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Flexible, Printed and Thin Film Batteries 2020-2030: Technologies, Markets and Players

Flexible, Thin, Stretchable, Rollable, Bendable, Foldable, Micro- and Large-Area Batteries for Applications in Wearable Devices, Skin Patches, Healthcare and Cosmetics, Internet of Things and People, Portable Electronics, RFID, Smart Packaging and More

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The battery market has suddenly become alive again in recent years. On one hand, batteries are moving to new form factors, becoming ultra-thin, flexible, rollable, stretchable, etc. On the other hand, manufacturers are scrambling to offer large batteries aimed at addressing the large-sized electric vehicle, residential and grid applications. This market study is focused on the former.
The new batteries can be described from several dimensions including:
-Footprints (micro-batteries or large-area batteries),
-Thickness (thin-film or bulky batteries),
-Mechanical properties (flexibility, bendability, rollability, stretchability, foldability, etc.)
-Manufacturing methods (e.g. printing, coating, etc.) and
-Technologies (e.g. solid-state batteries, lithium-polymer batteries, carbon-zinc batteries, etc.)
IDTechEx has been tracking flexible, thin-film, printed batteries with above-mentioned angles since 2014. This report will provide technology development, market progress, application areas, current status, future trends & opportunities and global player activities with assessment and analysis.
Figure 1: Market descriptions by territory
Source: IDTechEx
Flexible, thin and/or printed batteries (or batteries with novel form factors) are back on the agenda thanks to the rise of Internet of Things, wearables and environmental sensors. These applications require new features and battery designs that traditional battery technologies simply cannot provide. This has opened the door to innovation and added a new dimension to the global competition between battery suppliers.
Transforming industry
This is a fast-changing industry, with its technologies in a state of rapid progress as new designs, methods and modified chemistries are frequently announced. The business landscape is also being dramatically altered as many companies are now gearing up to progress their lab scale technologies into mass production. These are exciting years for this emerging technology.
The composition of the target market is undergoing drastic change, driven by the emergence of new addressable market categories. Traditionally, the micro-power thin and printed batteries were used in skin patches, RFID tags and smart cards. Today, however, many new emerging applications have appeared, enticing many large players to enter the foray and thus transforming a business landscape that was once populated predominantly by small firms.
IDTechEx provides detailed technology assessment and benchmarking, ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and technology type, and detailed interview-based business intelligence and profiles on key players and large end-users.
In this study IDTechEx has drawn upon at least 27 direct interviews and visits with key suppliers and large end-users from a variety of sectors and years of accumulated experience and market knowledge for the end use applications such as active RFIDs, smart cards, skin patches, smart packaging and recently wearables and IoT. Our team working on this project is highly technical, enabling it to fully understand the merits and challenges of each technology in this complex landscape.
Complex landscape to navigate
The market and technology landscape are complex. There are no black-and-white or clear technology winners and the definition of market requirements is in a constant state of flux.
Indeed, on the technology side, there are many solutions that fall within the broad category of thin film, flexible or printed batteries. These include printed batteries, thin-film batteries, advanced lithium-ion batteries, solid-state batteries, micro-batteries, stretchable batteries, thin flexible supercapacitors and a few more. It is therefore a confusing technology landscape to navigate and betting on the right technology is not straightforward.
On the market side, many applications are still emerging, and the requirements are fast evolving. The target markets are also very diverse and not overlapping, each with different requirements for power, lifetime, thinness, cost, charging cycles, reliability, flexibility, etc. This diversity of requirements means that no thin film battery offers a one-size-fits-all solution.
Figure 2: Applications of batteries with new form and structural factors
Source: IDTechEx
Wearable technology and electronic textiles are a major growth area for thin film and flexible batteries. Conventional secondary batteries may meet the energy requirements of wearable devices, but they struggle to achieve flexibility, thinness and light weight. These new market requirements open up the space for energy storage solutions with novel form factors. Indeed, the majority of thin-film battery companies tell us that they have on-going projects in the wearable technology field. High-energy thin film batteries have the highest potential here followed by printed rechargeable zinc batteries, provided the latter can improve.
The healthcare sector is also a promising target market. Skin patches using printed batteries are already a commercial reality, while IDTechEx anticipates that the market for disposable medical devices requiring micro-power batteries will also expand. This is a hot space as the number of skin patch companies is rapidly rising. Here, printed zinc batteries have the highest potential but price needs to continue falling before a higher market uptake takes place. Here too, new form factors will be the key differentiator, compared to the high-volume incumbents such as coin cell batteries. Medical diagnostic devices, medical sensors are also promising markets, although the current thin battery technology is not mature enough yet to be applied straightaway.
Connected device applications is another important trend especially combining special form factor and harsh temperature requirements. Here, there is a trend to combine energy harvesting with thin batteries with superior form factors.
Active and battery-assisted passive RFID is also a potential target market, although coin-cells are the main solutions unless there is a stringent requirement for laminar or flexible design such as in car plates. It is also in these small niches that thin film batteries might find a place.
Smart cards also remain an attractive sector and several thin-film battery technologies have been optimised to meet the lamination requirements for card manufacture. The price is however too steep to enable widespread market penetration. The emergence of online and mobile banking carries a long-term threat of substitution.
Technology assessment
IDTechEx provides a detailed assessment of all the key energy storage technologies that fall under the broad category of thin film, flexible or printed batteries. It provides a critical and quantitative analysis and benchmarks different solutions.
Market forecasts
IDTechEx has developed detailed and granular market forecasts segmented by technology type as well as end use applications. These forecasts are based on (a) primary information obtained through our direct interview programme with suppliers and end-users, attending conferences globally and also organising our own conferences on wearable technologies, RFIDs and printed electronics; and (b) a critical technical assessment of competing technologies.
The technologies and end use applications covered are:
  • Wrist-worn wearables
  • Foot-worn wearables
  • Other wearables
  • Skin patch
  • Smart phone
  • Power bank/Power case
  • RFID
  • Smart packaging
  • Smart card
  • Connected devices
  • Backup power
  • Interactive Media, Toys, Games, Cards
  • Others
Technologies included in this report:
  • LiPON-based
  • Stackable thin-film battery
  • 2D and 3D Micro-battery
  • Primary Li/CFx micro-battery
  • Flexible lithium-ion battery
  • Thin and flexible alkaline battery
  • Lithium manganese disposable battery
  • Laminated packaged lithium-polymer cells
  • Batteries with highly conductive polymer gel electrolyte
  • Solid-state battery
  • Cable-type battery
  • Large-area multi-stacked textile battery
  • Stretchable battery
  • Foldable Kirigami lithium-ion battery
  • Fibre-shaped lithium-ion battery that can be woven into electronic textiles
  • Printed zinc-carbon disposable battery
  • Printed silver zinc battery
  • Printed rechargeable NMH battery
  • Needle battery
  • Transparent battery
  • Laminar fuel cells
  • Thin and flexible supercapacitor
  • Printed supercapacitors
With a special focus and analysis on:
  • Thin-film solid-state battery
  • Bulk solid-state battery
  • Advanced lithium-ion battery
  • Primary lithium-based battery
  • Zinc-carbon battery
  • Silver zinc battery
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Table of Contents
1.2.Thin-film, flexible, printed batteries, and beyond
1.3.Structure of the report
1.4.Who should read this report
1.5.Research methodology
1.6.Thin, flexible and printed batteries are describing different aspects of battery features
1.7.Technologies included in the report
1.8.Technology benchmarking
1.9.Future Direction of Battery Development
1.10.Status of battery markets
1.11.Major drivers for the development of new-form-and-structural-factor batteries
1.12.Development roadmap of batteries
1.13.Application market roadmap
1.14.Business model
1.15.A practical battery is a combination of many considerations
1.16.Status of flexible batteries
1.17.Value proposition
1.18.Price perspectives
1.19.Other challenges and difficulties
1.20.Strategies for battery providers focusing on new form and structural factors
1.21.Market by territory
1.22.Market forecast assumptions
1.23.Market forecast 2020-2030 by technology (unit)
1.24.Market forecast 2020-2030 by technology (value)
1.25.Market forecast 2020-2030 by application (units)
1.26.Market forecast 2020-2030 by application (value)
1.27.Market by application in 2020 and 2030
1.28.Analysis of battery technologies
1.29.Analysis of application markets
2.1.Introduction to Applications
2.1.1.Applications of battery with new form and structural factors
2.1.2.Power range for electronic and electrical devices
3.1.1.The growth of wearables
3.1.2.Changes towards wearable devices
3.1.3.Batteries are the main bottleneck of wearables
3.1.4.Wearables at different locations of a human body
3.1.5.Wearables: smart watch, wristband and bracelet
3.1.6.Battery requirements
3.1.7.Wrist-worn application examples with flexible batteries 1
3.1.8.Wrist-worn application examples with flexible batteries 2
3.1.9.Wrist-worn application examples with flexible batteries 3
3.1.10.Wrist-worn application examples with flexible batteries 4
3.1.11.Ankle/foot-worn application examples
3.1.12.Head/eye-worn application examples
3.1.13.Electronic apparel: gloves and textiles
3.1.15.Other wearable application examples
3.1.16.Summary and conclusions for wearable applications
4.1.Mobile healthcare: Huge growth potential
4.2.Cosmetic skin patches
4.3.Iontophoresis for cosmetics
4.4.Cardiovascular monitoring patch
4.5.Wireless inpatient monitoring
4.6.Temperature monitoring
4.7.Life Science Technology
4.8.Conformal displacement sensor
4.9.Printed battery used in COVID-19
4.10.Medical skin patches - the dark horse
4.11.A list of increasing number of medical skin patch products
4.12.Medical implants 1
4.13.Medical implants 2
4.14.Medical implants 3
5.1.Future trend in battery for consumer electronics
5.2.Flexibility: Big giants' growing interest
5.3.Thinness is still required for now and future
5.4.Slim consumer electronics
5.5.New market: Thin batteries can help to increase the total capacity
5.6.Battery case ideas
5.7.Will modular phones be the direction of the future?
5.8.Thin and flexible supercapacitor for consumer electronics
5.9.Flexible phone may require other flexible components in the future
6.1.Something new vs renamed world of mobile phones
6.2.Internet of Things
6.3.Batteries for IoT
6.4.Power supply options for WSN
6.5.Rod-shape battery - examples
6.6.Novel examples of thin batteries in IoT devices
6.7.Golf sensor patch powered by printed battery
6.8.Smart device powered by solid-state battery
6.9.Thoughts about thin and flexible batteries in novel devices
6.10.Maintenance-free wireless power for the IoT: Ready or not?
6.11.Micro-batteries integrated with energy harvesting devices
6.12.Real time clock backup, SRAM backup and microcontroller (MCU)
6.13.RFID sensors/ tags with thin batteries
6.14.Examples of thin batteries used in RFID tags/ sensors
7.1.Smart packaging and advertising examples
7.2.Audio Paper™ developed by Toppan Printing
7.3.Case studies of power for smart packaging
8.1.Where will the powered smart cards go?
8.2.Arrangement of batteries in smart cards
8.3.Battery alternative solution
8.4.Changes in smart card field
9.1.Application examples
9.2.Printed batteries for other disposable applications?
10.1.1.Typical thicknesses of the traditional battery components
10.1.2.Design differences between thin-film batteries and bulk-size batteries
10.1.3.Areal energy density vs. cell thickness
10.1.4.Shortcomings of thin-film batteries
10.1.5.Units used to characterize thin-film batteries
10.1.6.Comparison of various solid-state lithium-based batteries
10.1.7.Thin-film batteries from FDK
10.2.Solid-state thin-film lithium battery
10.2.1.Most successful commercial thin-film battery
10.2.2.Players worked and working on thin-film lithium batteries
10.2.3.Construction of an ultra-thin lithium battery
10.2.4.Cathode material options for thin-film batteries
10.2.5.Cathode of thin film lithium battery
10.2.6.Anode of thin film lithium battery
10.2.7.Substrate options
10.2.8.Advantages and disadvantages of selected materials
10.2.9.Trend of materials and processes of thin-film battery in different companies
10.2.10.Ultra-thin micro-battery—NanoEnergy®
10.2.11.Micro-Batteries suitable for integration
10.2.12.From limited to mass production—STMicroelectronics
10.2.13.Summary of the EnFilm™ rechargeable thin-film battery
10.2.14.CEA Tech
10.2.16.CeraCharge's performance
10.2.17.Main applications of CeraCharge
10.2.19.NGK's EnerCerachip
10.2.20.Thin-film solid-state batteries made by Excellatron
10.2.21.Johnson Battery Technologies
10.2.22.JBT's advanced technology performance
10.2.23.LiPON: capacity increase
10.2.24.Technology of Infinite Power Solutions
10.2.25.Cost comparison between a standard prismatic battery and IPS' battery
10.3.Manufacturing approaches of solid-state thin-film lithium batteries
10.3.1.Summary of main fabrication technique for thin film batteries
10.3.2.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 1
10.3.3.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 2
10.3.4.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 3
10.3.5.Direct vapor deposition for thin-film batteries
10.3.6.Thin-film battery potentials
11.1.Architectures of micro-batteries
11.2.Introduction to micro-batteries
11.3.3D printed lithium-ion micro-batteries
11.4.Primary Li/CFx micro-battery
12.1.1.Flexible electronics
12.1.2.Realization of batteries' mechanical properties 1
12.1.3.Realization of batteries' mechanical properties 2
12.2.Thickness-derived flexibility
12.2.1.Stresses generated in a the battery during flexing
12.2.2.A thin battery is usually flexible to some extent
12.3.Material-derived flexibility
12.3.1.Comparison of a flexible LIB with a traditional one
12.3.2.Material choices for different battery components
12.4.Efforts on the electrolyte/ separator
12.4.1.Solid-state electrolyte
12.4.2.Safety of solid-state batteries
12.4.3.Improvement of solid-state battery
12.4.4.Comparison of organic and inorganic solid-state electrolyte
12.4.5.Polymer-based electrolytes
12.4.6.Bendable lithium-based battery
12.4.7.Lionrock Batteries
12.4.8.Highly conductive polymer gel electrolyte and lamination processes for roll-to-roll Li-ion cell production
12.4.9.BrightVolt batteries
12.4.10.BrightVolt product matrix
12.4.12.Toes Opto-Mechatronics
12.4.13.Hitachi Zosen's solid-state electrolyte
12.4.14.Hitachi Zosen's batteries
12.4.15.Hitachi Maxell
12.4.16.Lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic powder-01
12.4.17.LICGCTM PW-01 for cathode additives
12.4.18.Ohara's products for solid state batteries
12.4.19.Ohara / PolyPlus
12.4.20.Application of LICGC for all solid state batteries
12.4.21.Properties of multilayer all solid-state lithium ion battery using LICGC as electrolyte
12.4.22.LICGC products at the show
12.4.23.Manufacturing process of Ohara glass
12.4.24.Planar Energy
12.4.25.ProLogium: Solid-state lithium ceramic battery
12.4.27.LiPON-based solid-state batteries
12.4.28.Ilika's stacked solid-state micro-battery 1
12.4.29.Ilika's stacked solid-state micro-battery 2
12.4.30.Ilika 3
12.4.31.Thin film vs. bulk solid-state batteries
12.5.Efforts on the electrodes
12.5.1.Innovative electrode
12.5.2.From electrode innovation to flexible batteries
12.6.Efforts on the current collectors
12.6.1.Carbon materials for current collectors
12.6.2.Thin and flexible alkaline battery developed by New Jersey Institute of Technology
12.6.3.Flexible battery achieved by anode materials
12.7.Efforts on the packaging
12.7.1.Lithium-polymer pouch cells
12.7.2.Techniques to fabricate aluminium laminated sheets
12.7.3.Packaging procedures for pouch cells 1
12.7.4.Packaging procedures for pouch cells 2
12.7.6.Showa Denko Packaging
12.7.7.Flexible lithium-ion battery from QinetiQ
12.7.8.Semiconductor Energy Laboratory
12.7.9.Flexible and foldable batteries: still working after being washed by the washing machine
12.7.10.Flexible pouch cells
12.7.11.LiBEST's flexible battery 1
12.7.12.LiBEST's flexible battery 2
12.7.13.LIBEST's flexible battery 3
12.7.14.Panasonic's flexible batteries 1
12.7.15.Panasonic's flexible batteries 2
12.7.16.Flexibility enabled by packaging materials
12.8.1.Improvements of multiple components done by BattFlex
12.8.2.Nano and Advanced Materials Institute Limited & Compass Technology Company Limited
12.8.3.AMO's flexible and bendable batteries: innovations
12.8.4.AMO's flexible and bendable batteries: specifications
12.8.5.AMO's flexible and bendable batteries: safety test
12.8.6.AMO's flexible and bendable batteries: Product flow chart
12.9.Device-design-derived flexibility
12.9.1.Cable-type batteries
12.9.2.Cable-type battery developed by LG Chem
12.9.3.Battery on wire
12.9.4.Huineng (Tianjin) Technology Development
12.9.5.Large-area multi-stacked textile battery for flexible and rollable applications
12.9.6.Stretchable lithium-ion battery — use spring-like lines
12.9.7.Foldable kirigami lithium-ion battery developed by Arizona State University
12.9.8.Flexible electrode assembly
12.9.9.Fibre-shaped lithium-ion battery that can be woven into electronic textiles
12.9.10.Fibre-shaped lithium-ion battery that can be woven into electronic textiles (continued)
12.9.11.Stretchable batteries that stick to the skin like a band-aid
13.1.Flexible battery patent application and publication trend
13.2.Flexible battery patent top assignees
13.3.Flexible battery important companies
13.4.Flexible battery geographic territories
13.5.Flexible battery portfolio value distribution
14.1.Printed battery technologies
14.2.Zinc-based printed batteries
14.3.Printed battery layout
14.4.Component options of printed batteries
14.5.Materials/compositions for printed batteries in research
14.6.Typical construction and reaction of printed disposable battery
14.7.Players in printed battery industry
14.8.Research strategy for development of printed batteries
15.1.Printed batteries from Fraunhofer ENAS
15.2.Fraunhofer ENAS' printed batteries
15.3.Varta Microbattery/Varta Storage
15.4.SoftBattery® from Enfucell
15.5.Blue Spark batteries
15.6.FlexEL LLC
15.7.Printed battery from Printed Energy
15.8.Paper batteries from Rocket Electric
15.10.Liten CEA Tech: printed battery
15.11.Rechargeable ZincPolyTM from Imprint Energy
15.12.Imprint Energy's technology innovations and specifications
15.13.Flexographically printed Zn/MnO2 battery
15.14.Screen printed secondary NMH batteries
16.1.Printing techniques
16.2.Descriptions of various printing techniques 1
16.3.Descriptions of various printing techniques 2
16.4.Descriptions of various printing techniques 3
16.5.Descriptions of various printing techniques 4
16.6.Comparison of printing techniques
16.7.Throughput vs. feature size for typical printing processes
16.8.Advantages and disadvantages of printing techniques used for printed battery fabrication
16.9.Examples of production facilities
17.1.Needle battery from Panasonic
17.2.Batteries with optical properties
17.3.Transparent components for batteries
17.4.Transparent battery developed by Waseda University
17.5.Grid-like transparent lithium-ion battery
18.1.Laminar fuel cells
18.2.What is a capacitor
18.3.Comparison of construction diagrams of three basic types of capacitor
18.5.Electrolyte options for supercapacitors
18.6.Thin and flexible supercapacitor - PowerWrapper
18.7.Two product lines fill the power gap
18.8.Battery-like thin-film supercapacitor by Rice University
18.9.Printed supercapacitors
18.10.University of Southern California
18.11.Flexible, transparent supercapacitors
18.12.Biological supercapacitors for pacemakers
19.1.Main lithium producers and lithium sources
19.2.Cobalt - From ore to metal
19.3.Cathode materials for primary cells
19.4.Cathode materials for secondary cells
19.5.New cathode materials - FDK Corporation
19.6.Graphite for batteries
19.8.Anode alternatives - other carbon materials
19.9.Anode alternatives - silicon, tin and alloying materials
19.10.Summary of the electrolyte properties
19.11.Liquid electrolytes
19.12.Types of polymer electrolytes
19.13.Solid-state electrolytes
19.14.Gel Electrolytes
19.15.Binders - aqueous vs. non-aqueous
19.16.Current collectors
19.17.Current collectors and packaging
20.1.Failure stories
20.2.Companies that have stopped trading
20.3.Power Paper 1
20.4.Power Paper 2
20.5.Planar Energy Devices
20.6.Past stories
20.7.Consumer electronics giants are moving into flexible batteries
20.8.LG Chem's offerings
20.9.Apple's contributions
20.10.Samsung — never falling behind
20.11.Nokia's approach
22.1.List of global players with descriptions
23.1.Company profile list
24.1.Appendix: Background of battery knowledge
24.1.1.What is a battery?
24.1.2.Glossary of terms - specifications
24.1.3.Useful charts for performance comparison
24.1.4.Battery categories
24.1.5.Commercial battery packaging technologies
24.1.6.Comparison of commercial battery packaging technologies
24.1.7.Electrode design & architecture: important for different applications
24.1.8.Electrochemical inactive components in the battery
24.1.9.Primary vs secondary batteries
24.1.10.Popular battery chemistries
24.1.11.Primary battery chemistries and common applications
24.1.12.Numerical specifications of popular rechargeable battery chemistries
24.1.13.Battery technology benchmark
24.1.14.Nomenclature for lithium-based rechargeable batteries
24.1.15.Lithium-ion & lithium metal batteries
24.1.16.Lithium-ion batteries
24.2.Appendix: Why is battery development so slow?
24.2.2.A big obstacle — energy density
24.2.3.Battery technology is based on redox reactions
24.2.4.Electrochemical reaction is essentially based on electron transfer
24.2.5.Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
24.2.6.The importance of an electrolyte in a battery
24.2.7.Cathode & anode need to have structural order
24.2.8.Failure story about metallic lithium anode
24.3.Appendix: Threats from other power sources
24.3.1.Threats from other power sources
24.3.2.Typical specifications for a CR2032 lithium coin battery
24.3.3.Coin cell or thin battery, that is the question
24.3.4.Advantages and limitations of supercapacitors
24.3.5.Are supercapacitors threats to batteries?
24.3.6.Trends towards multiple energy harvesting
24.3.7.Comparison of different power options

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슬라이드 393
전망 2030

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