Printed, Flexible and Organic Electronics Report

现有和全新机遇已评估

导电墨水市场 2019-2029:预测、技术、参与者

Silver flake, silver nanoparticles, copper inks and pastes, graphene and beyond


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此报告针对 2370 tpa 导电墨水和浆料市场提供了最全面和最权威的看法,给出了按应用和材料类型细分的 10 年详细市场预测。市场预测按墨水级别吨数和价值计算
This report provides the most comprehensive and authoritative view of the conductive inks and paste market, giving detailed ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and material type. The market forecasts are given in tonnage and value at the ink level.
 
It includes critical reviews of all the competing conductive inks and paste technologies including firing-type pastes, sintering pastes, PTFs, laser-cut or photo-patterned pastes, nanoparticles, stretchable inks, in-mould inks, copper, copper/silver alloys, nanocarbons, and more. Here, we outline the latest performance levels/progress, technology challenges, key suppliers, existing and emerging target market, and forecasts where appropriate.
 
It also provides a detailed assessment of more than 27 application sectors. Here, we analyse the market needs/requirements, discuss the business dynamics, market leadership and technology change trends, competing solutions, latest product/prototype launches, key players and market forecasts in tonnes and value.
 
The markets covered include photovoltaics, power electronics, EMI shielding, in-mould electronics (automotive, home appliance, etc.), electronic textile and wearable electronics, 3D antennas and conformal printing, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), touch screen edge electrodes, automotive (defoggers, seat occupancy sensors, seat heaters, etc.), 3D printed electronics, multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC), ITO replacement (hybrid, direct printing, etc), printed piezoresistive, capacitive and bio sensors, PCB (DIY/hobbyist, professional, seed-and-plate), RFID (HF, UHF), printed TFT and memory, OLED and large-area LED lighting, flexible e-readers and reflective displays, large-area heaters (battery, plant, seat, etc.), conductive pens, digitizers and more.
 
In the report we also cover more than 130 companies. For most, we provide insights based on primary intelligence obtained through interviews, visits, conference exhibition interactions, personal communications, and so on. For more than 50 we provide full interview-based company profiles including a detailed SWOT analysis and IDTechEx Index. These provide valuable insight on company positioning, strategy, opportunities, and challenges.
 
Unrivalled market intelligence and insight
This report is based upon years of research. In the past five years alone, our analysts have interviewed more than 120 industry players, visited numerous users/ suppliers across the world, attended more than 25 relevant conferences/exhibitions globally, and worked with many industry players to help them with their strategy towards this market. For example, in the last four years alone we visited around 35 tradeshows in Japan, USA, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, UK and so on to update our report. Prior to this, our analysts played an active role in commercializing conductive pastes, particularly in the photovoltaic industry.
 
In parallel to this, IDTechEx has organised the leading global conferences and tradeshows on printed electronics for the past decade in Asia, Europe and USA. These shows bring together the entire value chain on printed electronics, including all the conductive ink suppliers, printers, and end users. This has given us unrivalled access to the players and the latest market intelligence.
Market overview (2019)
Photovoltaics (PV): This industry had dramatically grown in 2016 and 2017, showing very high double-digit growth rates. The growth has now slowed, especially as demand in China, which had been brought forward by the expected FiT reduction, fell. However, the growth is still positive and healthy.
 
The change in growth rate is accompanied with a change in market character. In the boom years suppliers of pastes were struggling to keep up with them. Now that the overall market is expanding at a slower pace we are back to the usual business condition of spirited fight over existing market share.
 
In 2018, the 100GW/year barrier was breached. Therefore, the market is irreplaceably significant for paste and powder markers. The risk of overreliance therefore is high. The industry also remains concerned that slow annual growth rates might translate into peak silver consumptions if the trend to decrease silver content per wafer continues without plateau. The competitive pressures on downward price remains strong squeezing margins. The technology innovations also often remain of an incremental nature, bringing up short-lived market advantages.
 
The industry has long been in search of the next big thing, hoping to create one or a combination of markets that can rival the size of the photovoltaic market. As a result, companies have sought to seed and create a diverse array of new markets, each exploiting a different feature of the wonderfully adaptive conductive ink technology, e.g., forming and stretching, sintering, conformal coating, fine feature printing, and so on. The new market creation process has now resulted in a diverse portfolio of applications. Our report analyses all these emerging markets in detail.
 
In-mold electronics (IME): After years of development, the production learning curve is still challenging, and the concept-to-mass production flow is not yet routine and well-established. Despite this, a wave of products is hitting the market. Recent examples are curved defrosters for automotive LED lighting, wearable patches, etc. Many more are in the pipeline especially in the automotive sector. Our assessment is that market is not far of its inflection point (estimated as 2021-2022). Indeed, at IME-enabled product level, we estimate that the market will exceed $240M by 2024/5. This translates into opportunities for paste markets. Some suppliers have engaged strongly with this trend, putting themselves in leading positions in terms of customer relationships and feedback, product qualification advances, and product performance and customization ability. There is still however room for innovation in particular focusing on higher formability, easier and kinder curing, and better match with all the other stack materials.
 
Power Electronics: New power semiconductor technologies such as SiC and GaN are enabling smaller and more integrated devices capable of handling higher power density levels. With these the bottleneck against higher temperature operation is not the semiconductor device but the packaging material.
 
A critical packaging material is the die (and to a less extend substrate) attach. The push towards higher temperatures has, in some cases, already pushed solder, the incumbent, to or beyond its performance limit, creating the need for an alternative.
 
Sintered metal pastes have emerged as a compelling proposition. They increase the thermal conductivity and the melting temperature, allowing devices to reliability operate at higher temperatures. This technology is already in commercial use after some seven years of development and its markets are poised to rapidly expand. The number of paste makers offering some type of sintering solution is rapidly increasing.
 
The development targets are to achieve rapid low (or zero) pressure sintering of ever larger surface areas and to narrow the significant price differential versus SAC solder. Ag is dominant but promising Cu alternatives have also emerged with friendlier sintering conditions. Various morphologies are emerging to reduce and later eliminate pressure sintering without scarifying curing time. New product form factor beyond just screen or stencil printing are emerging, making this technology more of a drop-in replacement. Machines makers are now offering turn-key solutions, integrating the pick-and-place, the drying, the pressure sintering units.
 
The market for sintering power in power electronics will grow. Interestingly, sintered paste will find new opportunities outside power electronics. Candidates include high-power RF amplifiers, high-power LEDs, and so on.
 
EMI Shielding: Spray-on inks are targeting package-level EMI shielding. Here, they hope to displace sputtering, the incumbent, which benefits from sunk CapEx. They offer low-capex production in atmospheric conditions and better conformal coverage. Jetted inks are also being proposed for in-package EMI isolation between individual dies in a multi-die package especially for high-frequency devices.
 
Some suppliers propose micron-sized, prioritising cost and maturity. Flat flakes offer higher conductivity if aligned well. Others develop nano or even particle-free inks, offering to offer the thinnest solution with the best adhesion and shielding properties. Most offer a hybrid solution, siting somewhere between full nano to full micro and full spherical to full flake type. Others are going further, taking steps to make it as easy as possible to adopt the product. Some position as possible full solution providers, integrating their inks with curing units to minimise customers' learning curve and adoption barriers. Some go even further proposition mechanisms to fine-tune layer thickness post-deposition to locally boost performance in EMI hotspots.
 
Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE): This is becoming a viable and achievable proposition (a) because ultrathin and flexible packaged complex ICs with high I/O pin count are becoming available, and (b) because ultralow temperature solder compatible with low-temperature substrates are being introduced. This trend will require fine-feature printing to metallize the circuit pattern on the flexible substrate whilst maintaining compatibility with the I/O pin spacing of complex IC packages. Fine printed Ag bumps may also be used in low-T die attach.
 
Other conformal printing: There is a significant installed base of production already, demonstrating that the technology could be commercialized in the face of entrenched incumbents such MIDs. It took years to develop appropriate low-temperature inks (120C) with good adhesion and conductivity. This trend continues as new inks emerge, offering even lower temperature curing, making more substrate materials compatible with aerosol metallization.
 
Stretchable e-textile conductive inks: Stretchable conductive inks have been in the commercialization mode, mainly technology push, for multiple years now. The number of suppliers has increased over the past years and the first products have already landed in the market. The value chain is in much better shape today. The market however remains diverse and fragmented, and silver consumption per item sold low. As such, the emphasis is now on strategic market segmentation and development to build and sustain a product pipeline. Technology wise, this is supported by the ability to customize inks performance on a use-case basis. In their marketing process, companies are also exploring opportunities beyond consumer products, focusing on safety clothing, automotive applications, and so on.
 
Touch screen edge electronics: In recent years this market has been shaped by the perennial trend to narrow the bezel which had resulted in hybrid approaches (photo-patterned and laser-cut pastes) to achieving narrow linewidths. This market will remain highly cost competitive, pushing suppliers towards aggressively low price points to keep market shares and to fight off sputtering.
 
Touch screens: Directly printed metal mesh has recently accelerated its technological progress, demonstrating even <1um lines. Despite this, there is some way to go before it becomes a leading market in this crowded field. In the meantime, hybrid solutions (emboss then fill with paste/ink) will continue their stop-start commercial progress various applications whilst manufacturers contemplate whether to invest in large format machines or not.
 
Automotive Electronics: Suppliers already sell pastes into window demisters, occupancy sensors, seat heaters, airbag deployers, and so on. Market is now expanding to include touch screens, In-Mold Electronics, transparent heaters, die attach materials, and others. This makes engagement with automotive OEMs/value chain a high priority strategic imperative.
 
Furthermore, as the electronic content per vehicle goes up, the demand of LTCC substrates with fired conductive pastes expands. This trend will also push up the demand more multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC), which in some cases translates into demand for Cu (and Ni) powders. The autonomous sensor industry may also create demand in the laser packaging (e.g., high-T die attach).
 
PCB Printing: The installed base of desktop versions has expanded but utilization -thus material consumption - is low. The sales of final (vs beta) version of professional multilayer printers has also started. Professional desktop PCB printers are still in an early phase of market diffusion and are positioned an as internal R&D and prototyping tool. Print-seed-and-then-plate approach in the PCB industry is also largely on hold due to the lack of a clear cost or performance benefit compared to incumbent processes. However, Cu inks printed PI substrates are actively being pushed for the FPCB applications. This approach may offer a cost advantage when surface coverage is low (<20%).
 
Printed large-area piezoresistive, capacitive and biosensors are set to become one of the largest constituents of the greater printed electronics industry. Here, inks will be used as printed bus bars and interconnects. Despite technology improvements, printed transistor and memory will remain in search of applications. Special formulations for printed backplane interconnects on flexible e-readers and flexible displays will see small boom in the short- to medium-term particularly as e-readers transition towards large-area (wall-sized) and more flexible backplanes. Large-area LED arrays made with printing will slowly find their way into the market, but will remain a niche proposition. 3D printed electronics (3DPE) remains an innovation opportunity front for low-temperature inks compatible with a variety of substrates, although progress has been slow in offering dedicated 3DPE printers capable of metallization intra-layers and of providing a design-to-print turnkey solution to customers. There are numerous other applications which we consider in our report. Examples include heating, battery pack and plant heaters, frequency-selective windows, and many more.
 
Interestingly non-traditional technologies are also making an impact. Cu is also making progress. Here, several start-ups have demonstrated stable Cu inks that cure at low temperatures. However, they still need to demonstrate production beyond lab scale to overcome Cu's general credibility gap. In particle-free inks suppliers are more actively helping users overcome the learning curve. These inks may have a good match in on-textile printing, amongst others. Silver nanoparticle inks are finally, after many years of development, finding major commercial success. Their prospects look much brighter. That is why we have a dedicated chapter on silver nanoparticle in this version of the report.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Conductive inks and paste: everything is changing and the rising tide of PV
1.2.Traditional Markets
1.2.1.Photovoltaics
1.2.2.Touch screen market
1.2.3.Automotive
1.2.4.Sensors
1.3.RFID
1.4.Emerging applications
1.4.1.3D antennas
1.4.2.ITO replacement
1.4.3.Stretchable inks
1.4.4.Desktop PCB printing
1.4.5.3D Printed Electronics
2.CONDUCTIVE INKS AND PASTES
2.1.PTF vs Firing Paste
3.PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT PTF AND FIRING TYPE PASTES
3.2.Curing and sintering
3.3.Value chain
3.4.Silver nanoparticle inks
3.5.Silver nanoparticle inks are more conducting
3.6.Curing temperature and profile of silver nanoparticle inks
3.6.1.Enhanced Flexibility
3.6.2.Inkjet Printability
3.7.Price competiveness of silver nanoparticles
3.8.Performance of silver nanoparticle
3.9.Value chain
4.SILVER NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION METHODS
5.PARTICLE FREE CONDUCTIVE INKS AND PASTES
6.COPPER INKS AND PASTE
6.1.Methods of preventing copper oxidisation
6.1.1.Superheated steam
6.1.2.Reactive agent metallization
6.1.3.Photocuring and photosintering
6.2.Air curable copper pastes
6.3.Emerging copper paste and ink suppliers
6.4.Pricing strategy and performance of copper inks and pastes
6.5.Copper oxide nanoparticles
6.6.Silver-Coated Copper
7.CONDUCTIVE PASTES IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET
7.1.Background to the PV industry
7.2.The return of the boom and bust to the PV sector?
7.3.Massive Chinese investments buoys the market
7.4.China takes markets to new heights but have the changes in FiTs finally cooled it down?
7.5.Conductive pastes in the PV sectors
7.6.Alternative and improved metallization techniques
7.7.Silicon inks
7.8.Copper metallization in solar cells
7.9.Trends and changes in solar cell architecture
7.10.Market dynamics
7.11.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive paste in solar cells
7.12.Silver nanoparticles are finally adopted in the thin film photovoltaic business?
8.AUTOMOTIVE
8.1.De-misters or de-foggers
8.2.Laser transfer printing as a new process?
8.3.Transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
8.4.Car seat heaters
8.5.Seat sensors
8.6.High power electronics represent a major growth opportunity
8.6.1.A few words on LTCC
9.TOUCH PANEL EDGE ELECTRODES
9.1.Narrow bezels change the market
9.2.Laser cut vs photopatternable inks
9.3.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and paste in the touch screen industry
10.CONDUCTIVE INKS IN RFID
10.1.RFID market size and business dynamics
10.2.Processes, Material Options and Market Shares
10.3.Transparent ultra low-resistivity RF antenna using printed metal mesh technology
10.4.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks in UHF and HF RFID antennas
11.3D ANTENNAS AND CONFORMAL PRINTING ON CURVED SURFACES
11.1.Laser Direct Structuring and MID
11.2.Observations on the MID market
11.3.Aerosol deposition
11.4.Ink requirements for aerosol printing
11.5.Others ways of printing structurally-integrated antennas
11.6.Market projections for printed 3D antennas
12.THERMOFORMED OR IN-MOLD ELECTRONICS
12.1.Automotive
12.2.Definition of terms
12.2.In-mold electronics in consumer electronics
12.2.1.Trend towards commercialization
12.2.2.Currently commercial examples of In-Mold Electronics
12.3.Ink requirements in In-Mold Electronics
12.3.2.The portfolio approach is essential
12.3.3.Other requirements for conductive inks
12.3.4.Design, assembly and the need for adhesives
12.4.Suppliers of IME inks rapidly multiply
12.5.Other materials used in in-mold electronics: the merit of a portfolio approach
12.5.1.IME PEODT
12.5.2.IME Carbon nanotubes
12.5.3.IME Metal mesh
12.5.4.Insert moulding or transfer attachment will do just fine?
12.6.Value chain
12.7.Market forecasts for IME conductive inks
13.STRETCHABLE INKS FOR ELECTRONIC TEXTILES
13.1.Electronic textile industry
13.2.Stretchable inks: general observations
13.3.Stretchable e-textile inks multiply
13.4.Performance of stretchable conductive inks
13.5.Future performance improvements for stretchable inks
13.6.The role of particle size and resin in stretchable inks
13.7.The role of pattern design in stretchable conductive inks
13.8.Washability for stretchable conductive inks
13.9.Encapsulant choice for stretchable inks
13.10.The role of the substrate in stretchable inks
13.11.Applications of inks in e-textiles
13.12.Examples of products with conductive yarns
13.13.Graphene as a stretchable e-textile conductive ink
13.14.PEDOT as a conductive e-textile material
13.15.Market projections for stretchable conducive inks
14.STRETCHABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS IN FLEXIBLE AND/OR STRETCHABLE CIRCUIT BOARDS
15.HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY SINTERED DIE ATTACH PASTE
15.1.Performance of sintered Ag paste
15.1.The rise of nanoparticles
15.1.2.Power electronics functions and technology trends inside electric vehicles
15.1.3.Key trends in power module materials to enable high temperature operations
15.2.Material choices for die attach pastes
15.2.Commercial progress
15.3.Benchmarking different die and substrate attach technology
15.3.Supplier overviews
15.4.Sintering profile and temperature
15.4.Is Cu a viable sintering alternative
15.5.Prices
15.6.Market forecasts for nano or hybrid sintered Ag die attach paste in value and tonnes
16.EMI SHIELDING USING CONDUCTIVE INKS
16.1.Background to EMI shielding solutions
16.2.Current market estimates for EMI shielding solutions
16.3.Printing or spraying conductive paste as conformal EMI shielding
16.4.Sputtering vs spraying for conformal EMI shielding
16.5.Nano vs micro inks for EMI shielding
16.6.Sputtering currently dominates but printing is a major medium-term future opportunity
16.7.Numbers of suppliers working on or launching conformal on-chip EMI shielding pastes increases
16.8.Has spraying package-level shielding had commercial success?
16.8.1.Jetted comportment shielding gains traction?
16.9.The challenge of magnetic shielding at low frequencies
16.10.Value proposition for magnetic shielding using printed inks
16.11.Market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in consumer electronics EMI shielding- can it be the next big market outside PV?
17.PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURING AND PROTOTYPING
17.1.Background to the PCB industry
17.2.'Printing' PCBs for the hobbyist and DIY market
17.2.1.Comments
17.3.'Printing' professional multi-layer PCBs
17.4.Print seed and plate approach
17.5.Progress on seed-and-plate PCBs
17.6.Comparison of different PCB techniques
17.7.Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing
18.FLEXIBLE HYBRID ELECTRONICS
18.1.Novel approaches towards placement of complex IC with high I/O on flex substrates
18.2.Low temperature solder: overcoming a major technical barrier?
18.3.Conductive paste bumping on flexible substrates
18.4.Photonic sintering of solder
18.5.Logic and memory
18.6.Metallization trends: towards fine-feature high-conductivity metallization on low-temperature substrates
18.7.Conclusions
19.ITO REPLACEMENT (TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING FILMS)
19.1.Market forecast for transparent conductive films
19.2.Changing market requirements
19.3.Technology choice for flexible display TCFs
19.4.A brutal consolidation set in but has now ended?
19.5.Progress and opportunities for conductive inks
19.5.1.Embossing followed by silver nanoparticle printing
19.5.2.Self-assembled silver nanoparticle films
19.5.3.Inkjet printed silver nanoparticles as transparent conducting films
19.6.Direct printing of fine line metal mesh
19.7.Direct printing can go ultra-fine feature, achieving sub-micron resolution?
19.8.Printing of metal mesh TCF using photo-patterned conductive pasts
19.9.Print seed layer and plate approaches
19.10.Direct screen printing of metal mesh films for ultra large area displays
19.11.UV patterned silver nanoparticle based metal mesh
19.12.Market Projections
20.OLED LIGHTING MARKET
20.1.OLED Lighting market dynamics and challenges
20.2.OLED lighting in search of a unique
20.3.Cost projections of OLED lighting
20.4.OLED lighting market forecast
20.5.Requirements from conductive inks in OLED lighting
20.6.Market projections
21.PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE SENSORS
21.1.Piezoresistive
21.2.Glucose sensors
21.3.Market forecasts for conductive inks in glucose test strips
21.4.Capacitive sensors
22.3D PRINTED ELECTRONICS
22.1.Progress in 3D printed electronics
22.1.1.Nascent Objects (now Facebook)
22.1.2.Voxel8 (before re-focus)
22.1.3.nScrypt ad Novacentrix
22.2.University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)
22.3.Nagase
22.3.2.Ink requirements for 3D printed electronics
22.4.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics
23.LARGE AREA LED LIGHTING ARRAYS
23.1.Why large-area LED array lighting
23.2.Examples of LED array lighting
23.3.Role of conductive inks in large-area LED arrays
23.4.Competitive non-printed approach to making the base for large-area LED arrays
24.CONDUCTIVE PENS
25.MOBILE PHONE DIGITIZERS
26.PRINTED THIN FILM TRANSISTORS
26.2.Overall market situation for printed RFID logic
26.3.Market for printed backplanes for displays
26.4.Market for printed backplanes for large-area sensor arrays
26.5.Latest progress with solution-processable metal oxides
26.6.Latest progress with fully printed organic thin film transistor arrays
26.7.The need for printed nanoparticle inks and the latest progress
26.8.Market forecasts for silver nanoparticles in fully printed thin film transistors
27.PRINTED MEMORIES
27.2.Applications of printed thin film memory
27.3.The structure of printed memory and the role of printed conductors
27.4.Market forecasts for conductive inks in printed memories
28.CU PASTES FOR FLEXIBLE PCB MARKET
29.OBSERVATIONS, INSIGHTS, ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS FOR CU POWDER IN THE MLCC (MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR) MARKET
29.2.Material usage and price analyses for MLCC
29.3.Key powder and paste suppliers in the MLCC electrode business
30.METAMATERIALS AND ENGINEERED STRUCTURES USING CONDUCTIVE INKS
30.1.Nantennas
30.2.Frequency-Selective Transparent Shielding Patterns
31.E-READERS
31.1.The use of conductive inks in wearable e-reader devices
31.2.Market forecasts for conductive inks in e-readers
32.OTHER NASCENT APPLICATION IDEAS
32.1.Battery Heaters
32.2.Plant heaters
33.SPECIAL CHAPTER: EXISTING AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLE INKS
33.1.1.Conformal printing
33.2.Desktop and professional single to multi-layer PCB printing
33.3.On-chip conformal EMI shielding
33.4.Sintered silver die attach pastes
33.5.Directly printed metal mesh
33.6.Hybrid (emboss then fill) metal mesh for ITO replacement
33.7.Inkjet printed metal mesh TCF
33.8.Seed layer for plating Cu films for FCCL
33.9.Replacing solder balls for chip assembly
33.10.Print seed and plate in wafer-based Si PV
33.11.Top up conductor layer in thin film PV
33.12.Seed layer in PCB
33.13.Transistor and memory
33.14.OLED lighting
33.15.Digitizer
33.16.Stretchable and in-mold electronic inks
34.INTERVIEWS
34.1.Advanced Nano Products
34.2.Agfa-Gevaert N.V.
34.3.AgIC
34.4.AIST and NAPRA
34.5.Amogreentech
34.6.Applied Nanotech Inc.
34.7.Asahi Glass Corporation
34.8.Asahi Kasei
34.9.Bando Chemical Industries
34.10.BeBop Sensors
34.11.BotFactory
34.12.Cabot
34.13.Cartesian Co
34.14.Chang Sung Corporation
34.15.Cima Nanotech
34.16.Cima NanoTech Inc
34.17.Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH
34.18.ClearJet Ltd
34.19.Colloidal Ink Co., Ltd
34.20.Conductive Compounds
34.21.Daicel Corporation
34.22.DuPont
34.23.DuPont Advanced Materials
34.24.Electroninks Writeables
34.25.Ferro
34.26.Flexbright Oy
34.27.Fujikura Kasei Co Ltd
34.28.Genes 'Ink
34.29.Giga Solar Materials Corp
34.30.Harima
34.31.Henkel
34.32.Hicel Co Ltd
34.33.Hitachi Chemical
34.34.Indium Corporation
34.35.Inkron
34.36.InkTec Co., Ltd
34.37.Intrinsiq Materials
34.38.Kishu Giken Kogyo Co.,Ltd.
34.39.Komori Corporation
34.40.KunShan Hisense Electronics
34.41.Liquid X Printed Metals, Inc.
34.42.Lord Corp
34.43.Methode Electronics
34.44.Nagase America Corporation
34.45.Nano Dimension
34.46.NanoComposix
34.47.NANOGAP
34.48.NanoMas Technologies
34.49.Noritake
34.50.Novacentrix
34.51.Novacentrix
34.52.Novacentrix PulseForge
34.53.O-film Tech Co., Ltd
34.54.Optomec
34.55.Perpetuus Carbon Technologies Limited
34.56.Printechnologics
34.57.Promethean Particles
34.58.Pulse Electronics
34.59.PV Nano Cell
34.60.Raymor Industries Inc
34.61.Samsung (former Cheil Industries)
34.62.Showa Denko
34.63.Sun Chemical
34.64.Taiyo
34.65.Tangio Printed Electronics
34.66.The Sixth Element
34.67.T-Ink
34.68.Toda Kogyo Corp
34.69.Tokusen USA Inc.
34.70.Toyobo
34.71.Ulvac Corporation
34.72.UT Dots Inc
34.73.Vorbeck
34.74.Vorbeck Materials
34.75.Voxel8
34.76.Xerox Research Centre of Canada (XRCC)
34.77.Xymox Technologies
The inks must satisfy the following conditions:
IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY
 

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