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Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2018-2028

Technologies, players, market forecasts

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We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle despite the fact that most off-road and underwater vehicles are pure electric. That includes most forklifts, golf cars and mobility vehicles for the disabled plus Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and personal submarines. Indeed, most electric aircraft are pure electric as well. The reason is that these are mainly small as are electric two-wheelers, which are also almost all pure electric. Small vehicles rarely need to travel long distances. In addition, these pure electric vehicles are often used where a conventional engine is banned as on lakes and indoors or where it is impracticable as with underwater vehicles. By contrast, half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all.
Over 11 million range extenders will be made in 2028, these are the additional power source that distinguishes hybrid cars from pure electric. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However, a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.
This report profiles key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be? What fuels will be used and when? What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders? It is all here.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Hybrid- pure electric convergence in design and range
1.1.Generations of fuelled traction engine in hybrid vehicles land, water, air
1.2.Global market 2017-2028 for number (thousand) of range extenders (fuelled engines in series and series/parallel hybrid vehicles)
1.2.Peak in car sales will call time on hybrid cars
1.2.Evolution compared to conventional
1.3.Legislative squeeze on hybrids: ring fencing
1.3.Tougher to get interest in new range extenders with the dash to pure electric development
1.3.Global market 2013-2016 for number (thousand) of range extenders (fuelled engines in series and series/parallel hybrid vehicles).
1.4.Range extender numbers (thousand), unit price (US$) and market value (US$ million) 2017-2028
1.4.Global market 2013-2028 for number (thousand) of range extenders in Car HEV and Car (hybrid) - PHEV
1.4.Viability of pure electric vehicles will call time on hybrids
1.5.Market forecasts
1.5.Global market 2013-2028 for number (thousand) of range extenders in all other electric vehicles
1.6.Range extender numbers (thousand) 2017-2028
1.6.Global market forecast for range extenders 2013-2028
1.7.Range extender unit price (US$) 2017-2028
1.7.1.BMW i supply agreement with Workhorse Group
1.8.Range extender market value (US$ million) 2017-2028
1.8.Effect of oil price collapse on electric vehicles
1.9.Range extender synergy with energy harvesting
1.9.The gull wing BMW i8
1.10.Workhorse E-Gen electric delivery vehicle
1.11.Lessons from CENEX LCV event UK
1.11.Types of range extender by cost and local emission, with the zero emission options compared with energy harvesting, all of which has zero local emission.
1.12.Types of energy harvesting by type of vehicle
1.12.Aquarius Engines and range extender futures
1.13.Magna International self-charging fuel cell vehicle 2017
1.13.Magna International fuel cell range-extended electric vehicle
1.14.Nissan e-power range extender
1.14.Nissan petrol engine range extender - January 2018
1.15.Mazda rotary engine range extender - February 2018
2.1.ThunderVolt hybrid bus
2.1.Types of electric vehicle
2.1.Price premium for hybrid buses
2.2.Born electric
2.2.BAE Systems powertrain in a bus
2.3.Hybrid bus powertrain
2.3.Pure electric vehicles are improving
2.3.1.Many niches
2.3.2.The end game approaches: Energy Independent Electric Vehicles EIV
2.4.Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
2.4.Series vs parallel hybrid
2.5.Modes of operation of hybrids
2.5.Mitsubishi hybrid outdoor forklift replacing a conventional ICE vehicle
2.5.1.Plug in hybrids
2.5.2.Charge-depleting mode
2.5.3.Blended mode
2.5.4.Charge-sustaining mode
2.5.5.Mixed mode
2.6.Hybrid military vehicle that replaces a conventional ICE version
2.6.Microhybrid is a misnomer
2.7.Deep hybridisation
2.7.Hybrid sports boat replacing a conventional ICE version
2.8.CAF-E hybrid motorcycle design based on a Prius type of drivetrain
2.8.Battery cost and performance are key
2.9.Hybrid price premium
2.9.Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary
2.10.EP Tender assessments and proposal late 2016
2.10.What is a range extender?
2.10.1.First generation range extender technology
2.10.2.Second generation range extender technology
2.10.3.Third and fourth generation technology
2.10.4.Single cylinder range extenders
2.11.Some hybrid variants
2.11.Market position of fuel cell range extenders
2.12.Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
2.13.Trend to deep hybridisation
2.14.Evolution of hybrid structure
2.15.Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored
2.16.The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
2.17.Electric machine and ICE sub-assembly
2.18.48V Model chosen
3.1.Range extenders for land craft
3.1.Northrop Grumman surveillance airship with fuel cell range extender and energy harvesting for virtually unlimited range
3.2.Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison
3.2.Range Extenders for electric aircraft
3.2.1.Military aircraft
3.3.Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison
3.4.Battery and jet fuel loading
3.4.Fuel cells in aviation
3.5.Civil aircraft
3.5.Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives
3.5.1.Boeing Sugar Volt
3.5.2.Bye Aerospace and XTI USA
3.5.3.Cambridge University Song hybrid
3.5.4.Equator P2 Xcursion amphibious aircraft
3.5.5.Eraole biofuel solar hybrid
3.5.6.Airbus overview of hybrid aircraft
3.6.Range extenders for marine craft
3.6.Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes
3.7.Take-off gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.
3.8.Boeing SUGAR Volt
3.9.Bye Aerospace and XTI USA
3.10.Cambridge University Song hybrid
3.11.Equator P2 Xcursion amphibious aircraft
3.13.First trial of hybrid aircraft by Siemens, Airbus etc
3.14.JAMSTEC Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle FCUV
4.1.Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA
4.1.Aqua Puma
4.2.Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender for cars and light aircraft and the Jaguar CX75
4.2.AeroVironment / Protonex Technology USA
4.3.Austro Engine Austria
4.3.Jaguar Land Rover
4.4.Latest Bladon Jets design
4.4.Bladon Jets UK
4.5.BMW Germany
4.5.Range extender for BMW i3 electric car
4.6.Capstone microturbine
4.6.Brayton Energy USA
4.7.Capstone Turbine Corporation USA
4.7.Capstone turbine in a Japanese bus
4.8.Various sizes of Capstone MicroTurbines
4.8.Compound Rotary Engines UK
4.9.Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany
4.9.Daimler roadmap for commercial vehicles
4.10.DLR fuel cell and the electric A320 airliner nose wheel it drives when the airliner is on the ground.
4.10.DLR German Aerospace Center Germany
4.10.1.Free piston range extenders
4.11.Duke Engine axial piston
4.11.Holstenblitz fuel cell car trial
4.12.A new power generator for hybrid vehicles
4.13.Ener1 USA
4.13.EcoMotors opposing piston range extender
4.14.FEV extreme downsized range extender engine
4.14.ETV Motors Israel
4.15.FEV USA
4.15.GSE mini diesel driving a propeller
4.16.Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.
4.16.Flight Design Germany
4.17.Getrag Germany
4.17.Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system
4.18.Libralato cycle
4.18.GSE USA
4.19.Hüttlin Germany
4.19.Fuel cell taxi trials
4.20.Fuel cell development
4.20.Hyperdrive UK
4.21.Libralato UK
4.21.KSPG 30kW V2 range extender for small cars
4.21.1.Libralato technology
4.21.2.Avoiding the problems of the Wankel engine
4.21.3.The company
4.22.The LiquidPiston engine
4.22.Intelligent Energy UK
4.23.KSPG Germany
4.23.New two cylinder range extender from Lotus Engineering
4.24.Lotus hybrid powertrain and second generation range extender ICE
4.24.LiquidPiston USA
4.25.Lotus Engineering UK
4.25.Lotus three and two cylinder range extenders
4.26.Proton EMAS
4.26.MAHLE Powertrain UK
4.27.Mazda Japan
4.27.MAHLE range extenders
4.28.MAHLE compact range extender
4.28.Nissan Japan
4.29.Peec-Power BV The Netherlands
4.29.MAHLE range extender at EVS26 2012
4.30.Polaris REX range extender left with generator, right with peripherals as well
4.30.Polaris Industries Switzerland
4.31.Powertrain Technologies UK
4.31.Location of technical advances in Polaris range extender
4.32.Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs
4.32.Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany
4.33.Ricardo UK
4.33.Toyota FPEG options and piston geometry
4.34.Volkswagen XL1 hybrid concept
4.34.Suzuki Japan
4.35.Techrules China
4.36.Toyota Japan
4.37.Urbee Canada
4.38.Volkswagen Germany
4.39.Volvo Sweden/China
4.39.1.Long term major work
4.39.2.Volvo V8 performance with four cylinders
4.40.Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
5.1.Adura powertrain with microturbine.
5.1.ACAL Energy UK
5.2.Airbus (formerly EADS) Germany
5.2.Ashok Leyland CNG hybrid bus
5.3.Azure Dynamics hybrid powertrain
5.3.Altria Controls USA
5.4.Ashok Leyland India
5.4.Bus with BAE Systems hybrid power train
5.5.Boeing fuel cell aircraft
5.5.Audi Germany
5.6.AVL Austria
5.6.ENFICA FC two seater fuel cell plane
5.7.Ford Lincoln hybrid car offered at no price premium over the conventional version
5.7.Azure Dynamics USA
5.8.BAE Systems UK
5.8.Frazer-Nash EREV powertrain
5.9.Namir EREV Supercar
5.9.BMW Germany
5.10.Boeing Dreamworks USA
5.10.Proton Exora
5.11.Chevrolet Volt powertrain
5.11.Chrysler USA
5.12.ENFICA-FC Italy
5.12.Honda IMA
5.13.Hyundai Blue hybrid car
5.13.Ford USA
5.14.Frazer-Nash UK
5.14.Hyundai fuel cell powered car
5.15.The LPE REEV concept car
5.15.General Motors including Opel
5.16.Honda Japan
5.16.Marion Hyper-Sub Submersible Powerboat
5.17.Skyspark in flight
5.17.Hyundai Korea
5.18.Jaguar Land Rover UK
5.18.Suzuki Burgman fuel cell scooter
5.19.Suzuki concept fuel cell motorcycle headed for production
5.19.Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK
5.20.Marion HSPD USA
5.20.Tata Motors roadmap for hybrid commercial vehicles
5.21.Toyota Prius hybrid car is the world's best selling electric car
5.21.Pipistrel Slovenia
5.22.SAIC China
5.22.Toyota hybrid forklift
5.23.Hybrid quad bike
5.23.Skyspark Italy
5.24.Suzuki Japan
5.25.Volvo hybrid bus
5.25.Tata Motors India
5.26.Toyota Japan
5.26.Volvo technical concept 1
5.27.Volvo technical concept 2
5.27.Université de Sherbrooke Canada
5.28.University of Stuttgart Germany
5.28.Volvo technical concept 3
5.29.Volvo Sweden/ China
5.30.Walkera China
5.31.Wrightspeed USA
5.32.Yo-Avto Russia
6.1.Taiwan Automotive International Forum and Exhibition
6.2.Electric vehicles set for MPG Marathon
6.3.Hydrogen fuel cell range extenders double the range of EV trucks

Report Statistics

Pages 177
Tables 5
Figures 108
Forecasts to 2028

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