3D Electronics/Additive Electronics 2022-2032: IDTechEx

Integrating electronics onto and within objects is forecast to grow to $3.5 bn by 2032.

3D Electronics/Additive Electronics 2022-2032

3D printed electronics, molded interconnect devices, in-mold electronics, aerosol jet, 3D metallization, laser direct structuring, additively manufactured electronics.


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IDTechEx's report '3D Electronics/Additive Electronics: 2022-2032" analyses the technologies and market trends that promise to bring electronics into the 3D realm. Drawing from over 30 company profiles, the majority based on interviews, it assesses three distinct segments of the 3D electronics landscape: applying electronics to a 3D surface (partially additive), in-mold electronics, and fully additive electronics. Within each segment, the report evaluates the different technologies, potential adoption barriers, and application opportunities. It includes detailed 10-year market forecasts for each technology and application sector (comprising 33 forecast lines in total), delineated by both revenue and area/volume.
 
Technologies covered by the report '3D Electronics/Additive Electronics: 2022-2032'.
 
Motivation for 3D electronics
While partially additive 3D electronics has long been used for adding antennas and simple conductive interconnects to the surface of 3D injection-molded plastic objects, more complex circuits are increasingly being added onto surfaces made from a variety of material by utilizing new techniques. Furthermore, in-mold electronics and 3D printed electronics enable complete circuits to be integrated within an object, offering multiple benefits that include simplified manufacturing and novel form factors. With 3D electronics, adding electronic functionality no longer requires incorporating a rigid, planar PCB into an object then wiring up the relevant switches, sensors, power sources and other external components.
 
The report weighs the pros and cons of each approach against each other for multiple applications, with numerous case studies showing how the different manufacturing techniques are deployed across the automotive, consumer goods and medical device sectors. Furthermore, through detailed analysis of the technologies and their requirements we identify innovation opportunities for both materials and manufacturing methods.
 
Applying electronics to a 3D surface
The most established approach to adding electrical functionality onto the surface of 3D objects is laser direct structuring (LDS), in which an additive in the injection molded plastic is selectively activated by a laser. This forms a pattern that is subsequently metallized using electroless plating. LDS saw tremendous growth around a decade ago and is used to manufacture 100s of millions of devices each year, around 75% of which are antennas.
 
However, despite its high patterning speed and widespread adoption, LDS has some weaknesses that leave space for alternative approaches to surface metallization. Firstly, it is a two-step process that can require sending parts elsewhere for plating, thus risking IP exposure. It has a minimum resolution in mass production of around 75 um (at present), thus limiting the line density, and can only be employed on molded plastic. Most importantly, LDS only enables a single layer of metallization, thus precluding cross-overs and hence substantially restricting circuit complexity.
 
Given these limitations, other approaches to applying conductive traces to the surfaces of 3D objects are gaining ground. Extruding conductive paste, a viscous suspension comprising multiple conductive flakes, is already used for a small proportion of antennas, and is the approach of choice for systems that deposit entire circuits onto 3D surfaces.
 
Aerosol jetting and laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) are other emerging digital deposition technologies, both of which higher resolutions and rapid deposition of a wide range of materials respectively. An advantage of digital deposition methods of the incumbent LDS technology is that dielectric materials can also be deposited within the same printing system, thereby enabling multilayer circuits. Insulating and conductive adhesives can also deposited, enabling SMD components to be mounted onto the surface.
 
In-mold electronics
In-mold electronics (IME), in which electronics are printed/mounted prior to thermoforming into a 3D component, facilitates the transition towards greater integration of electronics, especially where capacitive touch sensing and lighting is required. This is achieved by enabling multiple integrated functionalities to be incorporated into components with thermoformed 3D surfaces. IME offers multiple advantages relative to conventional mechanical switches, including reduction in weight and material consumption of up to 70% and much simpler assembly.
 
The IME manufacturing process for can be regarded as an extension of the well established in-mold decorating (IMD) process, in which thermoforming plastic with a decorative coating is converted to a 3D component via injection molding. Since IME is an evolution of an existing technique, much of the existing process knowledge and capital equipment can reused.
 
IME differs from IMD though the initial screen printing of conductive thermoformable inks, followed by deposition of electrically conductive adhesives and the mounting of SMDs (surface mount devices, primarily LEDs at present). More complex multilayer circuits can also be produced by printing dielectric inks to enable crossovers.
 
Despite the wide range of applications and the advantageous reductions in size, weight and manufacturing complexity, commercial deployment of IME integrated SMD components has thus far been fairly limited. This relatively slow adoption, especially within the primary target market of automotive interiors, is attributed to both the challenges of meeting automotive qualification requirements and the range of less sophisticated alternatives such as applying functional films to thermoformed parts.
 
The long-term target for IME is to become an established platform technology, much the same as rigid PCBs are today. Once this is achieved getting a component/circuit produced will be a simple matter of sending an electronic design file, rather than the expensive process of consulting with IME specialists that is required at present. Along with greater acceptance of the technology, this will require clear design rules, materials that conform to established standards, and crucially the development of electronic design tools.
 
Fully printed 3D electronics
The least developed technology is fully 3D printed electronics, in which dielectric materials (usually thermoplastics) and conductive materials are sequentially deposited. Combined with placed SMD components, this results in a circuit, potentially with a complex multilayer structure embedded in a 3D plastic object. The core value proposition is that each object and embedded circuit can be manufactured to a different design without the expense of manufacturing masks and molds each time.
 
Fully 3D printed electronics are thus well suited to applications where wide range of components need to be manufactured at short notice. Indeed, the US Army are currently trialling a ruggedized 3D printer to make replacement components in forward operating bases. The technology is also promising for applications where a customized shape and even functionality is important, for example medical devices such as hearing aids and prosthetics. The ability of 3D printed electronics to manufacture different components using the same equipment, and the associated decoupling of unit cost and volume, could also enable a transition to on-demand manufacturing.
 
The challenges for fully 3D printed electronics are that manufacturing is fundamentally a much slower process than making parts via injection molding since each layer needs to be deposited sequentially. While the printing process can be accelerated using multiple nozzles, it is best targeted at applications where the customizability offers a tangible advantage. Ensuring reliability is also a challenge, since with embedded electronics post-hoc repairs are impossible - one strategy is using image analysis to check each layer and perform any repairs before the next layer is deposited.
 
Comprehensive analysis and market forecasts
IDTechEx has been researching the emerging printed electronics market for well over a decade, launching our first printed and flexible sensor report back in 2012. Since then, we have stayed close to the technical and market developments, interviewing key players worldwide, attending numerous conferences, delivering multiple consulting projects, and running classes and workshops on the topic. This enables us to provide a complete picture of the 3D electronics technological and market landscape, along with the entire field of printed electronics.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Additive electronics and the transition to three dimensions
1.2.Motivation, applications and challenges for 3D/additive electronics
1.3.Long-term vision for 3D electronics
1.4.Metallization and materials for each 3D electronics manufacturing methodology
1.5.SWOT analysis: Alternative approaches to 3D/additive electronics
1.6.Applying electronics to 3D surfaces (MID)
1.7.Comparing LIFT with other deposition methods
1.8.Comparison of metallization methods (aerosol, inkjet, extruded conductive paste, laser direct structuring, print-then-plate, two-shot molding, laser induced forward transfer)
1.9.Status and market potential of metallization methods for each application
1.10.Comparing different conductive inks materials
1.11.Challenges of comparing conductive inks
1.12.An introduction to in-mold electronics (IME)
1.13.Progression towards 3D electronics with IME
1.14.Commercial advantages of IME
1.15.Fully 3D printed electronics
1.16.3D printed electronics combines existing manufacturing technologies
1.17.Advantages of fully additively manufactured 3D electronics
1.18.3D printed electronics and economies of scale
1.19.Readiness level of 3D/additive electronics technologies for different application sectors
1.20.Porter's analysis of materials for 3D/additive electronics
1.21.Porters' analysis of manufacturing methods for 3D/additive electronics
1.22.Comparison of Porter's 5-forces analysis for the three 3D/additive electronics methodologies
1.23.Adoption roadmap for 3D/additive electronics
1.24.Main conclusions: Partially additive electronics (applying to 3D surfaces)
1.25.Main conclusions: Fully-additive 3D printed electronics
2.MARKET FORECASTS
2.1.Market forecast methodology
2.2.10-year forecast for IME component area by application
2.3.Future (2032) IME market breakdown by application
2.4.Overall 10-year forecast for electronics on 3D surfaces/IME by metallization method
2.5.10-year forecast for extruded conductive paste / inkjet on 3D surfaces by application
2.6.10-year forecast for aerosol jet printing on 3D surfaces by application
2.7.10-year forecast for laser direct structuring (LDS) on 3D surfaces by application
2.8.10-year forecast by area for laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) on 3D surfaces by application
2.9.10-year forecast for fully 3D printed electronics via fused deposition modelling (FDM) by application
2.10.10-year forecast for fully 3D printed electronics via stereolithography (SLA) by application
2.11.10-year forecast for fully 3D printed electronics via stereolithography (SLA) by application
2.12.10-year revenue forecast data table for IME and electronics on 3D surfaces (USD millions)
2.13.10-year revenue forecast data table for fully additive 3D electronics (USD millions)
2.14.10-year forecast data table by revenue for all types of 3D/additive electronics (USD millions)
2.15.10-year area forecast data table for IME and electronics on 3D surfaces (m2)
2.16.10-year volume forecast data table for fully additive 3D electronics (m3)
2.17.10-year forecast data table by volume for all types of 3D/additive electronics (m2)
3.INTRODUCTION TO 3D/ADDITIVE ELECTRONICS
3.1.Overview of the electronic circuits market
3.2.Visualizing the partially and fully additive routes to 3D electronics
3.3.Growing academic interest in 3D/additive electronics
3.4.Patent trends in 3D/additive electronics
3.5.Patent trends in in-mold electronics
3.6.3D heterogeneous integration as a long-term aim
3.7.Manufacturing method flowchart for 3D/additive electronics
3.8.Comparing the production speed of approaches to 3D electronics
3.9.3D electronics requires special electronic design software
3.10.Readiness level of 3D electronics technologies and applications
3.11.3D electronics builds on 2D printed/flexible electronics
3.12.2D printed/flexible electronics: Commercial successes and failures
3.13.Distinguishing manufacturing methods for 3D electronics
3.14.Examples of companies interested in applying 3D electronics
4.CONVENTIONAL 2D PCBS AND FPCBS
4.1.Traditional PCBs: History
4.2.Traditional PCBs: Mounting components
4.3.Traditional PCBs: Layers
4.4.Traditional PCBs: Layers
4.5.Traditional PCBs: Complexity
4.6.Traditional PCBs: Geography
4.7.Traditional PCBs: Prototyping
4.8.Traditional PCBs: Mechanics
4.9.Traditional PCBs: Heat
4.10.SWOT analysis: Traditional PCBs
5.ELECTRONICS ONTO 3D SURFACES (INCLUDING 3D MID)
5.1.1.Electronics on 3D surfaces / molded interconnect devices (MIDs)
5.1.2.3D electronics on surfaces on surfaces enables simplification
5.2.Electronics onto 3D surfaces: Metallization methods
5.2.1.Applying electronics to 3D surfaces (MID)
5.2.2.Comparing selective metallization methods
5.2.3.Comparison of metallization methods (aerosol, inkjet, extruded conductive paste, laser direct structuring, print-then-plate, two-shot molding, laser induced forward transfer, electrohydrodynamic printing)
5.3.Laser direct structuring
5.3.1.Laser direct structuring (LDS)
5.3.2.Laser activation and electroless plating for LDS
5.3.3.Laser direct structuring has many applications
5.3.4.Capabilities of laser direct structuring
5.3.5.Fine pitch capability of LDS
5.3.6.Combining 3D printing with LDS for prototyping?
5.3.7.Expanding LDS MID to non-plastic substrates?
5.3.8.Light-based synthesis of metallic nanoparticles - an additive free development of LDS
5.3.9.LPKF: The original developers and licence holders of LPKF
5.3.10.LDS manufacturers authorised by LPKF
5.3.11.Laser direct structuring: SWOT
5.3.12.Laser direct structuring: Company details and profiles
5.4.Aerosol printing
5.4.1.Aerosol printing
5.4.2.Aerosol deposition onto 3D surfaces
5.4.3.Aerosol deposition vs LDS (laser direct structuring)
5.4.4.Varying line width to control resistance with aerosol printing
5.4.5.Example of aerosol printed functionality
5.4.6.Aerosol printing in academia / R&D
5.4.7.Academic research: Aerosol printed transistors
5.4.8.Academic research: Aerosol printing for the fabrication of terahertz metamaterials
5.4.9.Aerosol jet printing: SWOT
5.4.10.Aerosol printing: Company details and profiles
5.5.Extruded conductive paste and inkjet printing
5.5.1.Electronics on 3D surfaces with extruded conductive paste and inkjet printing
5.5.2.Extruding conductive paste for structurally-integrated antennas
5.5.3.Details of extruded paste printing.
5.5.4.Extruded conductive paste for antennas
5.5.5.High resolution printing of micrometer-size conductive structures
5.5.6.Combining printed electronics with wire spooling
5.5.7.Printing electronics onto 3D surfaces enables multiple substrate materials
5.5.8.Ceradrop combines inkjet and aerosol for printing electronics on 3D surfaces
5.5.9.EU-funded AMPERE project to increase scalability of partially additive 3D electronics
5.5.10.SWOT: Extruded paste
5.5.11.SWOT analysis: Inkjet printing electronics
5.5.12.Extruded paste and inkjet printing: Company details and profiles
5.6.Laser induced forward transfer
5.6.1.Operating mechanism of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT)
5.6.2.Comparing LIFT with other deposition methods
5.6.3.Applications for LIFT
5.6.4.Altana introduces laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) for printed/additive electronics (I)
5.6.5.Altana introduces laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) for printed/additive electronics (II)
5.6.6.IO-Tech launches its first laser induced forward transfer machine
5.6.7.Keiron printing technologies
5.6.8.SWOT analysis: Laser induced forward transfer
5.6.9.LIFT: Company details and profiles
5.7.Print-then-plate
5.7.1.Print-then-plate: Overview (Elephantech)
5.7.2.Print-then-plate: Advantages
5.7.3.Print-then-plate: Company details and profiles
5.8.Electronics onto 3D surfaces: Materials
5.8.1.Comparing different conductive inks materials
5.8.2.Challenges of comparing conductive inks
5.8.3.Comparing conductive inks: Conductivity vs sheet resistance.
5.8.4.Material considerations for LDS (I)
5.8.5.3D printable resin with LDS additive
5.8.6.Ink requirements for aerosol printing
5.8.7.Conductive adhesives: General requirements and challenges
5.8.8.Comparing conductive adhesive types
5.8.9.Attaching components to low temperature substrates
5.8.10.Laser activated copper paste for 3D electronics
5.9.Electronics on 3D surfaces: Applications
5.9.1.Applications of electronics on 3D surfaces
5.10.Electronic interconnects (MID)
5.10.1.LDS MID application examples: Automotive HMI
5.10.2.LDS MID in LED implementation
5.10.3.Raytheon: Additively manufactured electronics reduce size, weight, power and cost (SWAP-C)
5.10.4.Automotive applications of electronics printed onto 3D surfaces
5.10.5.Custom-made sensor housings for industrial IoT
5.10.6.Replacing wiring harnesses in automotive and aeronautical applications
5.10.7.Printing on 3D surfaces for biosensing
5.11.Antennas
5.11.1.LDS MID application examples: Antenna
5.11.2.Aerosol deposition of mobile phone antennas
5.11.3.Tuneable meta-materials for antennas with 3D electronics
5.12.Semiconductor packaging
5.12.1.LDS for IC packaging through-hole vias
5.12.2.Advanced electronics packaging with aerosol printing
5.12.3.Optomec gains orders for semiconductor manufacturing
5.13.Electronics onto 3D surfaces: Summary
5.13.1.Summary: Electronics onto 3D surfaces
5.13.2.SWOT Analysis
6.IN-MOLD ELECTRONICS (IME)
6.1.1.Introduction to in-mold electronics (IME)
6.1.2.Progression towards 3D electronics with IME
6.1.3.Commercial advantages of IME
6.1.4.Challenges for IME
6.1.5.IME value chain - a development of in-mold decorating (IMD)
6.1.6.IME surfaces and capabilities
6.1.7.IME facilitates versioning and localization
6.1.8.IME value chain overview
6.1.9.The long road to IME commercialization
6.1.10.IME forecast pushed back due to COVID-19
6.1.11.Forecast progression in IME complexity
6.1.12.Overview of functionality within IME components
6.1.13.IME and sustainability
6.1.14.IME reduces plastic consumption
6.1.15.IME vs reference component kg CO2 equivalent (single IME panel): Cradle to gate
6.1.16.IME: Company details and profiles
6.2.In-mold electronics: Manufacturing methods
6.2.1.IME manufacturing process flow (I)
6.2.2.IME manufacturing process flow (II)
6.2.3.IME manufacturing process flow (III)
6.2.4.Manufacturing methods: Conventional electronics vs. IME
6.2.5.Alternative IME component architectures
6.2.6.Equipment required for IME production
6.2.7.Hybrid approach provides an intermediate route to market
6.2.8.Forecast progression in IME complexity
6.2.9.Surface mount device (SMD) attachment: Before or after forming
6.2.10.Component attachment cross-sections
6.2.11.One-film vs two-film approach
6.2.12.Multilayer IME circuits require cross-overs
6.2.13.IC package requirements for IME
6.2.14.IME requires special electronic design software
6.2.15.Faurecia concept: traditional vs. IME design
6.2.16.Conventional vs. IME comparison (Faurecia)
6.2.17.IME: value transfer from PCB board to ink
6.2.18.Print-then-plate for in-mold electronics
6.2.19.Automating IME manufacturing
6.2.20.Overview of IME manufacturing requirements
6.2.21.Integrating IME into existing systems
6.2.22.Current status of main IME technology developer (TactoTek)
6.2.23.Print-then-plate for in-mold electronics
6.2.24.IME requirements
6.2.25.Observations on the IME design process
6.3.In-mold electronics: Materials
6.3.1.IME requires a wide range of specialist materials
6.3.2.Materials for IME: A portfolio approach
6.3.3.All materials in the stack must be compatible: Conductivity perspective
6.3.4.Material composition of IME vs conventional HMI components
6.3.5.All materials in the stack must be compatible: forming perspective
6.3.6.New ink requirements: Surviving heat stress
6.3.7.Stability and durability are crucial
6.3.8.Stretchable vs thermoformable conductive inks
6.3.9.In-mold electronics requires thermoformable conductive inks (I)
6.3.10.Bridging the conductivity gap between printed electronics and IME inks
6.3.11.Gradual improvement over time in thermoformability.
6.3.12.Thermoformable conductive inks from different resins
6.3.13.The role of particle size in thermoformable inks
6.3.14.Selecting right fillers and binders to improve stretchability (Elantas)
6.3.15.The role of resin in stretchable inks
6.3.16.New ink requirements: Stability
6.3.17.Particle-free thermoformable inks (I) (E2IP/National Research Council of Canada)
6.3.18.Particle-free thermoformable inks (II) (E2IP/National Research Council of Canada)
6.3.19.Polythiophene-based conductive films for flexible devices (Heraeus)
6.3.20.In-mold conductive inks on the market
6.3.21.Dielectric inks for IME
6.3.22.Electrically conductive adhesives: General requirements and challenges for IME
6.3.23.Electrically conductive adhesives: Surviving the IME process
6.3.24.Specialist formable conductive adhesives required
6.3.25.In-mold conductive ink examples
6.3.26.Suppliers of thermoformable conductive inks for IME multiply
6.3.27.Prototype examples of carbon nanotube in-mold transparent conductive films
6.3.28.In-mold and stretchable metal mesh transparent conductive films
6.4.In-mold electronics: Applications
6.4.1.IME interfaces break the cost/value compromise
6.5.Automotive
6.5.1.Motivation for IME in automotive applications
6.5.2.Opportunities for IME in automotive HMI
6.5.3.Early case study of automotive IME: Ford/T-ink
6.5.4.IME for automotive seat controls
6.5.5.Direct heating of headlamp plastic covers
6.5.6.Steering wheel controls with HMI: Canatu/TactoTek
6.5.7.Quotes on the outlook for IME in automotive applications
6.5.8.Alternative to automotive IME: Integrated capacitive sensing
6.6.White goods
6.6.1.Opportunities for IME in white goods
6.6.2.Example prototypes of IME for white goods (I)
6.6.3.Example prototypes of IME for white goods (II)
6.7.Other applications
6.7.1.Other IME applications: Medical and industrial HMI
6.7.2.Home automation creates opportunities for IME
6.7.3.IME for home automation becomes commercial
6.7.4.Consumer electronics prototypes to products
6.7.5.IME for wearable electronics
6.8.In-mold electronics: Summary
6.8.1.SWOT: In-mold electronics (IME)
6.8.2.Summary: In-mold electronics (I)
6.8.3.Summary: In-mold electronics(II)
7.3D PRINTED ELECTRONICS
7.1.1.3D printed electronics extends 3D printing
7.1.2.Fully 3D printed electronics
7.1.3.3D printed electronics combines existing manufacturing technologies
7.1.4.Advantages of fully additively manufactured 3D electronics
7.1.5.Additively manufactured electronics promises fewer manufacturing steps
7.1.6.Comparing 3D printed electronics with other applications
7.1.7.Approaches to 3D printed structural electronics
7.1.8.Comparing additively manufactured and conventional circuits
7.1.9.Examples of fully 3D printed circuits
7.1.10.Nano Dimension: Example additively manufactured circuits
7.1.11.Circuit boards of any shape: nScrypt
7.1.12.From 3D printed electronics to 3D printed shoes: Voxel8
7.1.13.Industry departures: 'Functionalize' (USA) developed conductive thermoplastic
7.1.14.Paste extrusion, dispensing or printing during 3D printing
7.1.15.3D printed with embedded metallization
7.1.16.Roadmap for 3D printed electronics
7.1.17.Holst Center: 3D electronics status timeline
7.1.18.Lessons learned from 3D printing and printed electronics
7.2.3D printed electronics: Technologies
7.2.1.Technologies for fully additive 3D electronics
7.2.2.Comparing performance parameters of metallization and dielectric deposition methods
7.2.3.Increasing processing speed with parallelization (multiple nozzles)
7.2.4.HP adapts multi-jet fusion 3D printing for 3D electronics.
7.2.5.Electrically conductive polymers for additive manufacturing
7.2.6.4D printed electronics enable structural variation with time (I)
7.2.7.4D printed electronics enable structural variation with time (II)
7.2.8.Multifunctional composites with electronics
7.2.9.Nano Dimension: An introduction
7.2.10.Nano Dimension develop additively manufactured circuits (I)
7.2.11.Capabilities of Nano Dimension's dragonfly system (I)
7.2.12.Capabilities of Nano Dimension's dragonfly system (II)
7.2.13.Financial overview of Nano Dimension
7.2.14.Nano Dimension raises capital and makes acquisitions
7.3.3D printed electronics: Materials
7.3.1.Functional materials
7.3.2.Ink requirements for 3D printed electronics
7.3.3.Metals
7.3.4.Extrude conductive filament
7.3.5.Conductive thermoplastic filaments
7.3.6.Conductive pastes
7.3.7.Materials for low-loss dielectrics
7.4.3D printed electronics: Applications
7.4.1.Applications for fully additive 3D printed electronics
7.4.2.Profactor: Sensor packaging via additive manufacturing
7.4.3.Customized medical devices
7.4.4.Compact medical / wearable sensing
7.4.5.Electromagnets and electric motors with fully additive electronics
7.4.6.Passive components with fully additive electronics
7.4.7.Metamaterials and structural electronics with fully additive electronics
7.4.8.Fully additive 3D electronics for semiconductor packaging: Holst Centre (I)
7.4.9.Fully additive 3D electronics for semiconductor packaging: Holst Centre (II)
7.4.10.Additively manufactured antenna-in-package
7.4.11.3D printed electronics and economies of scale
7.4.12.3D printed electronics enable on-demand manufacturing
7.4.13.3D printed electronics enable distributed manufacturing
7.4.14.Advantages and disadvantages of distributed manufacturing
7.4.15.On-demand manufacturing: US Army and NASA use nScrypt printer.
7.4.16.Opinions on 3D printed electronics and distributed on-demand manufacturing
7.5.3D printed electronics: Summary
7.5.1.SWOT: 3D printed electronics
7.5.2.3D printed electronics: Summary
8.ADDITIVE CIRCUIT PROTOTYPING
8.1.1.Multilayer circuit prototyping
8.1.2.Circuit prototyping and 3D electronics landscape
8.1.3.Print-then-plate: Partially additive PCB manufacturing
8.1.4.Print then ablate
8.1.5.Readiness level of additive manufacturing technologies
8.1.6.Company details and profiles
9.FLEXIBLE HYBRID ELECTRONICS - A RELATIVE OF 3D ELECTRONICS
9.1.1.3D electronics and flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
9.1.2.FHE Examples: Combing conventional components with flexible/printed electronics on flexible substrates
9.1.3.What counts as FHE?
9.1.4.Overcoming the flexibility/functionality compromise
9.1.5.Commonality with other electronics methodologies
9.1.6.Materials and technologies for FHE
9.1.7.FHE value chain: Many materials and technologies
9.1.8.SWOT Analysis: Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
 

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Slides 369
Forecasts to 2032
ISBN 9781913899936
 

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