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High Power Energy Harvesting: Off-Grid 10W-1MW 2017-2027

High power energy harvesting options for microgrid, genset, EV etc.

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This unique report reflects the new reality that energy harvesting - creation of off-grid electricity where it is needed, using ambient energy - is now widely deployable up to 100kW and beyond. This is resulting in dramatic new capabilities such as the rapidly growing number of land, water and air vehicles that operate entirely on sunshine and electricity becoming affordable and feasible in remote parts of Africa. It will result in the electric vehicle that has longer range than the vehicles it replaces. It makes autonomous vehicles more feasible and shipping much more efficient. Only a global up-to-date view makes sense in this fast-moving subject embracing Google airborne wind energy (AWE), Facebook solar robot aircraft, Siemens small wind turbines and regenerative braking. There are already autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and navigation buoys that combine solar and wave power.
The multilingual PhD level IDTechEx analysts have travelled intensively in 2015 to report the latest research and expert opinions and to analyse how the markets and technologies will move over the coming decade. Many original IDTechEx tables and infographics pull together the analysis in easily understood form. The report comes with 30 minutes free consultancy.
Energy harvesting is now a booming business at the level of 10 watts to 100 kilowatts and beyond, off-grid. That includes making a vehicle, boat or plane more efficient such as energy harvesting shock absorbers and high speed flywheels, reversing alternators and motors for instance on the propeller of a boat under sail or moored in a tidestream and regeneratively soaring aircraft and braking cars and forklifts. Similar technology now harvests the energy of a swinging construction vehicle, dropping elevator and so on and soon the heat of engines will be harvested in kilowatts and off-grid wave power will become commonplace.
High power energy harvesting also embraces off-grid creation of electricity that will be used generally such as that harnessing photovoltaics, small wind turbines and what enhances or replaces them such as the new airborne wind energy (AWE). This is underwritten by both strong demand for today's forms of high power EH and a recent flood of important new inventions that increase the power capability and versatility of many of the basic technologies of energy harvesting. It all reads onto the megatrends of this century - reducing global warming and local air, water and noise pollution, relieving poverty and conserving resources.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Definition and characteristics
1.1.Examples of uses of HPEH expressed as duration of harvesting available with examples of companies using or developing these applications
1.1.Examples of photovoltaics providing total power requirements of a vehicle, including motive power
1.1.2.Overview of need
1.2.Market overview
1.2.Comparison of desirable features of the EH technologies. Good in colour. Others are poor or not yet clarified
1.2.Energy harvesting transducer options compared for all applications
1.2.1.Largest value market by power
1.3.Maturity of market by application
1.3.Transducer power range of the main technical options for HPEH transducer technologies
1.3.Examples of applications being developed 10W-100kW
1.4.Technology focus of 200 organisations developing the different leading energy harvesting technologies
1.4.Potential for improving energy harvesting efficiency
1.4.Hype curve for energy harvesting applications
1.5.EH systems
1.5.Typical power needs increasingly addressed by high power energy harvesting
1.5.Maturity of different forms of energy harvesting
1.6.Hype curve snapshot for high power energy harvesting applications in 2015-6
1.6.Power end game 2026 with winners shown in green. Areas with some activity but not dominant are shown clear
1.6.Multiple energy harvesting
1.7.Market forecast 2017-2027
1.7.Power density provided by different forms of HPEH with exceptionally useful superlatives in yellow. Other parameters are optimal at different levels depending on system design.
1.7.Hype curve snapshot for high power energy harvesting applications in 2026
1.7.1.The big picture
1.7.2.Forecasts by technology
1.7.3.Overall market for transducers
1.7.4.Market for power conditioning
1.8.Technology timeline 2017-2027
1.8.Good features and challenges of the four most important EH technologies in order of importance
1.8.Hype curve for HPEH technology 2016
1.9.Hype curve for HPEH technology 2026
1.9.Proliferation of electrodynamic harvesting options
1.9.Detailed technology sector forecasts 2017-2027
1.9.4.Territorial differences
1.9.5.Focus on off-grid
1.10.Some energy harvesting highlights of "IDTechEx Show!" Berlin May 2017
1.10.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (units million) 2016-2027 rounded
1.10.Institutions involved in airborne wind energy in 2015
1.11.Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in land vehicles
1.11.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (unit price dollars) 2016-2027
1.11.Twistron from University of Texas at Dallas 2017
1.12.Energy-harvesting shock absorber
1.12.Global value market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (market value billion dollars) 2016-2027 rounded
1.12.Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in marine vehicles
1.13.Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in airborne vehicles
1.13.Main contributors to EH transducer sales 2016-2027. The technologies supplied by many large companies taking substantial orders are highlighted in orange.
1.14.Timeline 2017-2027 with those advances most greatly impacting market size shown in yellow.
1.14.EH system diagram
1.15.Multiple energy harvesting
1.15.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting units millions 2017-2027, dominant numbers in 2027 in yellow.
1.16.Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2017-2027 number thousand
1.16.HPP structure
1.17.HPP envisaged application in buildings
1.17.Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2017-2027 notional unit value dollars given that these motors and generators double as other functions
1.18.Notional total market value for electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2017-2027 $ billion rounded
1.18.Envisaged marine application of HPP
1.19.HPEH including battery systems related to other off-grid and to on-grid harvesting market values
1.19.Electrodynamic harvesting alternators in conventional internal combustion engined vehicles, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2017-
1.20.Electrodynamic harvesting Other, mainly energy harvesting shock absorbers, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2017-2027
1.20.Global installed renewable energy GW cumulative, off-grid and on-grid by source
1.21.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (units million) 2016-2027 rounded
1.21.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting MW peak million 2017-2027
1.22.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2017-2027
1.22.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (unit price dollars) 2016-2027
1.23.Global value market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (market value billion dollars) 2016-2027 rounded
1.23.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units value dollars 2017-2027
1.24.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2017-2027
1.24.Energy harvesting organisations by continent
1.25.Organisations active in energy harvesting by country, numbers rounded
1.25.Some highlights of global effort on energy harvesting
1.26.Innovations continue for multi-mode harvesting. Solar wind turbine concepts.
1.27.Twistron - a gel-coated carbon nanotube that could harvest energy from fibres
2.1.HPEH Technology
2.1.Maturity of HPEH technologies in adoption and development not age. Off-grid only with electricity used where made.
2.1.The performance of the favourite energy harvesting technologies. Technologies with no moving parts are shown in red. Thermoelectric not so good when it needs fins or water cooling.
2.2.Typical energy harvesting system
2.2.Power density provided by different forms of high power energy harvesting. Best volumetric and gravimetric energy density.
2.2.Technologies compared
2.2.2.System design: transducer, power conditioning, energy storage
2.3.Mature technologies
2.3.Some classical applications with the type of transducer and energy storage typically chosen
2.3.The Trinity wind turbine is light and portable, for powering mobile devices and cars
2.3.1.Wind turbines, rotary blade
2.3.2.Portable wind turbine for clean energy anywhere
2.3.3.Conventional photovoltaics
2.3.4.Regenerative braking
2.3.5.Renewable energy is often turned off or wasted
2.4.A glimpse of the future: Lizard Electric Vehicles
2.4.Simplest scheme for vehicle regenerative braking
2.5.Nissan Lithium-ion forklift with regenerative braking
2.5.Off-grid wave harvesting
2.5.2.Dielectric Elastomer Generators DEG
2.5.3.CorPower Ocean Sweden
2.5.4.ClearMotion USA
2.5.5.National Agency for New Energy Technologies (ENEA) Italy
2.5.6.Oscilla Power USA magnetorestrictive
2.6.HPEH in context: IRENA Roadmap to 27% Renewable
2.6.Mazda supercapacitor-based energy harvesting from reversing alternator during coasting and braking in a conventional car
2.7.Regen braking research
2.7.Electric vehicle end game: free non-stop road travel
2.7.1.Piezoelectric roads
2.8.Simpler, more viable off-grid power
2.8.How EIVs relate to traditional mechanically energy independent vehicles and segment into sub-types.
2.9.Carboline honeycomb of ultra-lightweight carbon fiber construction without the planned integral photovoltaics taking sun reflected from wide angles by foil on the sloped surfaces
2.9.Tesla the Follower
2.10.Electricity Utilities Reinvented and Bypassed
2.11.SBM water-filled WPG using roll to roll manufactured EAP
2.12.Pendulum Wave Energy Converter (PEWEC)
2.14.Annual share of annual variable renewable power generation on-grid and off-grid 2014 and 2030 if all Remap options are implemented
2.15.Hanergy Holding Group Ltd. is a multinational clean energy company
3.1.Definition and scope
3.1.Some modes of high power, 10 watts or more, electrodynamic energy harvesting with related processes highlighted in green
3.1.TIGER device and system diagram
3.2.Oshkosh hybrid truck
3.2.Examples of actual high power electrodynamic harvesting by type, sub type and manufacturer with comment. Those in volume production now are in yellow, within five years in grey, those with much development but no volume production
3.2.Many modes and applications compared
3.2.1.Options by medium
3.2.2.Examples compared
3.3.Flywheel KERS
3.3.Electraflyer Trike
3.4.Electraflyer uncowled
3.4.Active regenerative suspension: Levant Power USA
3.5.Audi regenerative suspension
3.5.Flywheels compared with other energy storage
3.6.GKN Gyrodrive breakdown
3.6.Airborne Wind Energy AWE
3.6.1.Rotating dual kites the ultimate? Kite Power Solutions UK
3.6.2.Kite-surfing in the stratosphere
3.7.Favoured technologies
3.7.Flybrid parallel hybrid flywheel
3.7.1.EnerKite Germany
3.7.2.Google Makani USA
3.7.3.e-Wind USA
3.7.4.TwingTec Switzerland
3.7.5.Ampyx Power Netherlands
3.7.6.Altaeros USA
3.7.7.Kitemill Norway
3.7.8.Kitegen Italy
3.7.9.Commercialisation targets
3.7.10.IDTechEx assessment
3.7.11.ABB assessment
3.8.Reinventing Wind Turbines for Vehicles, including Energy Independent
3.8.Battery progress
3.9.Volvo Flywheel KERS components
3.9.Energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.9.1.Linear shock absorbers
3.9.2.Rotary shock absorbers
3.9.3.Tenneco Automotive Operating Company USA
3.10.Wave power competition
3.10.Volvo flywheel KERS system layout
3.11.Magneto Marelli electrical KERS Motor Generator Unit
3.11.Energy from waves using an artificial blowhole
3.12.Witt Energy 6D Motion Harvesting for boats and buoys
3.12.The Marelli system
3.13.Williams Formula One KERS flywheel
3.14.GenShock prototype held by Humvee coil spring where it is installed
3.15.Levant Power GenShock energy harvesting shock absorber
3.16.AWE conference
3.17.Tether drag solution
3.18.Two kite system. While one deploys (A) generating power, it pull in the other, which is in a non-flight status
3.19.View of AWE risks
3.20.E-kite ground station
3.21.EnerKite presentation
3.22.Google Makani M600 prototype
3.23.e-Wind proposition hiring land from farmers
3.24.TwingTec USP
3.25.Ampyx slides - examples
3.26.Altaeros presentation
3.27.Altaeros BAT airborne wind turbine compared
3.28.Kitemill presentation
3.29.Kitegen kite providing supplementary power to a ship
3.30.ABB assessment
3.31.IFEVS "Portable Wind Generator" subject to six pending patents
3.32.Inergy planned vertical turbine on autonomous boat.
3.33.Kitemill tethered drone generating 30 kW when sold for the first time in 2018 and potentially 1MW for ships
3.34.Power potential of energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.35.Energy harvesting shock absorbers being progressed by the State University of New York
3.36.Tufts University and Electric Truck energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.37.Wattshocks electricity generating shock absorber
3.38.Wattshocks publicity
3.39.On-road test SUV
3.40.Wave Swell Energy Ltd (WSE) - how it works
3.41.Witt presentation at IDTechEx event Berlin April 2015 - extracts
4.1.Comparison of pn junction and photoelectrochemical photovoltaics
4.1.Kopf Solarshiff pure electric solar powered lake boats in Germany and the UK for up to 150 people
4.1.1.Flexible, conformal, transparent, UV, IR
4.1.2.Technological options
4.1.3.Principles of operation
4.1.4.Options for flexible PV
4.1.5.Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting
4.1.6.Spray on power for electric vehicles and more
4.1.7.New world record for both sides-contacted silicon solar cells
4.2.The main options for photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon compared
4.2.Powerweave harvesting and storage e-fiber/ e-textile
4.2.NREL adjudication of efficiencies under standard conditions
4.3.Global levelised cost of electricity and auction price trends for onshore wind and photovoltaics 2010-2020
4.3.Solar roads find many uses
4.4.Non-toxic and cheap thin-film solar cells
4.4.Photovoltaics experience curve 2018
4.5.Clearwater Mills LLC - Waterwheel Powered Trash Interceptor
4.6.Increasing silicon photovoltaic efficiency
4.6.Solar roads
5.1.The Seebeck and Peltier effects
5.1.Representation of the Peltier (left) and the Seebeck (right) effect
5.2.1 kW ATEG
5.2.Highest power thermoelectrics
5.3.Designing for thermoelectric applications
5.3.Anatomy of high power ATEG
5.4.A general overview of the sequential manufacturing steps required in the construction of thermoelectric generators
5.4.Material choices
5.5.Other processing techniques
5.5.Generic schematic of thermoelectric energy harvesting system
5.5.1.Micropelt iTRV - EnOcean Remote Management
5.6.Figure of merit for some thermoelectric material systems
5.6.Manufacturing of flexible thermoelectric generators
5.7.AIST technology details
5.7.Orientation map from a skutterudite sample
5.8.Power Density and Sensitivity plotted for a variety of TEGs at a ΔT=30K
5.8.Automotive applications
5.8.1.BMW Germany
5.8.2.Ford USA
5.8.3.Volkswagen Germany
5.8.4.Challenges of Thermoelectrics for Vehicles
5.8.5.Marlow Industries USA
5.8.6.Yamaha Japan DLR Germany in 2017
5.9.Building and home automation
5.9.% of Carnot efficiency for thermogenerators for different material systems
5.10.Schematic of the inside of a typical thermoelectric element
5.10.Solar TEG
5.11.Solar-powered EV promises 500-mile range
5.11.Micropelt intelligent Thermostatic Radiator Valves (iTRVs)
5.12.The fabrication method of the CNT-polymer composite material (top), and an electron microscope image of its surface (lower)
5.12.Eco Marine Power's Rigid solar EnergySail
5.13.A flexible thermoelectric conversion film fabricated by using a printing process (left) and its electrical power-generation ability (right). A temperature difference created by placing a hand on the film installed on the 10 °C pla
5.14.Energy losses in a vehicle
5.15.Opportunities to harvest waste energy
5.16.Ford Fusion, BMW X6 and Chevrolet Suburban. US Department of Energy thermoelectric generator programs
5.17.Pictures from the BMW thermogenerator developments, as part of EfficientDynamics
5.18.Ford's anticipate 500W power output from their thermogenerator
5.19.The complete TEG designed by Amerigon
5.20.High and medium temperature TE engines
5.21.The EverGen PowerStrap from Marlow
5.22.EverGen exchangers can vary in sizes from a few cubic inches to several cubic feet. Pictured also, a schematic of a TEG exchanger's main components
5.23.The en:key products: A thermoelectric powered radiator valve and solar powered central control unit for home automation applications
5.24.Thermoelectric Energy harvesting on hot water/gas pipes
5.25.MIT solar TEG
5.26.Lightyear One solar EV
6.1.Makai's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant
6.1.1.World's largest ocean thermal plant
6.2.Villari effect
6.3.Nantenna-diode rectenna arrays
6.3.Rectenna, nantenna-diode pairs for energy harvesting of light
6.3.1.Idaho State Laboratory, University of Missouri, University of Colorado, Microcontinuum
6.3.2.University of Maryland
6.4.Infrared rectenna harvesting
6.5.Electricity from car tires
6.5.BH03 EH concept tire
6.5.1.Tire EH Goodyear concept 2016
6.6.Microbial fuel cell concept for producing both electricity and hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles etc
6.6.Not quite energy harvesting: microbial fuel cells, directed RF, betavoltaics
6.7.Micro-cable structured textile for simultaneously harvesting solar and mechanical energy
6.7.1.Interview with Prof. Zhong Lin Wang Gatech 11 May 2017
6.8.The self-charging power textile
6.9.Structural design of an F-DSSC
6.10.The self-charging power textile in use
7.1.Forms of multi-mode energy harvesting
8.1.Agusta Westland Italy
8.1.BEHA aircraft
8.2.Solar facilities
8.2.Enerbee France
8.3.Eight19 UK
8.3.IFEVS arguments
8.4.Uniques of thermoelectric harvesting
8.4.Faradair Aerospace UK
8.5.IFEVS Italy
8.5.RMT range and positioning
8.6.Ground spikes as energy harvesting powered transmitters
8.6.Jabil USA
8.7.Komatsu KELK Japan
8.7.Example given of multi-mode harvesting to come.
8.8.Torqeedo 50kW outboard
8.8.LG Chem Korea
8.9.Marlow USA
8.10.Milper Turkey
8.10.Pavegen UK
8.11.Piezotech France
8.11.Rensea project for regenerative marine propeller
8.12.Opal conversion
8.12.RMT Russia and TEC Microsystems Germany
8.13.Examples of recent research
8.14.Examples of Interviews Concerning High Power Energy Harvesting on Marine Craft 2015
8.15.Examples of presentations at Electric and Hybrid Marine Amsterdam June 2015

Report Statistics

Pages 268
Tables 32
Figures 138
Forecasts to 2027

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