海水淡化:离网零排放 2018-2028: IDTechEx

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海水淡化:离网零排放 2018-2028


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海平面上升:淡水资源枯竭。是时候在不造成全球变暖或本地有毒气体排放的前提下进行海水淡化了,而且,离网意味着更实惠、更安全、部署更广泛。2028 年,离网零排放海水淡化的市场规模将跃升至 350 亿美元。这份 180 页的报告列出了详细的全新信息图,分析了海水淡化及其未来的技术路线图,并预测 2028 年市场将快速增长并达到 350 亿美元规模。报告还揭示了全新的零排放离网发电技术和除盐技术所带来的成本降低和广泛用途。
It is time for a report on the heart of future desalination. This is the IDTechEx report, "Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028". Coming from very little in 2018, off grid zero emission desalination will be a rapidly growing $35 billion market in 2028. The report looks closely at its roadmap of exciting new desalination and electricity technologies that will boost performance and reduce cost, in particular reducing what is usually the largest cost element - electricity. That embraces photovoltaics that is three times as efficient, Aerial Wind Energy AWE such as tethered kites more affordable and versatile than ground wind turbines and many new forms of water power that viably downsize and are sufficiently rugged and free of marine growth. There is a lot of benchmarking best practice in other industries ahead in these aspects for all sizes.
This report covering 79 organisations is replete with new infograms and forecasts. They clarify such things as the increasing interaction and integration in this emerging industry. Desalination plants will refill the Dead Sea while providing drinking water and many will provide spare electricity for communities. Some will be part of village, island and ship microgrids. How many islands? Which countries? What is best practice? It is here including future desalination options and why certain ones are dying out.
The report starts with a 48 page Executive Summary and Conclusions that is sufficient in itself for those in a hurry. It surveys the problem globally, the winning technologies, the trend to off grid zero emission and the future roadmap of technology. Forecasts of installed capacity and sales are given to 2028 of this, the heart of next generation desalination.
New combinations and applications of technologies are proposed, best practice illustrated and everything is put into the context of the rapid trend to off grid zero emission electricity production generally. The Introduction then gives an overview of desalination technologies and off grid motivation. A chapter on desalination technology appraises what will be a match for new off grid electricity technology, with detailed comparisons and best practice examples. Chapter 4 specifically examines emerging off grid electricity technology for desalination, Chapter 5 explains off grid ZE electricity system elements and how to avoid the troublesome ones and appraise what comes next. Chapters 6, 7 and 8 show how desalination will be tackled by new photovoltaics, wind power and water power with best practice examples.
The increasingly popular mobile desalinators will sometimes double as transport, provide electricity for farm robots not just irrigation and some will replace increasingly unaffordable diesel gensets expensively modified to meet new emissions laws and involving yesterday's crippling fuel supply systems. There are many strategies for avoiding expensive, dangerous, short lived batteries in desalination and examples are given.
For "Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028", multi-lingual PhD level analysts from IDTechEx have carried out interviews worldwide, mined restricted databases and thought creatively on your behalf, presenting many new ideas. There are drill down reports for those wanting even more. They cover AWE, off grid overview, electricity from urban infrastructure and much more.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Purpose of this report
1.2.Global water resources
1.3.Recycling, preservation and more frugal use of water must have priority
1.3.1.Better use of traditional water supplies is essential
1.3.2.Projecting water stress
1.4.Desalination past, present and future
1.4.1.A history of last resort, big is beautiful
1.4.2.A bright future for desalination
1.4.3.Onerous requirements for large desalination plants may force rethink
1.4.4.Small becomes beautiful too
1.4.5.Best practice small ZE off grid desalination: MIT USA in Puerto Rico
1.5.Driving the trend to off grid electricity
1.6.New technologies for ZE distributed energy for desalination off grid
1.6.1.Photovoltaics, wind turbines
1.6.2.Options for tapping excellent 200+m wind: stronger at night when PV is off
1.6.3.Big gains from multi-mode harvesting
1.7.Desalination technology
1.7.2.Technology options
1.7.3.Installations: RO winning, having overtaken thermal methods
1.7.4.Solar RO desalination winning in number of ZE plants
1.7.5.RO roadmap of some future technology improvements
1.7.6.Leading technology parameters compared
1.8.1.Capacity installed and market drivers
1.8.2.Adoption and design choice is complex
1.8.3.Roadmap for ZE off grid desalination 2018-2028
1.8.4.Number of desalination plants globally 2018-2028 operating, added
1.8.5.Desalination plants sold globally 2018-2028 total, off grid ZE
1.8.7.Installed ZE electricity capacity worldwide 2018, 2028, 2040, 2050 kTWh/yr and desalination part
1.9.2018: orders flood in
2.1.Definition and overview
2.1.1.What is desalination?
2.1.2.Current status
2.1.3.Uses - nominally high costs become low relative costs
2.1.4.Absolute costs coming down
2.1.5.Cannot be assessed in isolation
2.2.Global water resources
2.2.1.Brackish Water for Food and Drink
2.3.Questioning ever larger on grid desalination
2.3.1.Questioning ever larger on grid electricity sources
2.4.Zero emission, owning the electricity source and rural life become more desirable
2.4.1.Drivers of off grid electricity impact desalination
2.6.Much progress with desalination and excellent prospects
2.7.More reasons to worry about national grids now
2.8.Main new demand for off grid electricity
2.9.Continuity of electricity supply is at least as important as cost: energy storage vs energy harvesting for continuity
2.9.1.How to get better continuity
2.10.Multipurpose, mobile, no large battery: desalination can learn from others
2.11.New ZE alternatives to desalination
2.11.1.Zirconium fumarate
2.11.2.Zero Mass Water solar panels with nanomaterials
2.12.Geothermal option
3.1.Desalination technology overview
3.2.Desalination options
3.3.Desalination technologies compared
3.3.1.Desalination technologies compared: Thermal
3.3.2.Desalination technologies compared: Mechanical and electrical
4.1.Definition and overall trends
4.2.Off grid electricity structure and history
4.3.Much is changing
4.4.Characteristics of off-grid zero emission electricity supply
4.5.Zero emission off grid system architecture
4.6.Bridging technologies to zero emission
4.7.Competing on price is easier than it seems
4.8.Hierarchy of function
4.8.1.Structural types of ZE off grid electricity system
4.8.2.OffGridBox microgrid USA, Rwanda
4.8.3.Minigrids with multi-mode harvesting
4.9.Future trends of off grid electricity
4.9.1.Access to electricity by people in 2018: conflicting forces
4.9.2.Electricity supply in 2018 and 2050: here comes off grid
4.9.3.Solar installation off grid not simply related to wealth/ size of country
4.10.ZE off grid electricity technology roadmaps
4.10.1.Off grid technology and adoption roadmap: harvesting
4.10.2.Off grid technology and adoption roadmap 2038: harvesting
4.10.3.Off grid technology and adoption roadmap: storage
5.2.Batteries mean trouble: alternatives favoured
5.3.Energy harvesting
5.3.1.Definition and overview
5.3.2.Market drivers for off grid energy harvesting
5.3.3.Features of energy harvesting
5.3.4.EH transducer construction, materials
5.3.5.Geothermal not important for desalination
6.2.Main PV options beyond silicon
7.1.Wind power for desalination
7.2.Ground turbine wind power does not downsize well: physics and poorer wind
7.3.Gigantic wind turbine with water pumping:
7.4.Wind turbine choices
7.5.Vertical Axis Wind Turbines VAWT have a place
7.6.Airborne Wind Energy
8.2.New forms of wave power for desalination electricity
8.3.Water pressure for direct pressure desalination
8.3.1.SAROS USA on water
8.3.2.CETO Australia under the waves
8.4.Electricity from wave power
8.4.1.Wave Swell Energy Australia minimising parts
8.4.2.Witt UK: 6D small to large off grid power
8.4.3.Marine Power Systems UK WaveSub
8.4.4.REAC Energy Germany StreamCube
8.4.5.Okinawa IST Japan wave converters
8.4.6.Oscilla Power USA magnetostriction for 100kW+ wave power
8.5.Tidal power for desalination: Nova Innovation UK


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