Supercapacitors can take market share from lithium batteries
Oct 15, 2012
This article shares some of the research carried out for the new IDTechEx report, Batteries and Supercapacitors for Smart Portable Devices 2013-2023: Markets, Technologies, Companies. You can also find out more at Supercapacitors USA being held in Washington DC on November 7-8 2012.
Multifunctionality is driving the change in energy storage landscape
The consumer electronics industry has changed drastically in the past few years. Portable devices are increasingly becoming multifunctional, and not only phones which currently work for many purposes (e.g. making calls, sending SMS, internet navigation, email, video playing) but cameras and other devices as well.
For example, we can now see smart watches that play music and can help you manage your smartphone, or android powered cameras with applications and Wi-Fi internet connectivity. At the same time, smartphones are taking over more functions; such as the one that becomes a semi-professional camera when adding interchangeable lenses.
This trend in power demand terms is translated into frequent peak power demands from lithium and other types of batteries. The same applies for wireless sensors, which require power pulses for performing their functions. In Figure 1 below we show the power demand profile for different operation modes of three different smartphones.
Figure 1. Different power profiles for different smartphone uses
The energy storage space for smart and portable electronic devices
The energy storage space (Figure 2) is composed of primary (non-rechargeable) and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Here, we define "smart and portable" as those devices that will take a key role in the future of data and communications, and are small enough to be carried by one person or installed in a small device. The energy storage solutions that power these devices are the subject of our report and they are in both the consumer and industrial segments.
Figure 2. Energy Storage Space - including supercapacitors
Lithium batteries have become the dominant technology in the secondary battery space for small devices such as laptops, mobile phones, tablet PCs and cameras. This is because of their superior energy density characteristics. The consumer electronics industry has pushed their production to billions and consequently, through economies of scale, has optimized its supply chain and reduced their price. At the same time, as shown in Figure 2, secondary batteries are increasingly substituting primary batteries in many applications.
Supercapacitors fit well into the emerging energy storage landscape
As in any other battery, energy and power will play against each other; increasing one will lead to the loss of the other. Accordingly, the capacity of lithium batteries (energy content) is reduced if we extract the energy quickly. This means that if we require high power from the battery we will extract less total energy than if we would require low power (see Figure 3).
Figure 3. Ragone Plots for an array of energy storage and energy conversion devices
As seen in Figure 1, the multifunctionality trend in smart portable devices requires different power profiles depending on the function and some of these high power demands are required more often. These variable power demands mean less available total energy extracted from the battery (and accordingly your battery running out quicker). In the consumer electronic industry this was not a problem in the past, since the mobile phone power demand profile was more or less constant and low. This was the case because originally mobile phones were only used to perform just one function (i.e. make calls).
Consequently, lithium battery technology capabilities are being challenged by the modern multifunctional portable devices, which are increasingly requiring higher performance in terms of power density. Whilst current research and development pathways aim for the emergence of a new generation of high energy density technologies, alternative energy storage technologies are challenging the dominance of lithium batteries.
This is the case with supercapacitors, which are an emerging energy storage technology, whose characteristics make them strong candidates for satisfying those specific functions where lithium batteries underperform.
Interestingly, supercapacitors can deliver a considerable amount of energy at high power (see Figure 3). This makes them suitable for supplying high power in multifunctional devices where current batteries can't provide it without reducing their total energy capacity (see Table 1 below).
Table 1. Multifunctionality Trends in Consumer Electronics
On the other hand, since the origins of mobile communications there has been an effort to reduce the dimensions of the equipment. Accordingly, all electronic components need to reduce their form factor but must still be able to support functionalities that mobile phones never had before. This includes energy storage solutions.
Figure 4. Size reduction trends of mobile phones
The developments of electronics and material science are allowing for new developments in the energy storage field. Now we can build, or better said, print, thin film batteries on different surfaces allowing for new energy storage solutions.
Source: Waseda University
Smart and portable electronic devices is one of the highest growth industries in the world. These devices will be the base of the future data and communication networks. More than one billion mobile phones are shipped each year, smartphones are growing their market share and Tablet PCs will challenge the role of Laptop PCs. The energy storage solutions that power these devices will be key in the development of this strategic industry.
Can you see the potential?
Batteries and Supercapacitors for Smart Portable Devices 2013-2023: Markets, Technologies, Companies
IDTechEx's report leads you to the basic concepts to understand the technologies in the energy storage industry for smart and portable electronic devices, including the advantages and limitations of different technologies.
This is followed by a comprehensive section on supercapacitor technology explaining where they fit in the energy storage industry and their potential applications. Finally, it introduces the emerging and future technologies in the energy storage space; thin film and flexible batteries. We present, for both batteries and supercapacitors, their current research and development paths leading to improvements.
Through these sections we highlight the work of the companies involved in this industry. Expanding from previous editions we present potential cost reduction paths for lithium batteries, drivers of the consumer electronic industry, the potential role of super capacitors and innovative technologies and their niche markets.
In addition, this report presents IDTechEx's comprehensive study of companies in the lithium battery industry: 138 manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, including their country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology, case type and application priorities. We present a 10 year forecast of the market value of lithium batteries, supercapacitors, RFID and wireless sensors applications.
- Multifunctionality all day long is and will be the name of the game in the consumer electronics industry during the next 10 years.
- Currently representing 57% of the total portable device energy storage market, secondary lithium battery technologies will lose their market share against new technologies in 2023.
- The energy storage market for smart portable devices is valued at $86 billion in 2023 and supercapacitors could reach a $4.5 billion market value in that year, as they are suitable to fulfil the constantly increasing demands of multifunctional portable devices.
To learn more about our "Batteries and Supercapacitors for Smart Portable Devices 2013-2023: Markets, Technologies, Companies" report and to view sample pages, please visit www.IDTechEx.com/portable.
Also, attend Supercapacitors USA 2012 and Energy Harvesting & Storage USA, 7-8 November 2012, Washington DC, USA.
For further reading see Energy Harvesting and Storage for Electronic Devices 2012-2022.
Other IDTechEx event include: