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Graphene Markets, Technologies and Opportunities 2014-2024

Covering forecasts by application, challenges, opportunities, players and manufacturing technology appraisal

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Graphene markets will grow from around $20 million in 2014 to more than $390 million in 2024 at the material level. The market will be split across many application sectors; each attracting a different type of graphene manufactured using different means. The market today remains dominated by research interest but the composition will change as other sectors such as energy storage and composites grow. The value chain will also transform as companies will move up the chain to offer intermediary products, capturing more value and cutting the time to market and uncertainty for end users.
IDTechEx has been closely tracking the graphene market for over two years. It has formally interviewed and profiled more than 25 key players and end users. At the same time, IDTechEx has organised three leading conference on the topic, bringing together key players and learning the latest information first hand. IDTechEx has visited numerous other conferences and has compiled profiles on another 50 companies and organisations. Finally, IDTechEx has carried out many consultancy projects on the topic, giving it strong strategic insights.
Graphene market (US$ million)
Source: IDTechEx
Interest in graphene remains strong. Companies on the market multiply every year and academic investment continues to pour in. For example, the European Union has committed 1 billion Euros over a decade to research on graphene and other 2D materials, while the Korean and UK governments have each, respectively, committed at least $40 and £24 million in the past two years. At the same time, several graphene companies have floated on the public markets, fetching large valuations and therefore demonstrating the continued appetite for investment in graphene. IDTechEx counts approximately $60 million of investment in private graphene companies over the years.
Graphene is still in search of its killer application that delivers a unique value proposition or a first mover advantage. In the absence of such applications, the commercialisation process remains a substitution game. This is not meritless as graphene can target a broad spectrum of applications including energy storage, composites, functional inks, electronics, etc. The value proposition of graphene, the competitive landscape, the technical requirements, and the likely graphene manufacturing techniques will be different for each sector, resulting in market fragmentation. Therefore, the graphene market will in fact grow to consist of multiple subsets.
Functional inks are technologically the lowest hanging fruit for graphene suppliers. These inks offer low temperature processing, compatibility with several printing processes, and also ruggedness. They however occupy an awkward position in the conductivity ladder. They sit many orders of magnitude below metallic inks and pastes (silver and copper) but just above carbon paste. They must therefore identify sectors where metallic inks/pastes grossly overshoot the market requirements or sectors where carbon pastes just undershoot. The main target applications are RFID and smart packaging. These markets are characterised by low material consumption per unit therefore high volume adoption is needed to generate profitable operations. A potential differentiation from carbon paste can come in the form of transparency, which is fast being developed.
Energy storage is a very attractive target market for graphene. Supercapacitor is a high-growth sector. IDTechEx expects this market to register a 30% CAGR over the coming decade. Graphene may deliver value here thanks to high surface-to-volume ratio and early laboratory results, although technical hurdles that prevent utilisation of the full surface and in-plane conductivity remain. At the same time, activated carbon remains well-entrenched with prices as low as 5 $/Kg. There is however much interest and work behind the scenes and we expect the market to grow rapidly after 2019. Several products have also been launched to target the Li ion market, which is an attractive sector thanks to its sheet size. Here, benchmarking performance is more difficult owing to the multiplicity of chemistries and designs of Li ion batteries.
The transparent conductive film market is a also large and growing market. ITO films remain the dominant solution on the market and leaders here are ramping up the production capacity. The market however is transforming thanks to new entrants and also drivers such as growing needs for ultra-low sheet resistance, mechanical robustness and lower prices. Many alternatives are emerging including silver nanowires, metal mesh, PEDOT, and carbon nanotubes. Graphene can also be a transparent conductor but its performance is at best on a part with ITO on film, and is therefore not positioned to benefit from industry trends unless major innovation happens on the production side particularly around the CVD transfer process. Other electronic markets such as transistors are out of reach for graphene due to the absence of a bandgap.
The composite sector is also large and fragmented with many needs. Here, graphene can deliver value as an additive. Here, graphene nanoplatelets will be used. A strong point for graphene is that it can create multi-functionality. In other words, it can help increase electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, impermeability, mechanical strength, etc. A key value add will be achieving the equivalent of, or better than, what graphite or black carbon can do with much less material usage. The lower %wt will also enable a slight room for premium charging
The report provides the following:
1. A comprehensive and quantitative technology assessment covering all the main manufacturing techniques, highlighting key challenges and unresolved technical hurdles, and the latest developments
2. Ten-year forecasts at the material level segmented by application
3. Detailed breakdown of company revenues and investments
4. Detailed sector by sector market assessment outlining the addressable market size (where relevant) and assessing graphene's existing and potential value proposition vis-à-vis competition (ITO, graphite, activated carbon, silver nanowires, black carbon, metallic inks, etc)
5. Competitive landscape listing all the major competitors and their production technique and key products
6. Strategic insights on the state of the industry and key trends/drivers
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Table of Contents
1.1.Ideal graphene vis-à-vis reality
1.1.Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect graphene quality, cost, scalability and accessible market
1.1.Summary of manufacturing technique attributes including, material sets, graphene quality, target markets and players
1.2.Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2012-2018
1.2.Estimating amount of investment in graphene companies (by company)
1.2.Attributes of graphene manufacturing techniques
1.3.The state of the industry and best way going forward
1.3.Estimating amount of revenue in the graphene industry by company. In million USD
1.3.Markets- assessment of value proposition and incumbent rival materials
1.4.Graphene players
1.4.Graphene companies having moved, or planning to move, up the value chain to offer graphene intermediaries
1.4.Markets overview and forecasts
1.5.Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2012-2018
2.1.What is graphene?
2.1.Examples of graphene nanostructures
2.1.Graphene vs. carbon nanotubes
2.2.Why is graphene so great?
3.1.Different graphene types available on the market
3.2.Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect graphene quality, cost, scalability and accessible market
4.1.Mapping out different manufacturing techniques as a function of graphene quality, cost, accessible market and scalability
5.1.The state of technology company development in the graphene space
5.2.Latest news about graphene investment and graphene floatation
5.3.Estimating amount of investment in graphene companies. Values are in millions
5.4.Estimating amount of revenue in the graphene industry by company (US$ million)
5.5.Mapping the link between universities and various start-ups in the graphene space.
6.1.Who will be the winner in the graphene space?
6.1.A basic illustration of graphene value chain from precursor to end product
6.2.Graphene companies having moved, or planning to move, up the value chain to offer graphene intermediaries
7.1.Graphene patents filed by year and by patent authority
7.2.Patent filing by company or institution and by patent authority
7.3.Number of papers with the word graphene in the title as a function of year based on Web of Science analysis
8.1.Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
8.1.Structural changes when going from graphite to graphite oxide and graphene
8.1.Different reduction techniques for oxidised graphite or graphene
8.2.Comparison of graphene properties obtained using different reduction techniques
8.2.Oxidisation reduction damages the graphene lattice
8.2.Reduction methods
8.3.Assessment and market view
8.3.Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for different RGO graphenes
8.3.Companies commercialising RGO graphene
8.4.Pros and cons of RGO graphene
8.4.Market position for RGO graphene on a performance cost map.
8.5.Pros and cons
9.1.Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
9.1.CVD manufacturing process flow
9.1.Carbon solubility of different metals
9.2.Companies commercialising CVD graphene
9.2.Example of large-sized cylindrical copper furnace
9.3.Latest developments
9.3.Flowchart for a typical transfer process of graphene off a conductive substrate
9.3.Pros and cons of graphene
9.4.How graphene sheets are transferred and stamped
9.4.Substrate-less CVD
9.5.Assessment and market view
9.5.Improved recipe toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene
9.6.Roll-to-roll transfer of graphene sheets on flexible substrates
9.7.Pros and cons
9.7.Transferring graphene onto a destination substrate using self-release layers
9.8.Transferring CVD graphene using the bubbling method
9.9.A roll-to-roll method of transfer graphene off a Cu substrate onto a flexible destination substrate
9.10.Production process of graphene powders using a substrate-less CVD
9.11.Comparing conductivity of PPG's plasma graphene and exfoliated GNP formulations
9.12.Market position of CVD graphene on a performance-price map
10.1.Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
10.1.From natural graphene to inkjet ink via liquid-phase exfoliation
10.1.List of suitable organic solvents for exfoliating graphene
10.2.Companies commercialising liquid-phase exfoliated graphene
10.2.Liquid-phase exfoliation
10.2.Assessment and market view
10.3.Market position of liquid-phase exfoliated graphene on a performance-price map
10.3.Pros and cons of commercialising liquid-phase exfoliated graphene
10.4.Pros and cons
11.1.Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
11.1.Companies commercialising plasma graphene
11.1.1.Plasma Approach I
11.1.2.Plasma Approach II
11.2.Assessment and market view
11.2.Pros and cons of plasma graphene
11.4.Pros and cons
12.1.Graphene markets- target markets, go-to-market strategy, the interplay between manufacturing technique and application, etc
12.1.Primary target markets
12.1.Product development timeline per application sector
12.2.Head tennis racquet containing graphene
12.2.Assessment for graphene target markets
12.3.Application/product development lifecycle per market segment
13.1.Which applications/market segments will benefit?
13.1.Ten year market forecast for conductive inks
13.1.Outlining and assessing target markets for functional graphene inks
13.2.Examples of printed RFID antennas and smart packaging with graphene
13.3.The cost structure of a typical RFID antenna
14.1.Graphene- is it good for transistors?
14.1.Cut-off frequency as a function of channel length for different active channels and Degradation output characteristics of graphene transistors
14.1.Comparison and assessment of material options for thin film transistors
14.1.1.Digital applications
14.1.2.Analogue/RF electronics
14.1.3.Large area electronics- a comparison with other thin film transistor technologies
14.2.Graphene as a barrister material
15.1.Graphene/polymeric composites
15.1.A comprehensive table collecting and showing latest results on how adding graphene to various polymers will enhance their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties
15.2.Potential target markets that will benefit from graphene composites
15.2.How does graphene enhance the performance of polymers and composites?
15.3.Which applications/market segments will benefit from graphene-enabled polymers/composites?
15.4.Our assessment
16.1.Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
16.1.Graphene supercapacitors on Ragone plots
16.2.Graphene-enabled performance benefit in lithium ion batteries
16.2.Does graphene add value or improve performance in lithium ion batteries?
17.1.Market for transparent conductive films
17.1.Ten year market forecast in million USD for TCFs and TCGs by application
17.1.Benchmarking different TCF and TCG technologies on the basis of sheet resistance, optical transmission, ease of customisation, haze, ease of patterning, thinness, stability, flexibility, reflection and low cost. The technology com
17.2.SWOT analysis of graphene as an ITO replacement
17.2.ITO on film production capacity worldwide
17.2.Emerging ITO alternatives
17.3.Suppliers of ITO alternatives
17.3.Optical transmission as a function of sheet resistance for ITO-on-PET sold by main industry suppliers
17.4.Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for best laboratory scale graphene derived using the oxidation-reduction techniques (it produces powders)
17.4.Graphene as an ITO alternative
17.5.Current uses of graphene
17.5.Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for best laboratory scale graphene derived using CVD (it produces sheets)
17.5.2.Future trends and market drives
17.6.Graphene does offer flexibility- is that a differentiator?
17.6.Sheet resistance as a function of transmission for graphene compared with ITO
17.7.Sheet resistance as a function of thickness for different TCF technologies
17.8.Sheet resistance as a function of bending angle for graphene, CNT and ITO films
17.9.Flexible graphene transparent conductive sheet
17.10.Prototype of a graphene-enabled touch sensor
17.11.Prototype of a large-sized graphene transparent conductive film
17.12.Examples of flexible transparent conductors realised using non-graphene materials. These materials include PDOT:PSS, CNT, Silver nanoparticle, silver nanowire, etc
18.1.Supercapacitors- technology and markets
18.1.Schematic of a supercapacitor structure
18.1.Examples of supercapacitor and supercabattery applications envisaged by suppliers
18.2.Electrode material system used by each supercapacitor manufacturer
18.2.Ten year market forecast for supercapacitor
18.2.Existing supercapacitor electrode materials by company
18.3.Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
18.3.Graphene supercapacitors on Ragone plots
18.3.Reported values of graphene-enabled specific capacitance and power density
18.4.Graphene supercapacitor and supercabattery research results. Red equivalent to present or future lithium-ion batteries. Yellow equivalent to lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries.
18.4.Specific capacitance vs identified electrode area per unit of weight for graphene-based supercapacitors and lithium-ion capacitors in the laboratory
18.5.Research and long term potential
18.5.Features of life cycle
18.5.2.Graphene a strong focus
18.5.3.Graphene goes well with the new electrolytes
18.5.4.Graphene supercapacitors to replace aluminium electrolytic capacitors
18.5.5.The energy density merits of graphene are more theoretical than real as yet.
18.5.6.Supercapacitor materials maturity and profit
18.6.Graphene for lithium metal batteries
18.6.Evolution matrix for supercapacitor materials
18.7.Stanford supercapacitor textile
18.7.Graphene textile for supercapacitors
19.1.The big picture - number of tags, classifications, price tags
19.1.Examples of RFID antennas in 125KHz, 33.56 MHZ, UHF and 2.45GHZ bands
19.1.Different RFID bands- frequency, range
19.2.Comparison and assessment of different ink options for printed antennas
19.2.Examples of HF antennas
19.2.What are the material options for RFID tags and how do they compare?
19.3.Does graphene deliver a value in this crowded market?
19.3.The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RF ID tag
19.4.RFID tags growth
19.4.Market shares
19.5.Other graphene uses
19.5.Cost projection for antennas made using different materials (material costs only)
19.5.2.Water purification
19.6.Example of roll-to-roll printed graphene RFID tags by Vorbeck
19.7.Market share for each material or ink option in the RFID tag business
19.8.Benchmarking the market readiness of various nanotechnology-based water purification methods including CNT membrane, zeolite nanocrystals, ZnO nanowires, silver nanowires, TiO2 UV, etc.
20.1.Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2014-2024
20.2.Ten-year market forecast for graphene at material level across a variety of sectors.
21.2.Anderlab Technologies, India
21.3.Angstron Materials, USA
21.4.Bluestone Global Tech, USA
21.5.Cabot, USA
21.6.Canatu, Finland
21.7.Cheaptubes, USA
21.8.CrayoNano, Norway
21.9.Directa Plus
21.10.Durham Graphene Science, UK
21.11.Grafen Chemical Industries, Turkey
21.12.Graphenano, Spain
21.13.Graphene Frontiers, USA
21.14.Graphene Industries, UK
21.15.Graphene Laboratories, USA
21.16.Graphene Square, Korea
21.17.Graphene Technologies, USA
21.18.Graphenea, Spain
21.19.Group NanoXplore, Canada
21.20.Grupo Antolin Ingenieria, Spain
21.21.Haydale, UK
21.22.Incubation Alliance, Japan
21.23.Nanjing JCNANO Technology
21.24.Nanjing XFNANO Materials Tech
21.25.Nanoinnova, Spain
21.26.Showa Denko, Japan
21.27.Sony, Japan
21.28.The Sixth Element
21.29.Thomas Swan, UK
21.30.University of Cambridge, UK
21.31.University of Exeter, UK
21.32.Vorbeck, USA
21.33.Wuxi Graphene Film
21.34.XG Sciences, USA
21.35.Xiamen Knano Graphene Technology
21.36.XinNano Materials, Taiwan
21.37.Xolve, USA
22.1.2D Carbon Graphene Material Co., Ltd
22.1.The amount of composite materials used in recent airbus planes
22.2.The amount of structural weight of composites used in planes, in %, as a function of year
22.2.Abalonyx, Norway
22.3.Airbus, France
22.3.Effect of different nanomaterials in resin fracture toughness
22.4.Locations and products of Cambridge Graphene Platform
22.4.Aixtron, Germany
22.5.AMO GmbH, Germany
22.5.Improvement formulation with addition of GRIDSTM 180
22.6.Schematic of the epitaxial process used to grow graphene
22.6.Asbury Carbon, USA
22.7.AZ Electronics, Luxembourg
22.8.LM graphene synthesis and processing R&D
22.8.BASF, Germany
22.9.Cambridge Graphene Centre, UK
22.10.Cambridge Graphene Platform, UK
22.11.Carben Semicon Ltd, Russia
22.12.Carbon Solutions, Inc., USA
22.12.The difference between dispersible graphene and non-redispersible graphene
22.13.Silicon carbide wafer
22.13.Catalyx Nanotech Inc. (CNI), USA
22.14.CRANN, Ireland
22.15.Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), USA
22.16.Grafoid, Canada
22.17.GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain
22.18.Graphene Devices, USA
22.18.Comparison of carbon fibre and graphene reinforcement
22.19.Making graphene supercapacitors
22.19.Graphene NanoChem, UK
22.20.Graphensic AB, Sweden
22.20.High-performance laser scribed graphene electrodes (LSG)
22.21.Graphene supercapacitor properties
22.21.Harbin Mulan Foreign Economic and Trade Company, China
22.22.HDPlas, USA
22.22.Flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitors
22.23.Head, Austria
22.24.HRL Laboratories, USA
22.25.IBM, USA
22.26.iTrix, Japan
22.27.JiangSu GeRui Graphene Venture Capital Co., Ltd.
22.28.Lockheed Martin, USA
22.29.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
22.30.Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany
22.31.Momentive, USA
22.32.Nanjing JCNANO Tech Co., LTD
22.33.Nanjing XFNANO Materials Tech Co.,Ltd
22.34.Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Inc., USA
22.35.Nokia, Finland
22.36.Pennsylvania State University, USA
22.37.Power Booster, China
22.38.Quantum Materials Corp, India
22.39.Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), USA
22.40.Rice University, USA
22.41.Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, USA
22.42.Samsung Electronics, Korea
22.43.Samsung Techwin, Korea
22.44.SolanPV, USA
22.45.Spirit Aerosystems, USA
22.46.Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea
22.47.Texas Instruments, USA
22.48.Thales, France
22.49.The Sixth Element
22.50.University of California Los Angeles, (UCLA), USA
22.51.University of Manchester, UK
22.52.University of Princeton, USA
22.53.University of Southern California (USC), USA
22.54.University of Texas at Austin, USA
22.55.University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

Report Statistics

Pages 269
Tables 31
Figures 90
Forecasts to 2024

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