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Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles and Fleets 2021-2031

The EV Charging Infrastructure Market: Public charging, private charging, DC Fast-charging, fleet charging

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The Importance of Charging Infrastructure
Consumers have range anxiety; range sells electric vehicles. According IDTechEx's electric car model database, most BEV models today offer NEDC ranges between 200- 300 miles (the average is 285 miles). A survey from Oak Ridge National Laboratory shows 95% of car journeys in the US, the country which relies the most on the car for transportation, are under 30 miles. So, in theory, current BEV ranges should be sufficient most of the time, but in practice this is not always the case.
The availability of charging infrastructure is one of the key factors to address range anxiety, and therefore is essential to facilitate the short and long-term uptake of plug-in electric vehicles and the sustainable development of the auto industry. By the end of 2019, we estimate that 870,000 public and 4 million private chargers were installed globally supporting 8.1 million plug-in electric vehicles in-use.
The report takes into account that all car sales are impacted by the covid-19 pandemic: amid economic uncertainty and unemployment, car purchases, which are typically the second largest consumer purchase (the first is a house), are now more difficult to justify for millions of consumers worldwide. Governments in Europe and China are stepping in with stimulus packages and adjusting policy to ensure sales do not collapse. There is also momentum on the demand side as consumers have experienced and become more aware of the benefits of clean air in cities while internal combustion engines have been sitting in driveways during lockdowns. At IDTechEx, we believe the electric vehicle industry will not be derailed and will continue with momentum, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty. Over the coming decade, demand for charging infrastructure will be driven by over 111 million BEV + PHEV vehicles in-use globally including passenger cars, buses, trucks, and vans.
Global total charging outlets installed (thousands)
Data sources: EVCIPA, EAFO, AFDC, IDTechEx
Regional Analysis
The report provides analysis and forecasts for charging infrastructure deployments in key regions including China, Europe (UK, Netherlands, France, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Rest of Europe) and the US. The penetration rate of both private and public charging infrastructure in each region and the market share of key players is presented.
Players and Technologies
We provide a technological overview of the major charging infrastructure types including conductive charging and alternative solutions such as battery swapping. Emerging charging technologies are also covered such as fast charging, inductive and capacitive charging, robotic and autonomous charging, wireless charging, off-grid charging, mobile charging, and vehicle-to-home/grid (V2H/V2G).
By 2031, the global electric vehicle charging infrastructure market will be worth more than $65 billion per year, creating huge opportunities for companies along the electric vehicle charging value chain. The key market players, with their technologies and developments, are presented and discussed.
As the industry evolves, the trend is for players to move along the value chain, from energy sourcing and supply to chargers and energy delivery. For example, currently the business case for home or workplace level 2 chargers are straightforward, given low up-front capital and operating expenses, but the business case for public fast charging stations is more difficult due to the higher up-front capital, higher operating costs, and currently low utilization. Big oil companies such as Shell and BP have been proactive in securing their shares of the market and big utility companies are integrating electric vehicle charging as part of their business.
Fleet Charging
Electric vehicle fleets such as buses and trucks require very different charging infrastructure solutions to passenger cars, from multiple mega-watt depo charging to overhead catenaries and battery swapping, covered in this report. Although electric fleet charging represents roughly 3% of the total charging infrastructure in volume, it constitutes over 20% of the total market value due to the added cost associated with the high-power requirements.
Looking into the future, shared autonomous mobility is expected to eventually dominate the passenger-miles in the urban environment. As nobody is available to plug-in those robo-taxis to charge, mobility service companies are going to need broadly deployed automatic charging so the autonomous vehicles can extend their range without extra labour costs. When there's downtime between rides, the cars will pull over to automatic charging spots, top up, and then continue to provide rides. In this report, we will also cover future charging trends and solutions such as robotic charging, wireless charging as well as electric road systems.
Summary of Report Contents and Forecasts:
  • Comprehensive overview of various charging technologies and standards globally, including fast charging, inductive and capacitive charging, mobile charging, robotic and autonomous charging, battery swapping as well as dedicated charging for fleet EVs; evaluations on the key charging technologies are provided.
  • Analysis of the electric vehicle charging value chain and business models of key market players.
  • Detailed ten-year market forecast on electric vehicle charging infrastructure in both unit numbers and market value (revenues); granular market forecasts are provided by major regions, sectors (passenger cars and fleet EVs), applications (private and public) and power levels (AC and DC).
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Table of Contents
1.1.BEV + PHEV cars 2015-2040 as % of global auto market
1.2.Covid-19 impact on electric car sales
1.3.Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2031
1.4.Plug-in EVs and the demand for charging infrastructure
1.5.Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2031
1.6.New charging installations by power class 2015-2031
1.7.Total charging installations by region 2015-2031
1.8.EV charging market value 2015-2031 ($ billion)
1.9.Evaluation of the different charging infrastructure
1.10.Key market players
2.1.Charging levels
2.2.Basics of electric vehicle charging mechanisms
2.3.How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle?
2.4.The trend towards DC fast charging
2.5.Fleet vehicles requires much higher charging power
2.6.Range and charging power roadmap
2.7.Charging methods
2.8.Charging infrastructure coverage and demand
2.9.Number of public chargers required for plug-in EVs?
2.10.Private versus public charging
3.1.Global charging infrastructure installations
3.2.Best-selling plug-in car models in the US
3.3.The status of public charging in United States
3.4.Private and public charging penetration in US
3.5.Best-selling plug-in car models in Europe
3.6.The status of public charging in Europe
3.7.Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2031
3.8.Private and public charging penetration in Europe
3.9.Best-selling plug-in car models in China
3.10.The status of public charging in China
3.11.Private and public charging penetration in China
3.12.The rising demand for fleet charging
4.1.Overview of electric vehicle charging infrastructure standards
4.2.Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standard organizations
4.3.Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standards: ISO/IEC
4.4.Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standards: SAE
4.5.DC charging standard: CCS
4.6.DC charging standard: CHAdeMO
4.7.Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standard in China: GB
4.8.Types of electric vehicle charging plugs
4.9.Electric vehicle charging plugs by type
4.10.Overview of electric vehicle charging standards by region
4.11.Electric vehicle charging systems comparison
4.12.Summary of charging levels and standards in the main regions
4.13.Communication systems for electric vehicle charging
4.14.Communication interfaces
4.15.Communication protocols and standards
5.1.Overview of electric vehicle Charging Infrastructure
5.1.1.Electric vehicle charging infrastructure: technology overview
5.1.2.Different types of electric vehicle charging infrastructure
5.1.3.Architecture of electric vehicle charging infrastructure
5.1.4.Electric vehicle charging technologies by application
5.2.Conductive Charging
5.2.1.Conductive charging technologies by application
5.2.2.AC charging versus DC charging
5.2.3.Conductive charging at Level 1
5.2.4.Conductive charging at Level 2
5.2.5.Conductive charging at Level 3
5.2.6.Residential charging
5.2.7.Workplace charging - an essential complement to residential charging
5.2.8.How workplace charging can help alleviate grid pressure
5.2.9.CHAdeMo is preparing for 900 kW high power charging
5.2.10.Challenges for high power charging
5.2.11.Impacts of fast charging on battery lifespan
5.2.12.Efforts to improve fast charging performance
5.2.13.Intelligent battery management to enable fast charging
5.2.14.Cable cooling to achieve high power charging
5.2.15.Leoni's liquid cooled cables for fast charging
5.2.16.Tesla adopts liquid-cooled cable for its supercharger
5.2.17.Liquid-cooled connector for ultra fast charging
5.2.18.ITT Cannon's liquid-cooled high power charging solution
5.2.19.Continental turns electric powertrain into 'universal charger'
5.2.20.Summary: DC charging standards and power levels
5.2.21.Off-grid electric vehicle charging
5.2.22.Electrify America deploying solar-powered electric vehicle charging
5.2.23.Off-grid charging without batteries
5.2.24.A single converter for solar-powered charging
5.2.25.AFC Energy presenting hydrogen-powered electric vehicle charging
5.2.26.Mobile charging - a new business model for electric vehicle charging
5.2.27.Mobi - FreeWire's mobile charger
5.2.28.Modular mobile charger by SparkCharge
5.2.29.Electric vehicle Charge Mobile for Level 2 and DC charging
5.2.30.VW's mobile charging robots
5.2.31.Power Mobile charging service by NIOPower
5.2.32.Tesla's Megapack-powered mobile Superchargers
5.2.33.Chargery's mobile charger on bicycle
5.2.34.How will autonomous EVs refuel?
5.2.35.Autonomous charging: conductive robotic charging
5.2.36.Electrify America to deploy robotic chargers
5.2.37.Volkswagen's visionary charging robots
5.3.Wireless Charging
5.3.1.An overview of wireless charging
5.3.2.SAE J2954 wireless electric vehicle charging standard
5.3.3.Inductive charging
5.3.4.Magnetic resonance: wireless charging for EVs
5.3.5.Inductive charging of EVs: parked
5.3.6.Inductive charging of EVs: on road
5.3.7.WiTricity goes all-in on wireless charging for EVs
5.3.8.WiTricity's park-and-charge wireless charging solution
5.3.9.Plugless is selling wireless chargers for EVs
5.3.10.Qualcomm's Halo wireless electric vehicle charging platform
5.3.11.Dynamic electric vehicle charging demonstrated by Qualcomm
5.3.12.WiTricity acquires Qualcomm's wireless charging unit
5.3.13.BMW 530e pilots wireless charging
5.3.14.Capacitive charging
5.3.15.Capacitive charging: principle
5.3.16.Capacitive charging: current projects
5.4.Battery Swapping
5.4.1.An overview of battery swapping
5.4.2.The case of Better Place
5.4.3.Battery swapping: Tesla
5.4.4.Battery swapping development in China
5.4.5.Battery swapping: NIO
5.4.6.Battery swapping: BAIC
5.4.7.Battery swapping: Gogoro network
5.5.Charging infrastructure for electric vehicle fleets
5.5.1.The rising population of electric vehicle fleets
5.5.2.Charging infrastructure for electric buses
5.5.3.Charging electric buses: depot versus opportunity charging
5.5.4.Heliox: public transport and heavy-duty vehicle charging
5.5.5.Heliox's 13 MW charging network for electric buses
5.5.6.SprintCharge: battery-buffered opportunity charging for electric buses
5.5.7.ABB's smart depot charging solution for large fleets
5.5.8.ABB: opportunity charging for electric buses
5.5.9.ABB's 600kW TOSA flash-charging for e-buses
5.5.10.Siemens: electric bus charging infrastructure
5.5.11.Daimler Truck opened charging park for commercial EVs
5.5.12.The emergence of 'Mega chargers'
5.5.13.CharIN is working on charging standard for commercial electric vehicles
5.5.14.Momentum Dynamics: high-power wireless charging for electric vehicle fleets
5.5.15.Case study: wireless charging for public transit
5.5.16.Electric road systems for electric vehicle charging
5.5.17.Types of electric road systems
5.6.Electric road systems: conductive versus inductive
5.6.1.Electric road systems: Korea
5.6.2.Electric road systems: Sweden
5.6.3.Germany tests its first electric highway for trucks
5.6.4.Electric road systems: market and challenges
6.2.ChargePoint product series
6.3.ChargePoint as a Service
6.4.Tritium - the DC charging solution provider
6.5.Tritium Veefil - the DC fast charger specifications
6.6.Tritium is rolling out its DC high-power chargers
6.7.IONITY's high-power charging network across Europe
6.8.Electrify America
6.9.Electrify America is extending its charging network
6.10.Electrify America deploying solar-powered electric vehicle charging
6.11.Electrify America to deploy robotic chargers
6.14.Wallbox's bi-directional residential electric vehicle charger
6.16.Efacec Electric Mobility: full-range electric vehicle charging solutions
6.17.Efacec's private and public charging solution
6.18.Efacec's fast charging solution
6.19.Efacec's wireless charging solution
6.22.BP ChargeMaster
6.23.Pod Point
6.25.Green Motion
6.26.Integrating electric vehicle charger in home energy storage
6.27.Green Motion's urban air mobility charging
6.30.Tesla Supercharger network
6.31.Tesla Destination Charging network
7.1.The emergence of electric vehicle charging value chain
7.2.The electric vehicle charging value chain
7.3.Key market players along the electric vehicle charging value chain
7.4.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: China
7.5.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: Europe
7.6.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: US
7.7.Market share of DC fast charging by network operator: US
7.8.The electric vehicle charging value chain
7.9.Business models of charging network operators
7.10.Emerging business models for new services: V2X
7.11.Nissan energy share: vehicle to home/building
7.12.V2H initiative by Nissan
7.13.V2G: Nuvve
7.14.The V2G architecture
7.15.Nuvve targets on electric school buses for V2G
7.16.V2G: OVO Energy
7.17.OVO Energy to advance V2G and second-life batteries
7.18.V2G accelerates battery degradation?
7.19.V2G can extend the longevity of the electric vehicle battery
8.1.Forecast Methodology
8.2.Forecast Assumptions
8.3.Global Car Sales: the Addressable Market
8.4.Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2031
8.5.Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2031
8.6.New car and fleet charging outlets installed 2015-2031
8.7.New charging installations by power class 2015-2031
8.8.EV charging market value 2015-2031 ($ billion)
8.9.Total charging installations by region 2015-2031
8.10.New charging installations by region 2015-2031
8.11.Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2031
8.12.Total private charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2031

Report Statistics

Slides 219
Forecasts to 2031
ISBN 9781913899080

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