열전기 에너지 수확 및 기타 열로 인한 제로 이미션 전기 (2022-2042년): IDTechEx

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열전기 에너지 수확 및 기타 열로 인한 제로 이미션 전기 (2022-2042년)

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이것은 열전기 수확 상업적 기회, 연구 파이프라인 및 필요 우선 순위에 대한 최초의 20년에 대한 전망이다. 재료에서 제품 통합에 이르기까지, 100명이 넘는 참가자들의 활동을 확인할 수 있다. 저무는 시장, 공격적 사업, 대체 기술에 대해 알아볼 수 있다.
Thermoelectric energy harvesters can be a large business. The new IDTechEx study, "Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Other Zero-Emission Electricity from Heat 2022-2042" examines over 100 organisations involved. It finds that the disillusioned manufacturers share a business of mere hundreds of millions of dollars after decades of trying, mainly with bismuth telluride and variants. Every year or two, one goes under.
 
Contrast the universities and research centres generating about 50 research papers yearly, growing new projects and collaboration. Sadly many still focus on toxic and rare elements and prioritise maximising a figure of merit ZT.
 
In contrast, the new report is commercially-oriented. It identifies considerable opportunities and the parameters industrialists must optimise for success. Analysts IDTechEx have reported on thermoelectrics for many years using inputs from its PhD level multilingual staff worldwide. This year, the rewritten, re-researched report expands its scope to reflect that allied heat-converting technologies may come to the rescue in some cases. It appraises the 2021 invention of thermopower wave, newly announced cryo-heat harvesting and progressing thermoacoustic harvesting plus good old pyroelectrics and ocean thermal energy conversion. What of the new electricity from Brownian motion? However, the report mainly concerns thermoelectrics because that has clear potential if refocussed.
 
This report serves all involved in the many emerging forms of heat harvesting for electricity production for example oil and gas companies needing this to green their plants and diversify. It is valuable for all in these value chains from research, materials, devices and systems to integrators. It will also interest those with unsolved problems of electricity production for internet of things nodes, implants, wearables, microgrids, grids, military, aerospace, remote locations and other applications where batteries cannot be charged or changed and photovoltaics and other forms of energy harvesting are impractical or suboptimal.
 
The new infograms, 20-year forecasts and comparison charts are easily grasped by those who are not insiders. It is analytical not evangelical or academic. It reveals gaps in the market, clarifies what industrialists need for success.
 
Questions answered include:
 
  • What potential applications are a mirage and why?
  • What are genuine and why?
  • How should the research be refocussed to create commercial success?
  • Forecasts 2022-2042 by application sector, numbers, unit value, market value?
  • Market for thermoelectric sensors 2022-2042?
  • Analysis of researchers, manufacturers, users?
  • What are dead ends, what shows promise and why?
  • Parameters that must be optimised by application?
  • Progress and potential with stretchable, flexible, sprayable, printed versions?
  • How does it compare to thermowave power, thermoacoustic power, cryo-heat harvesting, Brownian electricity, ocean thermal energy conversion and pyroelectrics?
  • Comparison tables of 62 thermoelectric manufacturers and product integrators involved?
 
The report commences with Executive Summary and Conclusions for those in a hurry needing the big picture including new forecasts, new pie charts of manufacturers by country, cost structure of a device and so on with minimal jargon. How does price move with power rating, temperature difference and so on? See some promising materials in the research pipeline that neither have toxic nor expensive elements in them and the 14 materials families dominating research. Tables give reasons for poor penetration of various markets and what to do about it. See 27 primary conclusions. Patent analysis. There is a glossary to assist.
 
Introduction
The Introduction presents the options, working principles, systems and production line design. Here is the study of thermoelectric sensors and the trend to flexible energy harvesting and sensors.
 
Low-power thermoelectrics: flexible, stretchable, implantable, wearable, IoT, MEMS
Chapter 3 "Low-power thermoelectrics: flexible, stretchable, implantable, wearable, IoT, MEMS" mostly concerns temperatures of 20-100C, rigid vs bendable vs flexible and mainly healthcare, consumer wearables and IoT. Learn the heat available on the human body, the coupling issues to it, device size requirements, thermoelectric power available compared to alternatives. In detail, there are exciting developments from 15 institutions appraised and many more in tables.
 
High power thermoelectrics
Chapter 4 concerns high power thermoelectrics which today means high temperature but in future will strongly embrace 20-300C. This is a world of mosquito zappers, electricity from wood stoves, camp fires, the many industrial waste heat sources quantified. ZT matters little here because better coupling to source is key - we give breakthroughs here - and LCOE. We appraise thermoelectrics in concentrated solar power, radiative cooling at nigh offsetting dead photovoltaics, potential on building facades, tires, roads. Understand why hot-water geothermal power looks promising with thermoelectrics and thermoacoustics if the right parameters are measured and optimised. We closely examine work on industrial waste heat finding reasons to be cautious. Some dead ends here. Seven very different military applications are examined citing new advances and needs - submarines to aircraft and field generators. Then comes water radiator valve actuation at watts, remote site power and the exotica addressed by Teledyne. Boosting solar power and backup of nuclear plant systems are the closing topics of this chapter full of case studies.
 
Thermoelectric materials, thermoacoustic, cryoelectric, pyroelectric, ocean thermal gradient harvesting
Chapter 5 extensively covers new thermoelectric materials in research and starting commercialisation and what to expect next. Chapter 6 is "New thermoelectric and allied harvesting principles: thermopower waves, quantum dot, spin-driven, Brownian motion, new theories" in plain English, explaining significance. Chapter 7 assesses, "Thermoacoustic, cryoelectric, pyroelectric, ocean thermal gradient harvesting".
 
68 companies involved in thermoelectrics by country
Chapter 8 has tables comparing 62 companies involved in thermoelectrics by country, where active in research, materials, modules or product integration. It ends with two examples of IDTechEx company profiles with success, weaknesses, opportunities, threats - such SWOT tables also appearing in the earlier text. See IDTechEx analysis, not just consolidation of news. Interviews, calculations, and prediction are characteristic of IDTechEx reports.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Purpose of this report
1.2.Wrong research emphasis
1.3.Primary conclusions: huge addressable zero-emission heat to electricity market
1.4.Primary conclusions: Technology options for electricity from heat
1.5.Primary conclusions: Thermoelectrics technical issues
1.6.Significance and cost breakdown of thermoelectrics
1.7.Price difference with temperature difference and power
1.8.Some recent research results
1.9.Patent analysis
1.10.Energy harvesting options
1.10.1.Thermoelectrics in context
1.10.2.Thermopower wave
1.10.3.Thermoacoustics
1.10.4.Cryoelectrics
1.11.Market forecasts
1.11.1.Thermoelectric energy harvesting modules by application 2021-2042 - number k
1.11.2.Thermoelectric energy harvesting modules by application 2021-2042 - unit value dollars
1.11.3.Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application total value market 2021-2042 - $bn
1.11.4.Thermoelectric sensors and actuators 2019-2042 $ million
1.11.5.Wearable technology forecast 2020-2030
1.11.6.IoT LPWAN connections 2018-2029
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Emerging thermal harvesting
2.1.1.Choices
2.1.2.Researchers usually prioritise wrong parameters
2.2.Themoelectrics
2.2.1.Seebeck and Peltier effects
2.2.2.Thermoelectric system design
2.2.3.Limitations to address
2.2.4.Caution from TEC Microsystems
2.2.5.Design considerations for thermoelectric harvesting
2.2.6.Manufacturing and materials
2.2.7.Flexible, stretchable, printed and spray-on thermoelectrics
2.2.8.Tackle cost but also these ten aspects
2.3.Thermoelectric sensing
2.3.1.Overview
2.3.2.MEMS thermoelectric infrared sensors
2.3.3.Micro-thermoelectric gas sensor: hydrogen and atomic oxygen
2.3.4.Use as transfer standards
2.3.5.Fabric sensors
2.3.6.Self-powered sensors
2.3.7.Gas turbine sensing
2.3.8.Powering a WSN sensor
2.3.9.Thermite-powered sensor
2.3.10.greenTEG Switzerland sensors
2.4.Trend to flexible energy harvesting and sensing
3.LOW-POWER THERMOELECTRICS: FLEXIBLE, STRETCHABLE, IMPLANTABLE, WEARABLE, IOT, MEMS
3.1.Overview
3.2.Body power and space for wearable TEGs
3.2.1.Power emitting by location
3.2.2.Challenge with using thermoelectrics on the human body
3.2.3.Device size requirements in wearables
3.2.4.Trends for wristwear
3.3.Thermoelectric power output compared to other wearable harvesting
3.4.Flexible and bendable thermoelectrics
3.4.1.Choice of approaches
3.4.2.Example of a flexible film manufacturing process
3.4.3.Bendable formats
3.5.Flexible thermoelectric harvesters using skin temperature
3.5.1.AIST Japan
3.5.2.GeorgiaTech USA
3.5.3.KIST Korea
3.5.4.National University of Singapore
3.5.5.University of Colorado Boulder USA
3.5.6.UIUC China
3.5.7.Shanghai Institute of Technology China
3.6.Textile thermoelectrics
3.6.1.Chalmers University Sweden
3.6.2.Fraunhofer FEP Germany
3.6.3.Cotton wearable non-toxic: University of Massachusetts Amherst
3.7.Rigid low-power thermoelectrics
3.7.1.Wearables overview
3.7.2.Internet of Things overview
3.7.3.Matrix PowerWatch USA
3.7.4.Seiko Thermic watch failure
3.7.5.Implantable thermoelectric pacemakers
3.7.6.MEMS Micro TEG examples
4.HIGH-POWER THERMOELECTRICS INCLUDING HIGH TEMPERATURE
4.1.Needs and toolkit
4.1.1.High power overview
4.1.2.Jiko Power USA stove electricity for emerging countries
4.2.Emerging uses of high power TEGs
4.3.Better contact for efficient heat transfer
4.3.1.High power flexible thermoelectric generators
4.3.2.Cold-spray deposition: Lawrence Livermore with TTEC Thermoelectric USA
4.4.Concentrated solar TEG beats photovoltaics? King Saud University Saudi Arabia
4.5.Buildings and roads: radiative cooling at night instead of batteries, facades
4.5.1.Stanford University and University of California Los Angeles USA
4.5.2.Multi-thermal roof and facades: Universities of Colorado, Wyoming, California
4.6.Thermal roads and tires: University of Texas San Antonio USA
4.7.Geothermal power generation China, Japan, India, Germany, UK, USA, Canada
4.8.Industrial waste heat
4.8.1.Reality check
4.8.2.RGS Development, TEGnology, Komatsu KELK, ll-Vl Marlow, USARGS USA, Japan
4.8.3.Cidete Ingenieros Spain
4.8.4.Mitsubishi Materials Japan
4.8.5.Paderborn University Germany
4.9.Military and aerospace: Alteg Systems, Naval Postgraduate School USA
4.9.1.Overview
4.9.2.Bi-functional generator/ pre-cooler: DC power from aircraft bleed air: Alteg USA
4.9.3.Military waste heat: Naval Postgraduate School USA
4.9.4.Manta Ray submarine Northrop Grumman, Martin USA
4.9.5.Vehicle propulsion ATEG on land: Hubei University China
4.9.6.Military waste energy: US Naval Postgraduate School
4.9.7.Deep sea military power: Maritime Applied Physics Corporation
4.10.Water radiator actuation, home automation
4.10.1.EnOcean, H2O Degree Germany, USA
4.10.2.Kieback & Peter Germany
4.10.3.Caleffi Hydronic Solutions Italy
4.11.Remote site power GPT, ll-Vl Marlow USA
4.12.Global Power Technologies Canada
4.13.Teledyne Energy Systems USA
4.14.Radioisotope Thermoelectric generator RTG
4.15.Boosting solar power
4.16.Nuclear plant backup: University of Ontario Canada
5.NEW THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS
5.1.Overview
5.2.Factors in inorganic materials and composites selection
5.3.Example: 2D materials
5.4.Materials design strategies
5.5.Example: Thin film and wearable thermoelectric materials
5.5.1.Overview
5.5.2.A*STAR Hong Kong
5.5.3.Bacterial nanocellulose: Institute of Materials Science Spain
5.5.4.Fluoro-elastomer rubbers: Osaka University Japan
5.5.5.PEDOT:PSS and composite: University of Michigan, Lawrence Berkeley USA
5.5.6.Polyamide fiber
5.5.7.Poly-GeSn Nagoya University Japan
5.6.various other inorganics and composites
5.6.1.Fe-V-W-Al alloy Technical University of Vienna Austria
5.6.2.Skutterudites and other inorganics: University of Houston, MIT USA
5.7.New materials for high temperatures NASA USA
5.8.Silicon, nanowires with nickel silicide nano-inclusions University of Texas etc USA
6.NEW THERMOELECTRIC AND ALLIED HARVESTING PRINCIPLES: THERMOPOWER WAVES, QUANTUM DOT, SPIN-DRIVEN, BROWNIAN MOTION, NEW THEORIES
6.1.Overview
6.2.Higher efficiencies in theory: University of Houston USA
6.3.Radically new approaches to thermoelectric harvesting
6.3.1.Shuttling: Polish Academy of Sciences Poland
6.3.2.Quantum dot thermoelectric Cambridge University UK
6.3.3.Spin driven thermoelectric effect STE Tohoku University Japan
6.4.Brownian motion: University of Arkansas USA
6.5.Thermopower wave electricity MIT USA
7.THERMOACOUSTIC, CRYOELECTRIC, PYROELECTRIC, OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENT HARVESTING
7.1.Thermoacoustic electricity generators
7.1.1.Technology
7.1.2.Efficiency
7.1.3.Thermoacoustic generator SWOT
7.2.Cryoelectric generator
7.2.1.Technology
7.2.2.Cryoelectric generator SWOT
7.3.Pyroelectric generation
7.3.1.Technology
7.3.2.Pyroelectric generator SWOT
7.4.Ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC
7.4.1.Technology
7.4.2.Ocean Energy Research Center: Makai Ocean Engineering USA
7.4.3.Ocean Thermal Energy Generator SWOT
8.68 COMPANIES COMPARED
 

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