Photonics Report

Challenges and opportunities with the drive to reshuffle the supply chain in the next decade

Micro-LED Displays 2020-2030: Technology, Commercialization, Opportunity, Market and Players

Micro-LEDs for AR/VR/MR, TVs, automotive, mobile phone, wearables, tables, laptop and large video displays, with analysis of technology, supply chain, market, player and opportunities


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After the acquisition of LuxVue by Apple in 2014, micro-light emitting diode (MicroLED, or µLED) has become an attractive emissive display technology pursued by players from various industries. MicroLED displays deliver value propositions such as wide colour gamut, high luminance, low power consumption, excellent stability and long lifetime, wide view angle, high dynamic range, high contrast, fast refresh rate, transparency, seamless connection, sensor integration capability, etc. Some of the value propositions can be provided by alternatives such as LCD, OLED and QD, while one of the strong drivers to develop microLED displays are these unique value propositions.
 
 
Value propositions of various display technologies. Source: IDTechEx
 
 
The first microLED commercial product, the Crystal LED display, was launched by Sony, which replaced the traditional packaged LEDs by microLEDs. These small-pitch LED video displays target the to-B market and both the costs and prices are far more expensive than what already exist. Technology immaturity, cost barriers and supply chain incompletion are three major hurdles in large-scale commercialization for microLED displays.
 
With existing LED industry and mature display industry, the emerging mass transfer sector is the link to bridge these two industries and they together can be the enabler to establish a new supply chain. With the basis that current LCD manufacturing is shifting to China due to cost advantage and South Korea is dominating OLED displays, those who can react quick enough to take an important position in the shaped supply chain will seize the next big opportunity. The game is open to conventional LED suppliers, display vendors, component providers, OEMs, integrators, and also welcome newcomers that can bring technology innovation, material improvement, equipment support, and business model revolution.
 
To make strategic decisions, both information and insights are required. These include but are not limited to technology limitations and capabilities, market status analysis, supply chain interpretation, player activity tracking, and global trend understanding. This report will tackle these aspects accordingly.
 
To fabricate a microLED display, many technologies and processes are involved, such as epitaxy, photolithography, chip fabrication, substrate removal, inspection, mass transfer, bonding and interconnection, testing, repair, backplane and drive IC, etc. After years of development, some technology difficulties have been solved, while new challenges are placed in front of us. For instance, several years ago, the major efforts were concentrated in die miniaturization, chip design and mass transfer, etc. Recently, more and more players realize a complete understanding of all the processes is the key. Therefore, an increasing number of people put more efforts also on technologies such as inspection, repair, driving, image improvement, light management and high-volume production equipment. This report provides all the major technology choices with detailed introduction, analysis and comparison. It also shows what important players have offered to the market and their technologies behind the prototypes/products. The targeting applications cover from micro-displays such as AR/VR/MR, to consumer middle-sized displays like smart phones and TVs, to huge displays, e.g. large video public displays. The corresponding technologies vary from each other. With a deep understanding of each technology it is possible to understand where we are and where we can go.
 
With players holding various technologies, they have different entry markets to target. In this report, we have focused on 9 applications to analyse. They are augmented/mixed reality (AR/MR), virtual reality (VR), large video displays, TVs and monitors, automotive displays, mobile phones, smart watches and wearables, tablets and laptops, and emerging displays. A ten-year market forecast is provided based on shipment unit in each application. In addition, an application roadmap is offered with the consideration of different maturity readiness of each application.
 
As more and more players are plunging into microLED industry, they gradually choose to work with each other directly or in a large network. Several supply chain clusters are formed based on geography, with cross-continental collaboration more and more common. We also show regional efforts in the report.
 
All these collaborations indicate that globalization continues to be our future trend. However, important international events such as the trade war and coronavirus make our decisions more difficult; we also discussed their impacts in the report, especially their influence on the supply chain.
 
Objectives of the report:
 
Technology assessment
− Value propositions, benefits and drawbacks compared with competing technologies
− Drivers and motivations
− Current status
− Technology breakthroughs
− Technology challenges and roadmap to tackle these issues
− Activities of research institutes, universities and start-ups
 
Application interpterion
− Roadmap for display applications
− How mature and disruptive are micro-LEDs for these applications
− What we can expect in the near future
 
Market landscape, business opportunity and supply chains
− Cost analysis
− Impact on the supply chain and identify possible supply chain for micro-LED displays
− Market forecast
− Regional efforts
 
Players
− Identify key players, IP owners and emerging start-ups
 
Who should read it: Display makers, LED suppliers, material suppliers, R&D organizations, technology providers, OEMs/ODMs, investors, players who are exploring new opportunities
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Micro-LED Displays 2020-2030
1.2.Abbreviation
1.3.Executive Summary
1.4.What is the report about and who should read it?
1.5.Existing large mini-/micro-LED display announcements
1.6.Expectation of future displays
1.7.Status of OLED
1.8.Strategies of QDs in display
1.9.Characteristic comparison of different display technologies
1.10.Horizontal comparison
1.11.Why Micro-LED Displays?
1.12.Micro-LED value propositions compared with LCD, OLED, QD
1.13.Importance of identifying core value propositions
1.14.Core value propositions of µLED displays 1
1.15.Core value propositions of µLED displays 2
1.16.Core value propositions of µLED displays 3
1.17.Core value propositions of µLED displays 4
1.18.Core value propositions of µLED displays 5
1.19.Analysis of micro-LED's value propositions
1.20.Influence of resolution for applications
1.21.Micro-LED display types
1.22.Potential applications for micro-LED displays
1.23.Matrix analysis
1.24.Display requirements for XR applications
1.25.Application analysis: Augmented/mixed reality
1.26.Application analysis: Virtual reality
1.27.Application analysis: Large video displays
1.28.Application analysis: Televisions and monitors
1.29.Application analysis: Automotive displays
1.30.Application analysis: Mobile phones
1.31.Application analysis: Smart watches and wearables
1.32.Application analysis: Tablets and laptops
1.33.Micro-LED application roadmap
1.34.Emerging displays enabled by micro-LED technology
1.35.Micro-LED display fabrication flowchart
1.36.Technologies of micro-LED displays
1.37.Challenge transition for micro-display manufacturing
1.38.Current achievements of micro-LED displays
1.39.Summary of challenges for micro-LED displays
1.40.Issues with RGB micro-LED chips
1.41.Micro-LED performance summary
1.42.Full colour realization
1.43.Quantum dots for µLEDs
1.44.What kind of role are mini LEDs playing?
1.45.Regional development: Taiwan
1.46.Regional development: Mainland China
1.47.Regional development: Japan & Korea
1.48.Regional development: Europe
1.49.Regional development: US
1.50.Supply chain status
1.51.Supply chain reshuffle
1.52.Possible supply chain for micro-LED displays
1.53.Scenarios of supply chain dominance
1.54.Supply chain influenced by trade war and coronavirus
2.INTRODUCTION TO MICRO-LED DISPLAY
2.1.Introduction to Micro-LED Display
2.2.From traditional LEDs...
2.3....to Micro-LEDs
2.4.Comparisons of LEDs for displays
2.5.Correlations between mini-LED, micro-LED and fine pitch LED displays
2.6.From traditional LEDs to micro-LED
2.7.Display types based on micro-LEDs
2.8.Advantages of AM micro-LED micro-displays
2.9.LED size definitions
2.10.Micro-LED displays: size is an important feature
2.11.Micro LED displays: beyond the size
2.12.A better definition?
2.13.Micro-LED display panel structure
3.EPITAXY AND CHIP MANUFACTURING
3.1.Introduction to light-emitting diodes
3.1.1.History of solid-state lighting
3.1.2.What is an LED?
3.1.3.How does an LED work?
3.1.4.Homojunction vs. heterojunction
3.1.5.LEDs by package technique 1
3.1.6.LEDs by package technique 2
3.1.7.Typical LED and packaged LED sizes
3.1.8.Comparison between SMD and COB
3.1.9.COB for displays
3.1.10.List of global major LED companies with introduction
3.2.Epitaxy
3.2.1.Bandgap vs. lattice constant for III-V semiconductors
3.2.2.Materials for commercial LED chips 1
3.2.3.Materials for commercial LED chips 2
3.2.4.Green gap
3.2.5.Epitaxy substrate
3.2.6.Wafer patterning 1
3.2.7.Wafer patterning 2
3.2.8.Wafer patterning 3
3.2.9.Epitaxy methods
3.2.10.Metal organic chemical vapor deposition
3.2.11.Pros and cons of MOCVD
3.2.12.Epitaxial growth requirement
3.2.13.Offering from Aixtron and Veeco
3.2.14.Veeco's offering
3.2.15.Engineered substrate
3.2.16.Wafer uniformity 1
3.2.17.Wavelength uniformity 2
3.2.18.Solutions for wafer nonuniformity
3.3.Chip manufacturing
3.3.1.LED fabrication flowchart
3.3.2.Typical RGB LED designs
3.3.3.LED chip structures 1
3.3.4.LED chip structures 2
3.3.5.LED chip structure illustrations
3.3.6.Future of the LED chip structure
3.3.7.Epi-film transfer
3.3.8.Fabrication of vertical GaN-LEDs
3.4.Micro-LED Performances
3.4.1.Influence of micro-LED performance
3.4.2.EQE of micro-LED versus current density 1
3.4.3.EQE of micro-LED versus current density 2
3.4.4.Efficiency droop
3.4.5.Bowing of wavelength shift
3.4.6.Size dependence of micro-LEDs 1
3.4.7.Size dependence of micro-LEDs 2
3.4.8.Size dependence of micro-LEDs 3
3.4.9.Efficiencies and requirement of RGB micro-LEDs
3.4.10.Surface recombination
3.4.11.Sidewall effect
3.4.12.Efficiency improvement
4.TRANSFER AND ASSEMBLY
4.1.1.Introduction
4.1.2.Mass transfer and assembly technologies
4.1.3.Requirements of mass transfer
4.1.4.Chiplet mass transfer types
4.2.Chiplet Mass Transfer
4.2.1.Introduction to chiplet mass assembly
4.2.2.Chiplet mass transfer scenario 1
4.2.3.Chiplet mass transfer scenario 2
4.2.4.Comparison of mass transfer technologies
4.2.5.Comparison of transfer technologies of different companies
4.2.6.Transfer yield
4.3.Fine pick and place
4.3.1.Overview of Elastomeric stamp
4.3.2.Transfer process flow
4.3.3.Elastomeric stamp: pros and cons
4.3.4.Stamp yield vs. defect density
4.3.5.Key technologies for micro-LED mass transfer
4.3.6.Substrate treatment
4.3.7.Kinetic control of the elastomeric stamp adhesion
4.3.8.Elastomeric stamp
4.3.9.Pitch size determination
4.3.10.X-Celeprint
4.3.11.µLED fabrication
4.3.12.µLEDs from sapphire substrate
4.3.13.Passive matrix displays made by micro-transfer printing
4.3.14.Passive matrix μLED display fabrication 1
4.3.15.Passive matrix μLED display fabrication 2
4.3.16.Active matrix displays made by micro-transfer printing
4.3.17.Active matrix μLED display fabrication
4.3.18.Automated micro-transfer printing machinery
4.3.19.Capillary-assisted transfer printing
4.3.20.Mikro Mesa: Transfer technology
4.3.21.Mikro Mesa: Transfer flowchart 1
4.3.22.Mikro Mesa: Transfer flowchart 2
4.3.23.Mikro Mesa: Transfer stamp
4.3.24.Mikro Mesa: Transfer design target
4.3.25.PlayNitride: Mass transfer for micro-LED chips
4.3.26.Visionox 1
4.3.27.Visionox 2
4.3.28.ITRI: Chip fabrication
4.3.29.ITRI's mass transfer process
4.3.30.ITRI's transfer module
4.3.31.Overview of electrostatic array
4.3.32.Apple/LuxVue 1
4.3.33.Apple/LuxVue 2
4.3.34.VerLASE's large area assembly platform
4.3.35.Interposer idea
4.4.Self assembly
4.4.1.Introduction of fluidic-assembly
4.4.2.eLux: introduction
4.4.3.Fabrication of micro-LED chip array
4.4.4.eLux's fluidic assembly
4.4.5.eLux's display prototypes
4.4.6.eLux's supply chain
4.4.7.eLux's core patent technology 1
4.4.8.eLux's core patent technology 2
4.4.9.eLux's core patent technology 3
4.4.10.eLux's core patent technology 4
4.4.11.eLux's core patent technology 5
4.4.12.eLux's core patent technology 6
4.4.13.Image quality comparison
4.4.14.SWOT analysis of eLux's technology
4.4.15.Other fluidic assembly techniques
4.4.16.Fluidic assembly (physical): overview
4.4.17.Alien
4.4.18.Alien's fluidic self assembly technology
4.4.19.Self-assembly based on shape/geometry matching
4.4.20.Shape-based self assembly
4.4.21.Fluidic assembly (electrophoretic): overview
4.4.22.Electrophoretic positioning of LEDs
4.4.23.PARC's xerographic micro-assembly Printing 1
4.4.24.PARC's xerographic micro-assembly Printing 2
4.4.25.Fluidic-assembly (surface energy): overview
4.4.26.Mechanism of surface-tension-driven fluidic assembly
4.4.27.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 1
4.4.28.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 2
4.4.29.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 3
4.4.30.Surface tension based fluidic assembly 4
4.4.31.Fluidic-assembly (magnetic): overview
4.4.32.Magnetically-assisted assembly
4.4.33.Fluidic-assembly (photoelectrochemical): overview
4.4.34.Photoelectrochemically driven fluidic-assembly
4.4.35.Fluidic-assembly (combination): overview
4.4.36.Chip mounting apparatus
4.4.37.Summary of fluidic assembly
4.4.38.SelfArray
4.5.Laser enabled transfer
4.5.1.Overview of laser enabled transfer
4.5.2.Laser beam requirement
4.5.3.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 1
4.5.4.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 2
4.5.5.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 3
4.5.6.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 4
4.5.7.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology 5
4.5.8.QMAT's beam-addressed release technology
4.5.9.Optovate's technology 1
4.5.10.Optovate's technology 2
4.5.11.Coherent's approach
4.5.12.Toray's offering
4.5.13.Visionox's achievement
4.6.Other chiplet mass transfer techniques
4.6.1.Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) 1
4.6.2.Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) 2
4.6.3.VueReal's cartridge printing technique
4.6.4.VueReal's micro printer
4.6.5.Innovasonic's technology
4.6.6.Rohinni's technology
4.6.7.Two-step micro-transfer technology 1
4.6.8.Two-step micro-transfer technology 2
4.6.9.Two-step micro-transfer technology 3
4.6.10.Two-step micro-transfer technology 4
4.6.11.Micro-transfer using a stretchable film
4.6.12.Micro-pick-and-place
4.7.Monolithic Hybrid Integration
4.7.1.Monolithic integration
4.7.2.Flip-chip hybrid integration
4.7.3.Monolithic hybrid integration structure
4.7.4.Selective transfer by selective bonding-debonding
4.7.5.Pros and cons of monolithic hybrid integration
4.7.6.Players on monolithic hybrid integration
4.8.All-In-One Transfer
4.8.1.All-in-one CMOS driving
4.8.2.Pros and cons of all-in-one CMOS driving technique
4.9.Fully Monolithic Integration
4.9.1.Introduction of fully monolithic integration
4.9.2.JBD's integration technology
4.9.3.Lumiode approach
4.9.4.Lumiode approach, process details
4.9.5.Temperature performance for the crystallization
4.9.6.Wafer from Lumiode
4.9.7.Ostendo's approach
4.9.8.Ostendo's QPI structure
4.10.GaN on Silicon
4.10.1.GaN-on-Si for various application markets
4.10.2.GaN on silicon epi types
4.10.3.Challenges of GaN-on-Silicon epitaxy
4.10.4.Value propositions of GaN-on-Si 1
4.10.5.Value propositions of GaN-on-Si 2
4.10.6.GaN on sapphire vs. on silicon
4.10.7.GaN-on-Si approach
4.10.8.Is GaN-on-Si the ultimate option?
4.10.9.Players working on GaN micro-LEDs on silicon
4.11.Nanowires
4.11.1.Comparison between 2D and 3D micro-LEDs
4.11.2.GaN epitaxy on silicon substrate
4.11.3.Aledia process flow
4.11.4.Aledia's nanowire technology
4.11.5.Front size device technology
4.11.6.Nanowires growth on silicon substrate
4.11.7.Size influence on nanowire's efficiency
4.11.8.Native EL RGB nanowires
4.11.9.3D technology for small-display applications
4.11.10.Micro-display enabled by nanowires and 3D integration
4.11.11.Future of the nanowire approach
4.12.Bonding and interconnection
4.12.1.Classification
4.12.2.Summary
4.12.3.Wire bonding and flip chip bonding
4.12.4.Interconnection by resin reflow
4.12.5.Microtube interconnections
4.12.6.Microtube fabrication
4.12.7.Transfer and interconnection process by microtubes
5.TESTING
5.1.Testing techniques
5.2.PL vs. EL testing
5.3.EL test by Tesoro Scientific 1
5.4.EL test by Tesoro Scientific 2
5.5.Camera-based microscopic imaging system
5.6.Inspection solution by Toray 1
5.7.Inspection solution by Toray 2
5.8.Instrument System's solution
5.9.PL+AOI
5.10.TTPCON's solution
5.11.Cathodoluminescence used for testing
5.12.Trends of testing
6.DEFECT MANAGEMENT
6.1.Introduction
6.2.Defect types
6.3.Redundancy
6.4.Repair 1
6.5.Repair 2
6.6.Laser micro trimming 1
6.7.Laser micro trimming 2
6.8.Defect compensation by QDs
7.MICRO-LED DISPLAY FULL-COLOUR REALIZATION
7.1.1.Strategies for full colour realization
7.1.2.RGB micro-LEDs vs. blue micro-LED + QD 1
7.1.3.RGB micro-LEDs vs. blue micro-LED + QD 2
7.2.Colour filters
7.2.1.Colour filters
7.2.2.Colour filter process flow: black matrix process
7.2.3.Colour filter process flow: RGB process 1
7.2.4.Colour filter process flow: RGB process 2
7.3.Optical lens synthesis
7.3.1.Full colour realized by optical lens synthesis
7.3.2.Full colour realization for projectors
7.4.Do phosphors work for micro-LED displays?
7.4.1.Introduction to phosphors 1
7.4.2.Introduction to phosphors 2
7.4.3.Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
7.4.4.Table of phosphor materials
7.4.5.Search for narrow FWHM red phosphors
7.4.6.Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
7.4.7.Red phosphor options: TriGainTM from GE
7.4.8.Reliability of TriGain
7.4.9.Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
7.4.10.Small sized PFS phosphor
7.4.11.Red phosphor options: Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ (SLA) red phosphor
7.4.12.Thermal stability of common RGY phosphors
7.4.13.Narrow band green phosphor
7.4.14.High performance organic phosphors
7.4.15.Toray's organic colour conversion film
7.4.16.Colour coverage of Toray's colour conversion films
7.4.17.Stability of Toray's colour conversion films
7.4.18.Response time feature of Toray's colour conversion films
7.4.19.Suppliers of phosphors
7.5.Quantum dot approach
7.5.1.Introduction to quantum dots
7.5.2.Quantum dots used for micro-LED displays
7.5.3.QDs vs. phosphors: particle size
7.5.4.QDs vs. phosphors: response time
7.5.5.QDs vs. phosphors: colour tunability
7.5.6.QDs vs. phosphors: stability
7.5.7.QDs vs. phosphors: FWHM
7.5.8.Pros and cons of QD converters
7.5.9.Basic requirements of QDs for micro-LED displays
7.5.10.Trade-off between efficiency and leakage
7.5.11.Efficiency drop and red shift
7.5.12.Thickness of the QD layer for absorption
7.5.13.Display structure with QDs
7.5.14.Polarizers, short-pass filters, and other additional layers?
7.5.15.QD converters for µLED displays
7.5.16.Photolithography process
7.5.17.Successive patterning of red and green QD of various sizes
7.5.18.Quantum-dots colour conversion layer
7.5.19.Inkjet printed QD 1
7.5.20.Inkjet printed QD 2
7.5.21.Full-colour emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display by aerosol jet technology
7.5.22.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 1
7.5.23.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 2
7.5.24.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 3
7.5.25.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 4
7.5.26.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 5
7.5.27.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 6
7.6.Quantum well approach
7.6.1.Quantum wells
7.6.2.Conclusions
8.LIGHT MANAGEMENT
8.1.Light management approach summary
8.2.Layers to optimize current distribution for better light extraction
8.3.InfiniLED's approach to increase light extraction efficiency 1
8.4.InfiniLED's approach to increase light extraction efficiency 2
8.5.Methods to capture light output
8.6.Micro-catadioptric optical array for better directionality
9.BACKPLANES AND DRIVING
9.1.Backplane and driving options for Micro-LED displays
9.2.Introduction to metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors
9.3.Introduction to thin film transistors
9.4.Introduction to complementary metal oxide semiconductor
9.5.Introduction to backplane
9.6.TFT materials
9.7.Pixel driving for OLED
9.8.LCD pixel structure
9.9.TFT backplane
9.10.Passive matrix addressing
9.11.Passive driving structure
9.12.Active matrix addressing
9.13.Comparison between PM and AM addressing
9.14.Transistor-micro-LED connection design
9.15.Driving for micro-LEDs
9.16.PAM vs. PWM
9.17.Pulse width modulation
9.18.Driving voltage
9.19.RGB driver
9.20.Active matrix micro-LEDs with LTPS TFT backplane
9.21.Conclusion
10.COST ANALYSIS
10.1.Cost basics
10.2.Micro-LED cost vs. Die size
10.3.Cost assumption
10.4.Cost analysis
10.5.Economics of micro-LED: cost down paths
11.MARKET ANALYSIS
12.PLAYERS AND CASE STUDIES
12.1.Players discussed in this report
12.2.Aledia
12.3.Aledia: introduction
12.4.Scalability to larger silicon substrate
12.5.Aledia's quasi-fabless business model
12.6.Integration process of Aledia's WireLED display
12.7.Wafer uniformity of nanowires
12.8.Colour conversion of WireLEDs
12.9.Interconnection options
12.10.Aledia's display modules
12.11.ALLOS Semiconductors
12.12.ALLOS Semiconductors: introduction
12.13.Strain management and emission uniformity 1
12.14.Strain management and emission uniformity 2
12.15.Strain management
12.16.Aoto Electronics
12.17.Apple
12.18.Apple
12.19.AU Optronics
12.20.AU Optronics
12.21.AUO's LTPS TFT driven micro-LED display 1
12.22.AUO's LTPS TFT driven micro-LED display 2
12.23.CEA-Leti
12.24.CEA-Leti: introduction
12.25.Demos by hybridization technology
12.26.Display performance
12.27.Process of fabricating hybridization micro-displays
12.28.Process of fabricating monolithic micro-displays
12.29.Novel approach for monolithic display fabrication
12.30.EpiPix
12.31.Introduction of EpiPix
12.32.EpiPix's technique
12.33.glō
12.34.Introduction of glō
12.35.Glō's technology
12.36.Glō's prototypes
12.37.ITRI
12.38.ITRI development of micro-LEDs
12.39.ITRI's offering
12.40.Micro-LED device characteristics
12.41.Reliability test
12.42.ITRI's MicroLED displays
12.43.ITRI's transparent MicroLED displays
12.44.ITRI
12.45.Jade Bird Display
12.46.Jade Bird Display: introduction
12.47.Existing hybrid integration technology by flip chip techique
12.48.Device fabrication 1
12.49.Device fabrication 2
12.50.Device structure and architecture
12.51.micro-LEDs for the JBD's micro-displays
12.52.JBD's monochromatic AM micro-LED micro-displays
12.53.AM micro-LED with directional emission
12.54.Application: 3 colour LED projector
12.55.High PPI AM micro-LED micro-display
12.56.AM micro-LED chips
12.57.Prototype for AR/VR
12.58.Konka
12.59.Konka's efforts on Micro-LED displays
12.60.Kyocera
12.61.Kyocera: high PPI micro-LED display
12.62.Kyocera: display design
12.63.LG
12.64.Micro LED Signage
12.65.Lumens
12.66.Lumens' micro-LED displays
12.67.Lumen's prototypes
12.68.Lumiode
12.69.Lumiode: introduction
12.70.Lumiode approach, process details
12.71.Lumiode's micro-LED performance
12.72.Lumiode's device performance
12.73.Micro Nitride
12.74.Micro Nitride: Introduction
12.75.Micro Nitride's technology 1
12.76.Micro Nitride's technology 2
12.77.Mikro Mesa
12.78.About Mikro Mesa
12.79.Mikro Mesa's micro-LEDs
12.80.Mikro Mesa: Current injection
12.81.Nanjing CEC Panda FPD Technology
12.82.Introduction of CEC Panda
12.83.Micro-LED and oxide development of Panda
12.84.Plessey
12.85.Plessey: GaN-on-Silicon
12.86.Plessey's display development roadmap
12.87.LED manufacturing
12.88.Pixel development
12.89.RGB GaN on silicon
12.90.Plessey's core development
12.91.Prototype
12.92.PlayNitride
12.93.PlayNitride: Introduction
12.94.Role of PlayNitride at micro-LED ecosystem
12.95.PixeLED display structure
12.96.PlayNitride: Prototypes 1
12.97.PlayNitride : Prototypes 2
12.98.PlayNitride : Prototypes 3
12.99.PlayNitride: Prototypes 4
12.100.Rohinni
12.101.Introduction of Rohinni
12.102.Samsung
12.103.The Wall vs. The Window
12.104.LED Cinema Screen
12.105.Saphlux
12.106.Saphlux: introduction
12.107.NPQD technology
12.108.Sharp
12.109.Sharp: introduction
12.110.Process flow of Silicon Display
12.111.Display driver
12.112.Monolithic micro-LED array
12.113.Full colour realization
12.114.Prototypes made by Sharp
12.115.Sony
12.116.Sony: initial efforts
12.117.Sony: scalable display system
12.118.Sony: precise tiling 1
12.119.Sony: precise tiling 2
12.120.Sony: micro-LEDs
12.121.Sony: viewing angle advantages
12.122.Sony: active matrix driving with micro IC
12.123.Sony: HDR reproducibility
12.124.Sony: business strategy
12.125.Stan (Shenzhen) Technology
12.126.Stan Technology
12.127.TCL
12.128.The Cinema Wall
12.129.TFT backplane-based micro-LED displays
12.130.Visionox
12.131.Visionox's planning
12.132.VueReal
12.133.VueReal: introduction
12.134.VueReal: high efficient micro-LEDs
12.135.VueReal: Inspection
12.136.VueReal: curing
12.137.VueReal: prototypes
13.APPENDIX
13.1.Colours and pixels
13.2.What is resolution?
13.3.Pixel pitch and fill factor
13.4.EQE and IQE
13.5.3D colour volume
13.6.LCD panel structure
13.7.Active matrix-LCD structure
 

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