ten-year quantum dot material market forecasts in value in displays (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
2.3.Non display
2.3.1.Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in lighting applications
2.3.2.Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in image sensors (visible and IR/NIR)
2.3.3.Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in other applications (photovoltaics, research, etc.)
3.1.An old technology?
3.2.What are quantum dots?
3.3.Typical structure of a quantum dot
3.4.Different types of colloidal quantum dots
3.5.Colloidal quantum dots
3.6.Photoluminescence of quantum dots
3.7.Typical nuclei based growth process
3.8.Example of a typical two-pot growth process for InP core-shell QDs
3.9.Basic approaches to synthesis: molecular seeding to lower temperature?
3.10.Basic approaches to synthesis: continuous QD growth
3.11.Key material requirements
4.1.Why use heavy metals?
4.2.Cadmium under RoHS
4.3.Cd-free InP-based quantum dots
4.4.Evolution of InP QD FWHM as a function of time
4.5.Cd-based to Cd-free quantum dots: commercial transition is in full swing
4.6.Timeline of exemption and the arrival of the ban
4.7.How much cadmium is there in a display?
4.8.Is Indium Phosphide a safer alternative?
5.1.Eliminating self-absorption
5.2.Reducing lattice mismatch with graded core-shell compositions
5.3.Improved stability: embedding QDs in silica particles to form microspheres
5.4.Improved stability: embedding QDs in silica particles to form microspheres
5.5.Improved stability: sapphire QD coating
6.1.Perovskite Quantum Dots
6.1.1.Perovskite quantum dots (or nanocrystals): a rival to traditional solutions?
6.1.2.Perovskite downconverters or emitters: an introduction
6.1.3.Perovskites: controlling emission wavelength via halide component
6.1.4.Perovskites: controlling emission wavelength via size
6.1.5.Perovskite QDs: higher defect tolerance of FWHM and QY
6.1.6.Perovskite QDs: high blue absorbance
6.2.Challenges or shortcomings
6.2.1.Perovskite quantum dots: why red is difficult
6.2.2.Red perovskite QDs: preventing phase instability
6.2.3.Perovskite quantum dots: self absorption issues
6.2.4.Perovskites: stability issue is a persistent concern
6.2.5.Perovskites: improving stability with ligands
6.2.6.Perovskite QDs: improving stability by embedding a host matrix
6.2.7.Perovskite QD-composites: improving stability by embedding in a polymer host
6.2.8.Perovskite QDs: toxicity concerns
6.3.Electroluminescent PeQD LEDs
6.3.1.Perovskite QLED: efficiency progress for inorganic green PeQLEDs?
6.3.2.Inorganic red PeQLED: what about lifetime?
6.4.Commercial progress and prospects
6.4.1.Perovskite green QD films for displays: stable commercial offerings
6.4.2.Perovskite QDs: the only way is hybrid?
6.4.3.Conclusions on perovskite QDs
6.4.4.InGaN/GaN QDs: viable material?
6.4.5.InGaN/GaN QDs: cutting reaction time and FWHM
6.4.6.InGaN/GaN QDs: cutting reaction time and FWHM
6.4.7.CuInS2/ZnS: broadband QDs useful in solar windows?
6.4.8.PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsivity and wide spectrum
6.4.9.PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsibility and wide spectrum
6.4.10.Rhodamine-based fluorescent materials as all organic downconverters
6.4.11.Carbon quantum dots (CQD)
6.4.12.Graphene Quantum Dots
6.4.14.White-blue emission from silicon QD
7.1.Phosphors: basic introduction
7.2.Thee ways to achieve white in LEDs
7.3.Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
7.4.Table of phosphor materials
7.5.Why the search for narrow FWHM red phosphors (I)?
7.6.Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
7.7.Thermal stability of common red, green and yellow phosphors (I)
7.8.GE's narrowband red phosphor: KSF:Mn+4
7.9.Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
7.10.Lumileds red emitting phosphor (SLA)
7.11.Toray: High performance organic phosphors
7.12.Suppliers of phosphors
7.13.Phosphors: FWHM comparison with quantum dots
7.14.Phosphors: color tunability comparison with quantum dots
7.15.Phosphors: Particle size comparison with quantum dots
7.16.Phosphors: Response time comparison with quantum dots
7.17.Phosphors: Stability comparison with quantum dots
7.18.Strength of hybrid phosphor-QD approach
8.1.Quantum rods
8.2.Quantum rods: demonstrating printed greyscale displays
8.3.Quantum rods: material choices for red, green and blue photoluminescence
8.4.Quantum rods: material performance for red, green and blue photoluminescence
8.5.Quantum rods: principle of voltage controlled emission resulting in high contrast ratio
8.6.Quantum rod displays: performance of 17" active matrix inkjet printed QR display
8.7.Importance of early patents
8.8.Case Study: Evident
8.9.Nanoco vs Nanosys
8.10.IP acquisition
8.11.Nanosys vs QD Vision
9.1.Quantum dots as fluorescent tags
9.2.Examples of images
9.3.Advantages over organic dyes
9.4.Comparison of absorption/emission
9.5.Major milestones in academic research
9.6.Various approaches to use quantum dots
9.7.Example: monitoring enzyme activity
9.8.Zymera in vivo imaging
10.1.Understanding color standards
10.2.How LED backlights reduced color performances
10.3.100% sRGB can be achieved without QD
10.4.The challenge of Rec 2020
10.5.FWHM and color gamut
10.6.Performance sensitivity to emission wavelength
11.1.Displays: edge optic
11.1.1.LED backlight units in LCD
11.1.2.Replacing phosphors with quantum dots
11.1.3.Edge optic integration: a technology going obsolete?
11.1.4.Color IQ from QD Vision: going obsolete
11.1.5.Film type integration: growing commercial success but for how long?
11.2.Displays: enhancement film or remote film-film QD phosphors
11.2.1.QDEF film from Nanosys
11.2.2.Key direction of development for film type integration (I): transition towards Cd free materials
11.2.3.Key direction of development for film type integration (II): reducing barrier requirements
11.2.4.Key direction of development for film type integration (III): Premium pricing vs expanding product portfolio
11.2.5.Key direction of development for film type integration (IV): Glass based QD sheet in LCD displays
11.3.Displays: quantum dot color filters
11.3.1.Colour filter type: approaching commercial readiness?
11.3.2.Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): patterning
11.3.3.QDCF: strategies to make QDs compatible with photoresist and photolithography
11.3.4.QDCF: strategies to make QDs compatible with photoresist and photolithography
11.3.5.QDFC: performance of epoxied silica QDs as QDCF
11.3.6.Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): inkjetting
11.3.7.Inkjet printed InP QD color filters: performance levels
11.3.8.Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): color purity and contrast
11.3.9.Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): new polarizers, short-pass filters, and other additional layers?
11.3.10.QD color filters on OLED
11.3.11.QD color filters on OLED: pros and cons
11.4.Displays: quantum on-chip LEDs
11.4.1.On chip integration: improving stability
11.4.2.Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): patterning
11.4.3.On chip type remaining challenges: stress conditions
11.4.4.On chip type remaining challenges (III): heat and light stability
11.4.5.On chip type remaining challenges (IV): light flux stability
12.1.On-chip QDs for micro-LED displays: range of devices and stress conditions
12.2.QDs vs Phosphors for micro LED displays: the size and resolution advantage
12.3.QDs: photopatternable QDs for micro-displays
12.4.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: material consideration
12.5.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: rational for engineered multi core-shell giant QDs
12.6.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: material challenges
12.7.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: surviving the photopatterning process
12.8.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: demonstrating heat and light flux stability
12.9.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: performance levels
12.10.Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: comparison with RGB LEDs
13.1.Display trend: evolution from PLED to PhOLED to TADF to QDs?
13.2.Emissive type: how far off from commercial readiness?
13.3.Emissive QLED remaining challenges: optimal device design
13.4.Nanophotonica: performance progress of QLEDs
13.5.Progress from QD Vision (no longer active)
13.6.Perovskite QLED: efficiency progress for inorganic green PeQLEDs?
13.7.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): blue QD challenge
13.8.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): ink formulation challenge
13.9.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): transfer printing
13.10.Emissive QLED remaining challenges (III): lifetime
13.11.Inorganic red PeQLED: what about lifetime?
14.1.Improving silicon image sensors
14.1.1.QD layer advantage in image sensor (I): Increasing sensor sensitivity and gain
14.1.2.QD-Si hybrid image sensors(II): reducing thickness
14.1.3.How is the QD layer applied?
14.1.4.QD optical layer: approaches to increase conductivity of QD films
14.1.5.QD-Si hybrid image sensors(III): enabling high resolution global shutter
14.1.6.QD-Si hybrid image sensors(III): enabling high resolution global shutter
14.1.7.QD-Si hybrid image sensors(III): Low power and high sensitivity to structured light detection for machine vision?
14.1.8.Can hybrid organic CMOS image sensors also give high res global shutter?
14.1.9.Progress in CMOS global shutter using silicon technology only
14.2.Quantum dots for near infra sensors
14.2.1.Current issue with infrared image sensors
14.2.2.Quantum: covering the range from visible to near infrared
14.2.3.Results and status for IR vision
14.2.4.Potential unresolved questions and issues
14.2.5.PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsibility and wide spectrum
15.1.Quantum dots in lighting applications
15.2.QDs in horticulture
15.3.Achieving high CRI in general lighting
15.4.Why the search for narrow FWHM red phosphors (I)?
15.5.Achieving warm colours using 'remote' QD phosphors
15.6.Examples of LED lights with remote QD integration
15.7.Achieving high CRI using on-chip phosphors
15.8.On-chip QD integration: different LED types and performance requirements
15.9.Achieving high CRI using on-chip QDs: stability results
16.1.Many competing technologies in PV
16.2.Quantum dot PV is still in early stage
16.3.Comparison of efficiencies
16.4.Quantum dot PV: SWOT analysis
16.5.Progress in QD photovoltaics
16.6.QD luminescent solar concentrator?
17.1.Hydrogen production
17.2.Visible light photocatalysis
17.5.QDChip spectrometer
17.6.Security tagging
18.3.Consistent Electronic Materials
18.6.Dow Electronic Materials
18.9.Korea University
18.10.Kyung Hee University
18.11.LG Display
18.14.Najing Technology Company
18.19.Pacific Lighting Technology (Osram)
18.20.QD Vision
18.21.Qlight (Merck)
18.24.Quantum Material Corporation
18.25.Quantum Solutions
18.30.Shoei Chemical
18.31.SWIR Vision Sensors
18.32.Taiwan Nanocrystal
18.33.Takoma/Huntplus/Kyung Hee
18.35.Tohoku University
18.37.Ulvac Solutions
18.38.Wah Hong
18.39.Zhijing Nanotech


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