Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles 2011-2021: IDTechEx

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Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles 2011-2021

Updated August 2011

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We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle despite the fact that most off road and underwater vehicles are pure electric. That includes most forklifts, golf cars and mobility vehicles for the disabled plus Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUVs and personal submarines. Indeed, most electric aircraft are pure electric as well. The reason is that these are mainly small as are electric two wheelers which are almost all pure electric as well. Small vehicles rarely need to travel long distances. In addition, these pure electric vehicles are often used where a conventional engine is banned as on lakes and indoors or where it is impracticable as with underwater vehicles. By contrast, half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all.
 
About eight million hybrid cars will be made in 2021, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.
 
Forecast range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
 
This new report profiles all key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be? What fuels will be used and when? What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders? It is all here.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Range extender market in 2021
1.1.Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021
1.1.Probable global market for electric vehicle range extenders in 2021 by power, number and market value for small, medium and large range extenders
1.2.Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by numbers thousands 2011-2021
1.2.Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by value ex factory $ billion 2011-2021
1.2.EV Market 2011 and 2021
1.3.Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
1.3.Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles
1.3.Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021
1.4.Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by value ex factory $ billion 2011-2021
1.4.Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.
1.4.EV sales by type 2011-2021
1.5.Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
1.5.Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
1.5.Some primary hybrid market drivers
1.6.Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
1.6.Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
1.6.Hybrid market drivers
1.7.What will be required of a range extender 2012-2022
1.7.Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
1.8.Trend of size of largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in bus trials worldwide over the last twenty years.
1.8.Three generations of range extender
1.9.Why range extenders need lower power over the years
1.9.Evolution of lower power range extenders for large vehicles
1.10.Three generations of lithium-ion battery
1.10.Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative
1.11.Key trends for range extended vehicles
1.11.The most powerful energy harvesting in vehicles
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Types of electric vehicle
2.1.ThunderVolt hybrid bus
2.2.BAE Systems powertrain in a bus
2.2.Many fuels
2.3.Born electric
2.3.Hybrid bus powertrain
2.4.Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
2.4.Pure electric vehicles are improving
2.5.Series vs parallel hybrid
2.5.Mitsubishi hybrid outdoor forklift replacing a conventional ICE vehicle
2.6.Hybrid military vehicle that replaces a conventional ICE version
2.6.Modes of operation of hybrids
2.6.1.Plug in hybrids
2.6.2.Charge-depleting mode
2.6.3.Blended mode
2.6.4.Charge-sustaining mode
2.6.5.Mixed mode
2.7.Microhybrid is a misnomer
2.7.Hybrid sports boat replacing a conventional ICE version
2.8.CAF-E hybrid motorcycle design based on a Prius type of drivetrain
2.8.Deep hybridisation
2.9.Battery cost and performance are key
2.9.Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary
2.10.Some hybrid variants
2.10.Hybrid price premium
2.11.Progressing the REEV
2.11.Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
2.12.Trend to deep hybridisation
2.12.What is a range extender?
2.12.1.First generation range extender technology
2.12.2.Second generation range extender technology
2.12.3.Radically new approaches - Hüttlin range extender
2.12.4.Third generation range extender technology
2.13.Market position of fuel cell range extenders
2.13.Evolution of hybrid structure
2.14.Three generations of lithium-ion traction battery
2.14.Energy harvesting on and in electric vehicles
2.15.Tradeoff of energy storage technologies
2.15.Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored.
2.16.Probable future improvement in parameters of lithium-ion batteries for pure electric and hybrid EVs
2.16.Trend to high voltage
2.17.Component choices for energy density/ power density
2.17.Cleaner hybrid bus promotion
2.18.Price premium for hybrid buses
2.18.Fuel cells rescued by batteries
2.19.PEM fuel cells
2.19.Main modes of rotational energy harvesting in vehicles
2.20.Main forms of photovoltaic energy harvesting on vehicles
2.20.Trend to distributed components
2.21.Trend to flatness then smart skin
2.21.Maximum power from the most powerful forms of energy harvesting on or in vehicles
2.22.Hybrid bus with range improved by a few percent using solar panels
2.23.Comparison of battery technologies
2.24.Possible trend in battery power storage and voltage of power distribution
2.25.Comparison of energy density of power components for hybrid vehicles
2.26.Trend of size of the largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in 98 bus trials worldwide over the last twenty years.
2.27.Evolution of traction batteries and range extenders for large hybrid electric vehicles as they achieve longer all-electric range over the next decade.
2.28.Three generations of lithium-ion battery with technical features that are sometimes problematical
2.29.The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
2.30.Mitsubishi view of hybrid vehicle powertrain evolution
2.31.Flat lithium-ion batteries for a car and, bottom, UAVs
2.32.Supercapacitors that facilitate fast charging and discharging of the traction batteries are spread out on a bus roof
2.33.Asola photovoltaic panel on Fisker hybrid sports car.
3.ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET OVERVIEW
3.1.The whole picture
3.1.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector
3.1.Main market drivers 2011-2021
3.1.1.Synergies
3.1.2.What is excluded?
3.2.Largest sectors
3.2.Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded
3.2.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector
3.3.Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded
3.3.Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded
3.3.Numbers of manufacturers
3.4.Heavy industrial sector
3.4.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by application in 2010
3.4.Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded
3.5.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2010 by application with numbers for China
3.5.Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles in China by application in 2010
3.5.Buses
3.6.The light industrial and commercial sector
3.6.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
3.6.Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex factory unit price and total value 2011-2021, rounded
3.7.Global sales of buses, ex factory unit price and total value 2011-2021, rounded
3.7.The Mission Motors Mission One 150 mph, 150 mile range electric motorcycle
3.7.Two wheel and allied vehicles
3.8.Cars
3.8.Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs by numbers thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.
3.9.Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2011-2021, rounded
3.9.Golf
3.10.Military
3.10.Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.
3.11.Global sales of electric cars number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.
3.11.Marine
3.12.Other
3.12.Value of the hybrid, pure electric and total electric car market in billions of dollars 2010-2020
3.13.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2011-2021
3.13.Market for EV components
3.14.Timelines
3.14.Global sales of electric golf cars in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded
3.15.Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.
3.15.Watch Japan, China and Korea
3.16.Vacillation by some governments
3.16.Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.
3.17.Global sales of other electric vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded
3.17.Healthy shakeout of the car industry
3.18.Full circle back to pure EVs
3.18.Components and subsystems fitted in new electric vehicles 2010-2020 in thousands
3.19.Highlights 2010-2020
3.19.Winning strategies
4.MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR REEVS
4.1.Range extenders for land craft
4.1.Northrop Grumman surveillance airship with fuel cell range extender and energy harvesting for virtually unlimited range.
4.2.Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison
4.2.Range Extenders for electric aircraft
4.2.1.Military aircraft
4.3.Comparisons
4.3.Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison
4.4.Battery and jet fuel loading
4.4.Fuel cells in aviation
4.5.Civil aircraft
4.5.Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives
4.6.Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes
4.6.Potential for electric airliners
4.7.Range extenders for marine craft
4.7.Takeoff gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.
4.8.JAMSTEC Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle FCUV
4.9.Soliloquy superyacht with multiple energy harvesting including solar sails that fold like a penknife
5.RANGE EXTENDER DEVELOPERS AND MANUFACTURERS
5.1.Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA
5.1.AeroVironment Raven
5.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
5.2.Raven enhancement
5.2.Aerovironment / Protonex Technology USA
5.3.Austro Engine Austria
5.3.Aqua Puma
5.4.AeroVironment Helios
5.4.Bladon Jets UK
5.5.Capstone Turbine Corporation USA
5.5.Global Observer first flight August 2010
5.6.Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender for cars and light aircraft and the Jaguar CX75
5.6.Clarian Laboratories USA
5.7.Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany
5.7.Jaguar Land Rover
5.8.Capstone microturbine
5.8.DLR German Aerospace Center Germany
5.9.EcoMotors
5.9.Capstone turbine in a Japanese bus
5.10.Various sizes of Capstone MicroTurbines
5.10.Ener1 USA
5.11.FEV USA
5.11.Clarian Laboratories' range extender
5.12.Daimler roadmap for commercial vehicles
5.12.Flight Design Germany
5.13.Getrag Germany
5.13.DLR fuel cell and the electric A320 airliner nose wheel it drives when the airliner is on the ground.
5.14.Holstenblitz fuel cell car trial
5.14.GSE USA
5.15.Intelligent Energy UK
5.15.EcoMotors opposing piston range extender
5.16.FEV extreme downsized range extender engine
5.16.Lotus Engineering UK
5.17.MAHLE Powertrain UK
5.17.GSE mini diesel driving a propeller
5.18.Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.
5.18.Polaris Industries Switzerland
5.19.Powertrain Technologies UK
5.19.Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system
5.20.Fuel cell taxi trials
5.20.Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany
5.21.Ricardo UK
5.21.Fuel cell development
5.22.Lotus hybrid powertrain and second generation range extender ICE
5.22.Volkswagen Germany
5.23.Lotus monoblock range extender
5.24.Proton EMAS
5.25.Polaris REX range extender left with generator, right with peripherals as well
5.26.Location of technical advances in Polaris range extender
5.27.Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs
5.28.Volkswagen XL1 hybrid concept
6.RANGE EXTENDER INTEGRATORS
6.1.Altria Controls USA
6.1.Adura powertrain with microturbine.
6.2.Ashok Leyland CNG hybrid bus
6.2.Ashok Leyland India
6.3.Audi Germany
6.3.Azure Dynamics hybrid powertrain
6.4.Bus with BAE Systems hybrid power train
6.4.AVL Austria
6.5.Azure Dynamics USA
6.5.Boeing fuel cell aircraft
6.6.DesignLine bus with Capstone turbine range extender.
6.6.BAE Systems UK
6.7.BMW Germany
6.7.ENFICA FC two seater fuel cell plane
6.8.Ford Lincoln hybrid car has no price premium over the conventional version
6.8.Boeing Dreamworks USA
6.9.Chrysler USA
6.9.Frazer-Nash REEV powertrain
6.10.Namir EREV Supercar
6.10.DesignLine New Zealand
6.11.EADS Germany
6.11.Proton Exora
6.12.Chevrolet Volt powertrain
6.12.ENFICA-FC Italy
6.13.Ford USA
6.13.Honda IMA
6.14.German fuel cell powered diesel submarine
6.14.Frazer-Nash UK
6.15.General Motors including Opel
6.15.Hyundai Blue hybrid car
6.16.Hyundai fuel cell powered car
6.16.Honda Japan
6.17.Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft Germany
6.17.Igot Chak hybrid motorcycle
6.18.Hybrid Land Rover trial
6.18.Hyundai Korea
6.19.Igor Chak Russia
6.19.Planned Jaguar supercar
6.20.The LPE REEV concept car
6.20.Jaguar Land Rover UK
6.21.Lange Aviation Germany
6.21.Marion Hyper-Sub Submersible Powerboat
6.22.Skyspark in flight 2009
6.22.Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK
6.23.Marion HSPD USA
6.23.Suzuki Burgman fuel cell scooter
6.24.Suzuki concept fuel cell motorcycle headed for production
6.24.Pipistrel Slovenia
6.25.SAIC China
6.25.Tata Motors roadmap for hybrid commercial vehicles
6.26.Toyota Prius hybrid car is the world's best selling electric car
6.26.Skyspark Italy
6.27.Suzuki Japan
6.27.Toyota hybrid forklift
6.28.Turtle Airship landed on water in concept drawing
6.28.Tata Motors India
6.29.Toyota Japan
6.29.Glassock hybrid set up for dynamometer testing
6.30.Hybrid quad bike
6.30.Turtle Airships Spain
6.31.University of Bristol UK
6.31.Hydrogenius
6.32.Tyrano hybrid tractor
6.32.Université de Sherbrooke Canada
6.33.University of Stuttgart Germany
6.33.Volvo hybrid bus
6.34.Volvo technical concept 1
6.34.Vision Motor Corporation USA
6.35.Volvo Sweden/ China
6.35.Volvo technical concept 2
6.36.Volvo technical concept 3
6.36.Yo-Avto Russia
7.MARKET DRIVERS AND FORECASTS
7.1.Market drivers and impediments
7.1.Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021
7.1.Primary hybrid market drivers
7.2.Probable global market for electric vehicle range extenders in 2021 by power, number and market value for small, medium and large range extenders
7.2.Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.
7.2.Funding as a market driver
7.3.EV Market 2011 and 2021
7.3.Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
7.3.Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by numbers thousands 2011-2021
7.4.Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021
7.4.Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
7.4.Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
7.5.Three generations of range extender
7.5.Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
7.5.Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY
APPENDIX 3: FUEL CELL 2000 SUMMARY OF FUEL CELL BUS TRIALS TO 2010
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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