Metal-Organic Frameworks market to exceed a value of US$685 million by 2034.

Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) 2024-2034: Market, Technology, and Players

Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for carbon capture, water harvesting, chemical separations and purification, gas storage, and other early-stage applications with trends and forecasts.

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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of materials with exceptionally high porosity and surface area (up to 7000m2/g). The design flexibility and structural versatility afforded by MOFs have attracted widespread interest in numerous applications albeit with several unsuccessful attempts to commercialize the materials historically. However, the tunability, cycling stability, and selective adsorption/desorption characteristics of these materials are opening opportunities for commercialization as energy-efficient alternatives for a range of critical energy-intensive technologies. These include carbon capture, water harvesting for potable water production and HVAC systems, and various chemical separations and purification processes (e.g. refrigerant reclamation and direct lithium extraction).
IDTechEx's report offers an independent analysis of these trends and considers applications of MOFs for several other early-stage technologies, including hydrogen storage, energy storage, sensors, and more. Informed by insights gained from primary research, the report analyzes key players in the field and provides market forecasts in terms of yearly mass demand and market value segmented by application.

Figure 1: The evolution of the price of MOFs towards commercial applications. Source: IDTechEx
Manufacturing MOFs
Industrial implementation depends on material availability, quality, and affordability. Most MOFs developed in research labs are synthesized using solvothermal methods on the milligrams scale. To produce MOFs on an industrial scale, the production methods need to be scalable. In addition, raw material availability is a critical factor in determining the commercial viability of a MOF. With over 100,000 reported structures, only a handful meet the criteria for potential commercialization. Using key insights gained from interviews with key players such as BASF and Promethean Particles, this report critically assesses the merits and challenges of the various approaches undertaken by manufacturers to upscale MOF production. Informed by primary research, the factors that impact the production costs and ultimately the selling price of MOFs are also addressed.
MOFs for Carbon Capture
Deploying carbon capture technologies is an important tool for meeting net zero emission goals. However, despite the fair level of maturity of amine solvent-based methods (i.e. amine scrubbing) to capture CO2, deployment is still limited mainly due to the large installation cost and energy consumption associated with solvent regeneration. MOF-based modular solid sorbent carbon capture systems are gaining momentum, driven by significantly reduced energy requirements for sorbent regeneration, improved sorbent stability, CO2 selectivity, and lower capital expenditure compared to solvent-based systems. This report examines the material properties and strategies to tune capture performance and assesses the progress in point source and direct air capture applications. Through interviews with players such as Nuada, AspiraDAC, and others, the market activity and outlook of systems being developed by players are addressed with comparisons of technology readiness levels and commercial opportunity.
MOFs for water harvesting and HVAC Technologies
Atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) technologies using advanced sorbents (e.g. MOFs) offer an opportunity to harness water resources in regions where traditional water sources are limited. Additionally, heating and cooling effects induced by water adsorption and desorption properties of MOFs can also be used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that can operate with up to 70% reduced electricity consumption compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technologies. This can facilitate the reduction in energy consumption by HVAC systems which currently account for ~10% of all global electricity consumption and is expected to triple by 2050 with the surge in demand, especially in the Asian market. Additionally, a significant reduction in the production of HFC refrigerants is expected in line with the Kigali Amendment and MOF-based systems can prove a viable alternative. IDTechEx's report covers material and technology advances in AWH and HVAC systems that integrate MOFs and compares the key performance metrics with other sorbents. The report also highlights the key players at the forefront of developing and commercializing these technologies.
MOFs for Chemical Separations and Purification
Chemical separation and purification constitute core operations of manufacturing industries such as chemical production, mining, and oil and gas refining. Conventional distillation-based thermal chemical separation processes have significant drawbacks: they require a large spatial footprint, substantial capital expenditure, and are very energy-intensive. Globally, this accounts for an estimated ~10-15% of total energy consumption. The tunable chemical selectivity and controllable pore architecture of MOFs enable selective separation of chemicals when used as solid sorbents or membranes. For example, MOF-based membrane manufacturer UniSieve told IDTechEx that it has demonstrated the separation of chemicals that have boiling points within ~5°C using its non-thermal membrane technology, which otherwise would require energy-intensive thermal separation using ~100m high distillation columns. Advances in applications such as refrigerant reclamation, direct lithium extraction, and several gas separation and purification processes such as biogas upgrading, and polymer grade propylene production, and more are evaluated within the report.
MOFs for Gas Storage and Other Early-Stage Applications
MOFs are also being explored for gas storage applications, with US-based MOF manufacturer Numat having commercialized its ION-X range for storage of dopant gases for the semiconductor industry. Several start-ups are also developing prototypes of MOF-based natural gas storage solutions to support gas supply networks, whilst developments in hydrogen storage applications are lagging. There are several other early-stage applications discussed in the report such as energy storage, catalysis, sensors, and more. However, these are generally studied in academic literature with limited examples of R&D conducted by startup companies.
The varied applications of MOFs present a large scope for the adoption of MOF-based technologies, particularly in applications where MOFs can result in a material reduction in energy consumption and operational costs. These include carbon capture, chemical separations, and HVAC systems. However, these technologies have not yet been demonstrated on an industrial scale and novel technologies can be considered risky which may become a barrier to early adoption. Additionally, incumbent technologies have a stronghold in the key target markets, and MOFs may struggle to gain market share. With the advent of several commercial products over the next decade, MOF-based technologies will need to demonstrate their performance at scale. This must also be complemented by a sustained growth in manufacturing capacity using scalable methods. IDTechEx predicts this market will grow at 34.8% CAGR from 2024 to 2034.

Figure 2: Forecast and growth rate of MOFs. Source: IDTechEx
Key aspects
This report provides key market insights into metal-organic frameworks (MOF) materials, manufacturing methods, pricing considerations, and several key emerging applications.
The report provides an overview of MOFs, with critical assessment of material production and upscaling strategies:
  • Manufacturing methods adopted by key players to upscale production including key comparisons
  • Downstream processes
  • Material pricing considerations and key contributions to production costs
Material properties and analysis, market activity, key comparisons with incumbent technologies and more are evaluated for key applications, including:
  • Carbon capture including point source and direct air capture technologies using MOF sorbents and membranes
  • Water harvesting for atmospheric water harvesting and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies using MOF sorbents
  • Chemical separations and purification technologies (e.g. air filtration, refrigerant reclamation, direct lithium extraction, gas separations, biogas upgrading, wastewater treatment, and more) using MOF membranes and sorbents
  • Gas storage and other early-stage applications including sensors, catalysis, energy storage (e.g. batteries, supercapacitors, and thermal management), biomedical applications (e.g. drug delivery), agricultural applications for soil cultivation and targeted release of actives, and more.
The report also provides 10 year market forecasts & analysis:
  • Total MOF market by application (tonnes)
  • Total MOF market by application (US$)
Report MetricsDetails
Historic DataTo 2023
CAGRThe global market for metal-organic frameworks will reach US$685 million by 2034. This represents a CAGR of 34.8% compared with 2024.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsTonnes, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide, Japan, Europe, North America (USA + Canada)
Segments CoveredManufacturing methods, cost and pricing considerations, carbon capture (point source and direct air capture), water harvesting (atmospheric water harvesting and HVAC technologies), chemical separations and purification (e.g. refrigerant reclamation, direct lithium extraction), gas storage, energy storage (e.g. batteries), other early-stage applications (catalysis, drug delivery, agriculture, and more)
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Table of Contents
1.1.Metal-organic frameworks are tunable, porous materials with high surface area
1.2.Translation from laboratories to industrial manufacturing is a key challenge
1.3.Standard batch synthesis is the preferred method by large manufacturers
1.4.IDTechEx outlook for MOF production
1.5.Main applications are carbon capture, water harvesting, and chemical separation
1.6.North America, Europe, and Japan are driving key advances in MOF technologies
1.7.Carbon capture technologies are key to achieving net zero emission goals
1.8.MOFs can reduce energy requirements and operational costs for carbon capture
1.9.Comparison of MOF-based point source capture with amine scrubbing
1.10.MOF-based technologies are advancing in point source carbon capture
1.11.IDTechEx Outlook for MOFs in Carbon Capture
1.12.MOFs can increase energy efficiency of AWH and HVAC systems
1.13.Comparison of sorbents for atmospheric water harvesting
1.14.MOF-based technologies towards commercialization compared to incumbent
1.15.MOF-based AWH and HVAC systems are approaching commercialization
1.16.IDTechEx outlook for MOFs in water harvesting and HVAC systems
1.17.Wide scope of applications for MOFs in chemical separations and purification
1.18.IDTechEx outlook of MOFs in chemical separations and purifications
1.19.Research on MOFs for numerous other applications is in the early stages
1.20.Total Metal-Organic Frameworks Forecast (mass)
1.21.Total Metal-Organic Frameworks Forecast (value)
1.22.Metal-Organic Frameworks Forecast and Growth Opportunities
2.1.Introduction to metal-organic frameworks
2.2.Numerous structures of MOFs exist with a large scope of applications
2.3.MOFs in carbon capture and removal with emerging commercial applications
2.4.Commercial applications emerging for MOFs in gas storage and transport
2.5.MOF-based catalysts beginning to appear in the market for catalysis
2.6.MOFs are promising candidates for separation and purification
2.7.MOFs demonstrating potential in water harvesting and air conditioning systems
2.8.MOF-based fuel cell membranes not ready for commercialisation
2.9.MOFs in energy storage may be limited by complex material synthesis
2.10.Academic research is driving exploration of MOFs in sensors
2.11.MOFs in biomedical applications encounter barriers to clinical translation
2.12.MOFs show better long-term cycling performance compared to other adsorbents
2.13.Scalability and high cost have been main historical barriers to commercialization
3.1.1.Translation from laboratories to industrial manufacturing is challenging
3.1.2.Factors to consider for industrial manufacturing of MOFs
3.2.Manufacturing Processes
3.3.Overview of common manufacturing processes
3.4.Solvothermal and hydrothermal synthesis used for bench scale production
3.5.Mechanochemical synthesis can enable large scale continuous production
3.6.Electrochemical synthesis
3.7.Spray-drying synthesis
3.8.Other examples of synthesis methods
3.9.Assessment of common processing methods (1/2)
3.10.Assessment of common processing methods (2/2)
3.11.Downstream Processes
3.12.Downstream Processing
3.13.Shaping processes are necessary to obtain functional MOF products
3.14.Market Activity
3.15.BASF uses large scale batch synthesis for industrial MOF production
3.16.BASF's position on batch vs continuous processes
3.17.BASF's process and cost considerations
3.18.Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis for large-scale manufacturing
3.19.Morphologies obtained using Promethean's manufacturing process
3.20.Immaterial is scaling up its process to manufacture monolithic MOFs
3.21.Atomis has a patented process to manufacture MOFs
3.22.SyncMOF can recommend and manufacture MOFs on the tonnes scale
3.23.Numat is expanding its manufacturing capability and commercializing products
3.24.Cost and Pricing Considerations
3.25.Key contributions to the production costs
3.26.Cost of raw materials is often prohibitive for large scale MOF production
3.27.MOFs with industrially available ligands can target a competitive selling price
3.28.Company Landscape
3.29.Overview of MOF manufacturers
3.30.Company landscape of MOF manufacturers
3.32.IDTechEx outlook for MOF production
4.1.1.Carbon capture technologies are key to achieving net zero emission goals
4.1.2.Industrial sources of emission and CO₂ content varies with emission source
4.1.3.Absorption-based capture methods dominate however others are emerging
4.1.4.Current large-scale carbon capture facilities use solvent-based capture
4.2.Solid Sorbent-based CO₂ Capture
4.2.1.Overview of solid sorbents explored for carbon capture
4.2.2.Operation of solid sorbent-based DAC and point source adsorption systems
4.2.3.MOF-based sorbents approaching commercialization in carbon capture
4.2.4.Key applications of MOFs span point source and direct air capture
4.2.5.Gas composition impacts the CO₂ adsorption characteristics of MOFs
4.2.6.Different strategies for MOF development and binding mechanisms
4.2.7.Examples of MOFs with open metal sites
4.2.8.CO₂ selectivity in humid conditions is a key challenge for DAC
4.2.9.Using AI tools to advance the discovery of new MOFs for carbon capture
4.2.10.CALF-20: a MOF that is being commercialized for point source capture
4.2.11.Other solid sorbents: Solid amine-based adsorbents
4.2.12.Other solid sorbents: Zeolite-based adsorbents
4.2.13.Other solid sorbents: Carbon-based adsorbents
4.2.14.Other solid sorbents: Polymer-based adsorbents
4.3.Considerations for MOF Selection
4.3.1.Factors to consider when selecting MOF sorbents for carbon capture (1/2)
4.3.2.Factors to consider when selecting MOF sorbents for carbon capture (2/2)
4.3.3.Lower energy penalty for regeneration is a key driver for MOF-based sorbents
4.4.Market Activity for Solid Sorbents
4.4.1.Promethean Particles targets its MOFs for applications in carbon capture
4.4.2.Nuada's point source carbon capture technology is operating at pilot scale
4.4.3.Svante's carbon capture technology is approaching commercialization
4.4.4.Estimated capture costs using Svante's technology
4.4.5.AspiraDAC's modular solar-powered DAC units gearing towards pilot scale
4.4.6.Mosaic Materials is upscaling its modular MOF-based DAC systems
4.4.7.Atoco is developing MOF-based point source and DAC solutions
4.4.8.CSIRO's Airthena™ DAC technology for industrial onsite gaseous CO₂ supply
4.4.9.SyncMOF manufactures MOFs and engineers devices for carbon capture
4.4.10.Comparison of key MOF-based point source capture systems (1/2)
4.4.11.Comparison of key MOF-based point source capture systems (2/2)
4.4.12.Comparison of key MOF-based DAC systems
4.4.13.MOFs used in key planned or operational CCUS projects
4.4.14.Assessment of MOF sorbents for carbon capture
4.5.Membrane-based CO₂ Separation
4.5.1.Membrane-based CO₂ separation for carbon capture
4.5.2.MOF-based membranes for carbon capture
4.5.3.CO₂ separation using MOF glass show potential in membrane applications
4.5.4.UniSieve is developing MOF-based membranes for carbon capture
4.5.5.Comparison of key MOF-based membrane CO₂ separation systems
4.6.Comparisons with Incumbent Technology
4.6.1.Incumbent technology: Chemical absorption solvents
4.6.2.Incumbent technology: Amine-based post-combustion CO₂ absorption
4.6.3.Comparison of MOF-based point source capture with amine scrubbing (1/2)
4.6.4.Comparison of MOF-based point source capture with amine scrubbing (2/2)
4.6.5.Direct air capture technologies
4.6.6.Comparison of MOF-based DAC with aqueous solution-based DAC
4.7.Company Landscape
4.7.1.MOF-based carbon capture technologies
4.7.2.MOF-based carbon capture company landscape
4.8.1.Key MOF development challenges that need to be tackled for carbon capture
4.8.2.Current challenges in carbon capture
4.8.3.IDTechEx Outlook for MOFs in Carbon Capture
4.8.4.Forecast for MOFs in Carbon Capture - Material Demand and Revenue
4.8.5.Forecast for MOFs in Carbon Capture - Capture Capacity
5.1.1.Current AWH and HVAC systems are inefficient and energy-intensive
5.1.2.Wide range of applications for atmospheric water harvesting
5.1.3.Sorbents for water harvesting have a set of key requirements
5.2.MOFs for water harvesting
5.2.1.MOFs can adsorb water at lower humidity levels compared to other sorbents
5.2.2.Water adsorption isotherms of selected MOFs
5.2.3.Linear relationship between MOF pore volume and water uptake capacity
5.2.4.Solar powered device using MOF-801 harvested ~2.8L of water daily at 20%RH
5.2.5.MOF-303 tested for atmospheric water harvesting in Death Valley desert
5.2.6.Comparison of sorbents for atmospheric water harvesting
5.3.Market activity
5.3.1.Montana is commercializing its AirJoule™ system for AWH and HVAC
5.3.2.Working principles of Montana's AirJoule™ system
5.3.3.Framergy is commercializing AYRSORB™ F100 MOF for AWH and HVAC
5.3.4.Atomis and Daikin have patented a MOF-based AWH and humidity control device
5.3.5.Honeywell has partnered with Numat to develop MOF-based AWH device
5.3.6.Transaera is developing MOF-based hybrid air conditioning systems
5.3.7.Atoco is developing MOF-based water harvesting technology
5.4.Technology Assessment
5.4.1.Comparison of MOF-based AWH and dehumidification systems (1/2)
5.4.2.Comparison of MOF-based AWH and dehumidification systems (2/2)
5.4.3.MOF-based technologies being commercialized and incumbent systems
5.4.4.Assessment of MOFs for AWH and HVAC
5.5.Company landscape
5.5.1.Landscape of MOF-based water harvesting and dehumidification companies
5.6.1.IDTechEx outlook for MOFs in water harvesting and HVAC systems
5.6.2.Forecast for MOFs in Water Harvesting
6.1.1.Current chemical separation and purification processes are energy-intensive
6.1.2.Common industrial separation and purification technologies
6.1.3.Example applications of separation technologies
6.1.4.Key criteria for emerging technologies
6.2.MOF-based mixed membrane matrices
6.2.1.Membrane-based separation technologies
6.2.2.CO₂/CH₄ separation has opportunities for MOF-based membranes
6.2.3.CO₂/CH₄ separation using MOF-based mixed membrane matrices
6.2.4.Impact of MOF loading on CO₂/CH₄ separation performance
6.2.5.Separation of C₃H₆/C₃H₈ using MOF-based mixed membrane matrices
6.2.6.Wastewater treatment using MOF sorbents in academic literature
6.2.7.MOF-based membranes are being explored for direct lithium extraction
6.2.8.Challenges and considerations
6.3.MOF-based sorbents
6.3.1.Opportunities for challenging gas separation processes using MOF sorbents
6.3.2.Other examples of gas separations using MOF sorbents
6.3.3.Wastewater treatment using MOF sorbents in academic literature
6.3.4.Refrigerant reclamation is key to meeting targets in Kigali Amendment
6.3.5.Refrigerant reclamation using MOF-based adsorptive separation
6.4.Market activity for MOF-based separation technologies
6.4.1.Daikin and Atomis patented MOF-based technology to separate refrigerants
6.4.2.Daikin's current refrigerant recovery and reclamation efforts
6.4.3.UniSieve's membrane technology can separate propylene to 99.5% purity
6.4.4.Numat has commercialized MOF-based chemical filtration solutions
6.4.5.Tetramer is developing chemical protection and water purification solutions
6.4.6.EnergyX uses MOF-based MMMs for direct lithium extraction
6.4.7.Framergy has developed MOFs for gas purification
6.4.8.Squair Tech developed ST-Sorb13 for formaldehyde removal
6.5.Technology assessment and comparisons
6.5.1.Comparison of incumbent and emerging MOF-based separation technologies
6.5.2.Energy reduction for propane-propylene separation using membrane systems
6.6.Company Landscape
6.6.1.MOF-based chemical separation and purification company landscape
6.7.1.Medium-term opportunities in hybrid separation systems
6.7.2.IDTechEx outlook of MOFs in chemical separations and purifications
6.7.3.Forecast for MOFs in Chemical Separations and Purification
7.1.1.Research on MOFs for numerous applications is in the early stages
7.2.Gas Storage and Transport
7.2.1.Immaterial is developing MOF-based gas storage systems
7.2.2.Atomis is commercializing MOF-based gas storage solutions
7.2.3.BASF was previously unsuccessful at commercializing MOFs for NGVs
7.2.4.Numat has commercialized its ION-X gas storage and delivery systems
7.2.5.MOFs for hydrogen storage have key challenges to overcome
7.3.1.Lantha Sensors is developing MOF-based sensors for chemical analysis
7.3.2.Matrix Sensors is developing MOF-based gas sensors for air quality monitoring
7.3.3.MOFs explored as sensors for food safety and motion sensing in academia
7.4.Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells
7.4.1.Metal-organic frameworks for PEM FC membranes in academic research
7.4.2.MOF composite membranes
7.5.Energy Storage
7.5.1.Integration of MOFs into batteries is being explored to improve performance
7.5.2.Framergy, NovoMOF, and EnergyX have explored MOFs for Li-ion batteries
7.5.3.MOF-based composite materials can be used for battery thermal management
7.5.4.MOF-based supercapacitors in academic literature
7.5.5.MOFs for thermal energy storage in academic literature
7.6.1.Framergy is developing MOFs for catalytic degradation of harmful chemicals
7.6.2.Iron-based MOFs for breakdown of NOx gases under ambient conditions
7.6.3.Photocatalytic dye degradation using MOF-nanoparticle composites
7.7.Biomedical Applications
7.7.1.Targeted drug release using MOFs for orally delivered drugs
7.7.2.Targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs using biocompatible MOFs
7.8.1.MOFs can stabilize qubits at room temperature for quantum computing
7.8.2.Applications of MOFs in agriculture
8.2.Material pricing considered for low and high-volume orders
8.3.Forecast for MOFs in Carbon Capture - Material Demand and Revenue
8.4.Forecast for MOFs in Carbon Capture - Capture Capacity
8.5.Forecast for MOFs in Water Harvesting
8.6.Forecast for MOFs in Chemical Separations and Purification
8.7.Total Metal-Organic Frameworks Forecast (mass)
8.8.Total Metal-Organic Frameworks Forecast (value)
8.9.Progression of the Metal-Organic Frameworks Market
9.1.AspiraDAC: MOF-Based DAC Technology Using Solar Power
9.2.Atoco (MOF-Based AWH and Carbon Capture)
9.3.Atomis: MOF Manufacturer
9.4.BASF: MOF Manufacturer
9.5.CSIRO: MOF-Based DAC Technology (Airthena)
9.6.Daikin: MOF-Based Refrigerant Separation
9.8.Framergy: MOF Manufacturer
9.9.Green Science Alliance: MOF and Advanced Materials Developer
9.10.Immaterial: MOF Manufacturer
9.11.Lantha Sensors: MOF-Based Chemical Analysis
9.12.Montana Technologies: MOF-Based AWH and HVAC Technology
9.13.Mosaic Materials: MOF-Based DAC Technology
9.15.Nuada: MOF-Based Carbon Capture
9.16.Numat: MOF Manufacturer
9.17.ProfMOF: MOF Manufacturer
9.18.Promethean Particles: MOF Manufacturer
9.19.Svante: MOF-Based Carbon Capture
9.20.SyncMOF — MOF Manufacturer
9.21.Tetramer: MOFs for Decontamination and Filtration
9.22.Transaera: MOF-Based HVAC Technology
9.23.UniSieve: MOF-Based Membrane Technology

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Report Statistics

Slides 250
Companies 23
Forecasts to 2034
Published Apr 2024
ISBN 9781835700310

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