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Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) 2021-2040

A technology and industry perspective, including carbon pricing, point-source carbon capture, direct air capture, carbon dioxide-to-fuels, carbon dioxide-to-chemicals, enhanced oil recovery, and geological storage

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Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), or carbon capture and storage (CCS), refers to the set of technologies that trap carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, before either storing them underground or using them for a range of industrial applications. CCUS technologies may be essential for mitigating global CO2 emissions and keeping the world within the 2°C of warming as outlined in the Paris Agreement.
Over the last decade, deployment of CCUS technology has expanded quickly, with global CO2 capture capacity reaching 40 million tonnes by 2020. While this is a significant achievement, it is still not enough to have a meaningful impact on climate change - meeting the Paris Agreement could require global carbon capture capacity to reach gigatonnes per year. Achieving this will require collaboration between industry and government to overcome the technological and economic hurdles associated with CCUS technology, something that could lead to significant opportunity for early movers.
This report provides a comprehensive view of the global CCUS industry, providing a detailed analysis of both the technological and economic factors that are set to shape the industry over the next twenty years. The report considers carbon capture, carbon utilization, and carbon storage individually, discussing the technology innovations, key players and opportunities within each area, alongside a twenty-year forecast for the deployment of carbon capture technology.
The report also considers carbon pricing, providing an overview of carbon taxes and emissions trading schemes (ETS) across the world and discussing how they can incentivise CCUS deployment.
Key questions answered in this report
  • What is CCUS and how can it be used to address climate change?
  • Where is CCUS currently deployed?
  • What is the market outlook for CCUS?
  • What are the key drivers and restraints of market growth?
  • How do carbon pricing schemes look across the world
  • How much does carbon capture technology cost?
  • What can carbon dioxide be used for industrially?
  • Where are the key growth opportunities for carbon dioxide utilization?
  • Who are the key players in CCUS?
  • Can CCUS help the world meet the Paris Agreement?
The major steps involved in carbon capture, utilization, and storage. Note, these can all take place within the same facility
Carbon Capture
Carbon dioxide can be captured from both industrial waste gas streams (point-source carbon capture) and directly from the atmosphere (direct air capture). It is generally easiest to capture CO2 from point sources, where CO2 concentrations are higher, and all current industrial scale CO2 capture project rely on point source carbon capture. However, although it is more expensive and less technologically developed, direct air capture has the potential to actively remove CO2 from atmosphere (i.e., it is a negative emissions technology) and has drawn much excitement in recent years, with companies such as Climeworks, Carbon Engineering and Global Thermostat raising hundreds of millions of dollars in funding and engaging in partnerships with major oil and gas companies.
The report provides a detailed analysis of both point-source carbon capture and direct air capture, discussing the technologies involved in both processes and providing an economic outlook for both industries. It includes analysis of the technologies used by industry players, the costs involved in carbon capture and areas of innovation within the field, alongside an evaluation of the future of the industry.
Carbon Utilization
Although almost all of the CO2 captured today is stored deep underground, either in dedicated geological storage sites or for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, CO2 is a potentially useful feedstock for a variety of industrial processes. CO2 is a versatile molecule that can be chemically converted into a large range of products, including fuels, chemicals, building materials and polymers. Some of these products, such as fuels, will release the carbon stored in them almost immediately, so can only be carbon-neutral products, whereas others, such as building materials, can sequester the carbon for thousands of years.
The main issue with carbon utilization is that CO2 is a very stable molecule, so a lot of energy is needed to convert it into useful products. Innovative companies across the world are developing technology to improve the energy efficiency of CO2 conversion processes, while the increasing availability of cheap, renewable energy is helping to make CO2 utilization a commercially viable industry.
The report provides an analysis of the major emerging areas of carbon utilization: CO2-derived fuels, CO2-derived chemicals, CO2-derived building materials, and the use of CO2 to boost yields of biological processes. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each application, alongside the potential market size and potential impacts of each area on climate change.
Some key players in the carbon dioxide utilization industry
Carbon storage
Carbon storage (also known as carbon sequestration or carbon dioxide removal) is the long-term removal, capture or sequestration of CO2, where captured CO2 is stored underground in a range of locations, including oil reservoirs, saline formations and unmineable coal seams. Because the scale of CO2 emissions ¬far exceeds the current capacity for CO2 utilization, it is likely that carbon storage will play a major role in future emissions mitigation.
Currently, most carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects use captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), where CO2 is injected into depleted oil wells to help increase oil output. Outside of tax credits, this remains one of the only ways that carbon storage can be monetised, although it can require high oil prices to be commercially viable and may struggle as a long term option in a world increasingly transitioning away from fossil fuels.
The report discusses the various options for carbon storage, including the mechanisms of CO2 trapping, the different options for geologic CO2 storage and the global potential for CO2 storage. It discusses how EOR can be an on-ramp for wider CCS deployment, and discusses the implications of oil prices on CCS, particularly in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Table of Contents
1.1.At current rates, the world will not meet the Paris Agreement
1.2.Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)
1.3.CO2 utilization and storage pathways
1.4.Global status of CCUS
1.5.Large-scale CCUS facilities in operation in 2020
1.6.Carbon pricing
1.7.Carbon pricing across the world
1.8.Carbon capture
1.9.CO2 source impacts costs and technology choice
1.10.Current point source CO2 capture costs
1.11.Global point source CO2 capture capacity by year
1.12.Global point source CO2 capture capacity by CO2 source
1.13.What is Direct Air Capture (DAC)?
1.14.DAC vs. point source carbon capture
1.15.Carbon capture capacity forecast, 2021-2040
1.16.Carbon capture capacity forecast by capture type
1.17.Carbon utilization
1.18.Major emerging applications of CO2 utilization
1.19.Overview of major emerging CO2 utilization applications
1.20.Potential for use and climate benefits of major emerging CO2 utilization applications
1.21.Key players in CO2 utilization
1.22.Carbon pricing is needed for most applications to break even
1.23.Carbon storage
1.24.Global CO2 storage potential
1.25.The cost of carbon sequestration
1.26.The impact of oil prices on CCS
1.27.EOR: an on-ramp for CCS
1.28.Carbon capture capacity forecast by end use
2.1.Reduced carbon dioxide emissions directives
2.2.Why is a 1.5°C global temperature rise significant?
2.3.Global CO2 emissions by region, 1900-2019
2.4.At current rates, the world will not meet the Paris Agreement
2.5.The need for negative emissions technologies (NETs)
2.6.Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)
2.7.CCUS is needed for the world to reach its targets
2.8.Carbon capture
2.9.Carbon transport
2.10.CO2 utilization and storage pathways
2.11.Carbon utilization
2.12.Examples of CO2 utilization pathways
2.13.Carbon storage
2.14.Challenges in CCUS
2.15.Carbon capture - technical challenges
2.16.Carbon storage - technical challenges
2.17.Carbon utilization - technical challenges
2.18.Will CCUS arrive in time to make a difference?
2.19.Global status of CCUS
2.20.CCUS - developments in 2019
2.21.CCUS - developments in 2020
2.22.COVID-19 and CCUS
2.23.Large-scale CCUS facilities in operation in 2020
2.24.Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project
2.25.Century Plant
2.26.Large-scale CCUS facilities in operation in 2020
2.27.Large-scale CCUS facilities in construction in 2020
2.28.Large-scale CCUS facilities in advanced development in 2020
2.29.Large-scale CCUS facilities in early development in 2020
3.1.Carbon pricing
3.2.Carbon pricing across the world
3.3.Challenges with carbon pricing
3.4.The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS)
3.5.Carbon pricing in the European Union
3.6.Has the EU ETS had an impact?
3.7.Carbon pricing in the UK
3.8.Carbon pricing in the US
3.9.45Q tax credits in the US
3.10.Carbon pricing in China
3.11.Carbon pricing in South Africa
3.12.Carbon prices in currently implemented ETS or carbon tax schemes (2021)
4.1.Point source carbon capture
4.1.1.Point source carbon capture - overview
4.1.2.Point sources of CO2 emissions
4.1.3.CO2 source impacts costs and technology choice
4.1.4.Post-combustion CO2 capture
4.1.5.Pre-combustion CO2 capture
4.1.6.Oxyfuel combustion CO2 capture
4.1.7.Methods of CO2 separation
4.1.8.Metrics for CO2 capture
4.1.9.Solvent-based CO2 separation
4.1.10.Chemical absorption solvents
4.1.11.Liquid absorption with amines
4.1.12.Physical absorption solvents
4.1.13.Major commercially available physical absorption solvents
4.1.14.Solvents used in current operational CCUS projects
4.1.15.Innovation in carbon capture solvents
4.1.16.Carbon Clean Solutions
4.1.17.Examples of next generation solvent technologies
4.1.18.Sorbent-based CO2 separation
4.1.19.Solid sorbents for CO2 capture
4.1.21.Membrane-based CO2 separation
4.1.22.Membranes: operating principles
4.1.23.Membrane Technology and Research
4.1.24.Novel concepts for CO2 separation
4.1.25.FuelCell Energy
4.1.26.Capture technology innovation
4.1.27.The costs of carbon capture
4.1.28.Power plants with CCUS generate less energy
4.1.29.The Petra Nova Project
4.1.30.The closure of Petra Nova - a lesson for the industry?
4.1.31.Boundary Dam
4.1.32.Current point source CO2 capture costs
4.1.33.Global point source CO2 capture capacity by year
4.1.34.Global point source CO2 capture capacity by CO2 source
4.1.35.Going beyond CO2 capture rates of 90%
4.1.36.Is a zero-emissions fossil power plant possible? capture rate: suitability of different technologies
4.1.38.Higher capture rates are possible, but add significant cost using today's technology
4.1.39.CO2 transportation
4.1.40.Cost considerations in pipeline transport
4.1.41.Technical challenges in CO2 transport
4.1.42.Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
4.1.43.BECCS deployment has historically been slow
4.1.44.BECCS facilities in operation or planning worldwide
4.1.45.BECCS has major potential for emissions mitigation
4.1.46.Challenges in BECCS
4.2.Direct air capture (DAC)
4.2.1.What is Direct Air Capture (DAC)?
4.2.2.Methods of DAC
4.2.3.Challenges associated with DAC technology
4.2.4.Companies active in the field of CO2 direct air capture
4.2.5.High temperature aqueous solution DAC
4.2.6.Low temperature solid sorbent DAC
4.2.7.Sorbents used in low temperature solid sorbent DAC
4.2.8.High temperature vs. low temperature DAC
4.2.9.A comparison of DAC sorbents in commercial development
4.2.10.Alternative technologies for DAC
4.2.11.A comparison of DAC companies at or approaching commercial scale
4.2.12.Operating DAC plants and plants in development
4.2.13.Carbon Engineering
4.2.15.The acquisition of Antecy by Climeworks
4.2.16.Global Thermostat
4.2.20.Prometheus Fuels
4.2.21.The economics of direct air capture
4.2.22.CAPEX and evolution of DAC capacity
4.2.23.Assumptions made in the CAPEX and capacity forecasts
4.2.24.OPEX in DAC
4.2.25.The influence of power costs
4.2.26.Estimating the cost of DAC
4.2.27.Evolution of DAC costs
4.2.28.Additional considerations in DAC deployment
4.2.29.DAC vs. point source carbon capture
4.3.Carbon Capture: Outlook
4.3.1.Carbon capture in the IEA Sustainable Development Scenario
4.3.2.Carbon capture capacity if all current projects begin or remain in operation
4.3.3.Carbon capture capacity forecast, 2021-2040
4.3.4.Carbon capture capacity forecast by capture type
4.3.5.Carbon capture capacity forecast by end use
4.4.Other negative emissions technologies (NETs)
4.4.1.Negative emissions technologies (NETs)
4.4.2.The major negative emissions technologies (NETs)
4.4.3.Afforestation and reforestation
4.4.4.Soil carbon sequestration
4.4.6.Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
4.4.7.Direct air capture (DAC) - see Section 3ii. for more details
4.4.8.Enhanced weathering and ocean alkalinisation
4.4.9.Ocean fertilisation
4.4.10.Technical and environmental characteristics of NETs
4.4.11.Negative emissions technologies: deferring the problem?
5.1.1.Carbon utilization
5.1.2.How is CO2 produced conventionally?
5.1.3.How is CO2 used today?
5.1.4.CO2 utilization can contribute to climate goals
5.1.5.Factors driving future market potential
5.1.6.Major emerging applications of CO2 utilization
5.2.CO2-derived fuels
5.2.1.CO2-derived fuels
5.2.2.CO2-derived fuels as e-fuels
5.2.3.Routes to e-fuel production
5.2.4.The challenge of energy efficiency
5.2.5.The price and availability of hydrogen
5.2.6.Introduction to fuel cells
5.2.7.Fuel cell and electrolyser overview
5.2.8.Electrolyser basics
5.2.9.Electrolyser overview
5.2.10.Introduction to solid oxide electrolysers
5.2.11.SOEC syngas production
5.2.13.Haldor Topsøe
5.2.14.Electrolyser degradation
5.2.15.Solid oxide electrolyser cell players
5.2.16.Room-temperature electrochemical CO2 reduction
5.2.17.Electrochemical CO2 reduction products
5.2.18.Electrolyser/fuel cell manufacturers
5.2.19.Methanol from CO2
5.2.20.Methanol from CO2: conversion methods
5.2.21.Carbon Recycling International
5.2.22.CO2-derived methane
5.2.23.Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of fuels from syngas
5.2.24.Audi synthetic fuel
5.2.25.Dimensional Energy
5.2.26.Algae based biofuels
5.2.29.CO2-derived fuel: players
5.2.30.CO2-derived fuels: market potential
5.3.CO2-derived chemicals
5.3.1.CO2 can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
5.3.2.Urea production: the most developed application
5.3.3.Methanol is a valuable chemical feedstock
5.3.4.Commercial production of polycarbonate from CO2
5.3.6.Opus 12
5.3.7.CO2 utilization in biomanufacturing
5.3.8.Cemvita Factory
5.3.9.CO2-derived chemicals: market potential
5.4.CO2-derived building materials
5.4.1.CO2-derived building materials from natural minerals
5.4.2.Why decarbonisation of concrete matters
5.4.3.CO2 mineralisation
5.4.4.Carbonfree Chemicals
5.4.6.Solidia Technologies
5.4.7.CO2-derived building materials from natural minerals: market potential
5.4.8.CO2-derived building materials from waste
5.4.9.CO2-derived building materials from waste: market potential
5.5.CO2 utilization to boost biological yields
5.5.1.CO2 utilization to boost yields of biological processes
5.5.2.CO2 utilization to boost yields of biological processes: market potential
5.6.CO2 utilization: market perspective
5.6.1.Overview of major emerging CO2 utilization applications
5.6.2.Overview of major emerging CO2 utilization applications - further information
5.6.3.Potential for use and climate benefits of major emerging CO2 utilization applications
5.6.4.Climate benefits of major CO2 utilization applications
5.6.5.Climate benefits of major CO2 utilization applications
5.6.6.Key players in CO2 utilization
5.6.7.Carbon capture capacity forecast by end use
5.6.8.Cost effectiveness of CO2 utilization applications
5.6.9.Carbon pricing is needed for most applications to break even
6.1.Carbon storage/sequestration
6.2.Storing CO2 underground
6.3.Mechanisms of subsurface CO2 trapping
6.4.Storage types for geologic CO2 storage
6.5.Global CO2 storage potential
6.6.Estimates of global CO2 storage space
6.7.CO2 leakage is a small risk
6.8.Can CO2 storage be monetized?
6.9.Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
6.10.The cost of carbon sequestration
6.11.The impact of oil prices on CCS
6.12.EOR: an on-ramp for CCS
6.13.Potential for cost reduction in transport and storage

Report Statistics

Slides 277
Forecasts to 2040
ISBN 9781913899356

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