Printed, Flexible and Organic Electronics Report

Conductive Ink Markets 2018-2028: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

Silver flake, silver nanoparticles, copper inks and pastes, graphene and beyond

Brand new for February 2018
Emerging markets will grow to represent a $580m market opportunity by 2028
This report provides the most comprehensive and authoritative view of the 2370 tpa conductive inks and paste market, giving detailed ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and material type. The market forecasts are given in tonnage and value at the ink level.
It includes critical reviews of all the competing conductive inks and paste technologies including firing-type pastes, PTFs, laser-cut or photo-patterned pastes, nanoparticles, stretchable inks, in-mould inks, copper, copper/silver alloys, nanocarbons, and more. Here, we outline the latest performance levels/progress, technology challenges, key suppliers, existing and emerging target market, and forecasts where appropriate.
It also provides a detailed assessment of more than 25 application sectors. Here, we analyse the market needs/requirements, discuss the business dynamics, market leadership and technology change trends, competing solutions, latest product/prototype launches, key players and market forecasts in tonnes and value.
The markets covered include photovoltaics, touch screen edge electrodes, automotive (defoggers, seat occupancy sensors, seat heaters, etc.), in-mould electronics (automotive, home appliance, etc.), Electronic textile and wearable electronics, 3D antennas and conformal printing, EMI Shielding, 3D printed electronics, multi layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC), sintered die attach paste, ITO replacement (hybrid, direct printing, etc), printed piezoresistive, capacitive and bio sensors, PCB (DIY/hobbyist, professional, seed-and-plate), RFID (HF, UHF), printed TFT and memory, OLED and large-area LED lighting, flexible e-readers and reflective displays, large-area heaters (battery, plant, seat, etc.), conductive pens, digitizers and more.
In the report we also cover more than 130 companies. For most, we provide insights based on primary intelligence obtained through interviews, visits, conference exhibition interactions, personal communications, and so on. For more than 50 we provide full interview-based company profiles including a detailed SWOT analysis and IDTechEx Index. These provide valuable insight on company positioning, strategy, opportunities, and challenges.
Unrivalled market intelligence and insight
This report is based upon years of research. In the past five years alone, our analysts have interviewed more than 100 industry players, visited numerous users/ suppliers across the world, attended more than 20 relevant conferences/exhibitions globally, and worked with many industry players to help them with their strategy towards this market. For example, in the last two years alone we visited around 20 tradeshows in Japan, USA, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, UK and so on to update our report. Prior to this, our analysts played an active role in commercializing conductive pastes, particularly in the photovoltaic industry.
In parallel to this, IDTechEx has organised the leading global conferences and tradeshows on printed electronics for the past decade in Asia, Europe and USA. These shows bring together the entire value chain on printed electronics, including all the conductive ink suppliers, printers, and end users. This has given us unrivalled access to the players and the latest market intelligence.
Search for the next big thing begins to bear fruit
The record boom in photovoltaics lifted the entire industry up last year, turning it into a success for many regardless of their market share standings. Indeed, the demand, driven predominantly by China, was so high that many were working at or near full capacity. This however cannot mask the overreliance of the industry on the seemingly irreplaceable PV industry. Indeed, the industry will remain concerned that it may reach peak silver consumption soon despite growing unit sales. In the short term, incremental innovation reducing content per cell and increased competitive pressures further changing the market share standings will shape the industry. In the long term, the risk is that the new future capacity will adopt novel PV technologies and architectures that jeopardize the printed inks' grip on the conductor element.
This is why the conductive ink industry is still in search of the next big thing. To this end, it sets out to exploit the wonderful adaptability of conductive ink technology to develop tailored solutions for diverse new applications. The prevalent strategy has been to develop as broad a product portfolio as possible, seeding multiple nascent markets, garnering as much customer feedback as possible, and establishing value networks early on. This process is now in full swing with several markets finally transitioning towards commercial fruition this year.
Recent and emerging trends
The touch screen edge electrode market continues to be shaped by the perennial trend to narrow the bezel. This trend has already led to the introduction of new photo-patterned and laser-cut pastes to achieve narrow linewidth-over-spacing (L/S) ratios. Such ink innovations have so far enabled printing to stay competitive. The emphasis however has largely shifted onto cost and incremental resolution improvements. It is within this context that suppliers have aggressively slashed prices to keep market shares, to deter new ink entrants, and to fight off sputtering.
The automotive sector is becoming a major growth opportunity for the conductive ink industry. For years, suppliers have been serving the need for conductive pastes in window demisters, seat belt buttons, airbag deployers, and so on. In more recent time, the market has also expanded to include seat occupancy sensors and heaters. It is now expanding even further to include touch screens, in mould electronics, transparent heaters, high temperature die attach materials, and others. This has made engagement with automotive OEMs/value chain a high priority imperative.
Stretchable inks have been in active commercialization mode for some 4-5 years. In this time, the number of suppliers globally has multiplied, eroding technical and price differentiation but also helping accelerate market creation. The ink performances also dramatically improved, today offering superior stretchability and washability compared to earlier generations. The industry has already launched and sold products and most suppliers expect further customer qualification this year. Suppliers will seek to differentiate by offering a portfolio of stretchable inks (conductive and non-conductive) as well as by offering compatibility with a broader range of substrates. Increasingly, the margin for premium pricing will disappear, bringing stretchable inks in line with general paste price levels.
In-mould electronics (IME) is transitioning towards commercial orders too. IME conductive ink suppliers also multiplied in the past few years, mirroring the developments on the stretchable ink front. The menu of IME compatible materials also expanded to include transparent conductive, dielectric, protective and graphic inks. The commercial emphasis shifted from seeding the market and demonstrating prototypes to proving volume production and reliability as well as to resolving potential IP issues. The development pipelines are full with diverse applications ranging from automotive to home appliance to wearable technology. This diversity will bestow a certain resilience to the overall market.
There are high hopes for sprayed on-chip conformal EMI shielding coatings. Sputtered coatings have already been adopted by leading players, but now paste companies actively seek to provide a compelling alternative that is based on non-vacuum, low-CapEx, large-area and high-throughput spraying process. Paste suppliers have overcome issues such as sedimentation and are offering nano, micron and hybrid versions, hoping to strike their customer's sweet spot in terms of performance (maximal shielding with minimal thickness) and price. The engagement with small- to mid- sized device makers, particularly in China, is highly active but the big question for this year is whether a leading brand will qualify the technology.
Aerosol and other non-contact printing processes are now a major contender for printing antennas and other conductive traces on 3D objects. The production capacity now exists, particularly in Asia and many material suppliers have qualified their products with these processes. Commercial progress is set continue here.
Directly printed metal mesh has recently accelerated its technological progress, overcoming its limitations to achieve sub 5um linewidths. The technology is already in small scale commercial production, creating some opportunity for ink supply, but there is some way to go before it becomes leading market: the printing still takes place on narrow rolls running at low speeds to maintain yield thus limiting productivity. In the meantime, hybrid solutions (emboss then fill with paste/ink) will continue their stop-start commercial progress in applications like transparent antennas and touch screens whilst manufacturers contemplate whether to invest in large format machines or not.
Highly thermally conductive die attach pastes are in favour. This is because the market for high power electronics and/or devices operating in high temperatures is growing with the rise of electric, connected and/or autonomous vehicles, as well as small grid. Ag based sintered pastes do offer high conductivity but often require sintering at high temperatures and under external pressure to form a near-continuous, solid, and void-free thin film. A promising trend is now to use nano or hybrid fillers to reduce the sintering temperature and eliminate the need for external pressure. This technology is on the cusp of major success, and barring last minutes surprises, is likely to be adopted by electric vehicle producers this year.
Desktop and professional PCB printing (prototyping) is also making progress. The installed base of desktop versions has expanded but utilization -thus material consumption - is low. The sales of final (vs beta) version of professional multilayer printers has also started. In parallel, lower spec and lower cost machines have emerged. Professional desktop PCB printers are still in an early phase of market diffusion. Print-seed-and-then-plate approach in the PCB industry is also largely on hold due to the lack of a clear cost or performance benefit compared to incumbent processes. However, Cu inks printed PI substrates are actively being pushed for the FPCB applications. This approach may offer a cost advantage when surface coverage is low (<20%).
Cu is also making progress for RFID antenna printing. Here, several start-ups have demonstrated stable Cu inks that cure at low temperatures, however they still need to demonstrate production beyond lab scale. Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) also continue to be a sizable industry with sales into the trillions of units, creating a significant market for screen printed Cu (and Ni) powders. The printed digitizer market for consumer electronics did not grow despite earlier high expectations, however printed large area digitizers, often based on Cu, are finding use in large-area interactive whiteboards.
Printed large-area piezoresistive, capacitive and biosensors are set to become one of the largest constituents of the greater printed electronics industry. Here, inks will be used as printed bus bars and interconnects. Despite technology improvements, printed transistor and memory will remain in search of applications. Special formulations for printed backplane interconnects on flexible e-readers and flexible displays will see small boom in the short- to medium-term particularly as e-readers transition towards large-area (wall-sized). Large-area LED arrays made with printing will slowly find their way into the market although competition from FPCB remains whilst the primary challenge will be developing and selling end lighting products. 3D printed electronics (3DPE) remains an innovation opportunity front for low-temperature inks compatible with a variety of substrates, although progress has slowed in offering dedicated 3DPE printers.
There are numerous other applications that are being developed for conductive paste which we consider in our report in detail. Examples include heating, battery pack and plant heaters, frequency-selective windows, and many more.
Nobody wants to be left behind
The conductive ink and paste market is changing. Numerous new applications are emerging. Today, most are still at development stage whilst some have transitioned towards early commercialization. Nonetheless, IDTechEx Research forecasts that these emerging markets will grow to represent a $580m market opportunity by 2028.
This diversification is ultimately enabled by the wonderful adaptability of conductive ink technology. It is this characteristic that has enabled suppliers to alter filler composition or modify formulation to address diverse needs in varied applications in terms of conductivity levels, curing conditions, substrate compatibility, adhesion strength, stretchability, washability, price.
Note that non-traditional conductive ink technologies are also finding success, at long last. One example is in nanoparticle inks which are finally, after many years of development, finding major commercial success. Indeed, we believe this year to be a pivotal year for silver nanoparticles. That is why we have a dedicated chapter on silver nanoparticle in this version of the report. Other technologies such as copper inks are also only slowly finding markets beyond MLCC.
In general, the ship is sailing now and nobody wants to be left behind. This is why companies are now allocating resources to new application development and this is why the conductive ink business has come alive again, making this old and adaptable industry exciting once again. To learn more about this industry please purchase this report.
Fig. Market growth opportunity for conductive inks and pastes in emerging sectors. Here, volume applications like touch screen edge electrodes, automotive (exterior), MLCC, membrane switch and photovoltaics are excluded.
Source: IDTechEx Research report "Conductive Inks 2018-2028", report contains exact values.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Conductive inks and paste: everything is changing and the rising tide of PV
1.2.Traditional Markets
1.2.2.Touch screen market
1.4.Emerging applications antennas
1.4.2.ITO replacement
1.4.3.Stretchable inks
1.4.4.Desktop PCB printing Printed Electronics
2.1.PTF vs Firing Paste
2.2.Curing and sintering
2.3.Value chain
2.4.Silver nanoparticle inks
2.5.Silver nanoparticle inks are more conducting
2.6.Curing temperature of silver nanoparticle inks
2.6.1.Enhanced Flexibility
2.6.2.Inkjet Printability
2.7.Price competiveness of silver nanoparticles
2.8.Performance of silver nanoparticle
2.9.Value chain
4.1.Methods of preventing copper oxidisation
4.1.1.Superheated steam
4.1.2.Reactive agent metallization
4.1.3.Photocuring and photosintering
4.2.Pricing strategy and performance of copper inks and pastes
4.3.Copper oxide nanoparticles
4.4.Silver-Coated Copper
5.1.Background to the PV industry
5.2.The return of the boom and bust to the PV sector?
5.3.Massive Chinese investments buoys the market
5.4.China takes markets to new heights but will the change in FiTs finally cool it down?
5.5.Conductive pastes in the PV sectors
5.6.Alternative and improved metallization techniques
5.7.Silicon inks
5.8.Copper metallization in solar cells
5.9.Trends and changes in solar cell architecture
5.10.Market dynamics
5.11.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive paste in solar cells
5.12.Silver nanoparticles are finally adopted in the thin film photovoltaic business?
6.1.De-misters or de-foggers
6.2.Laser transfer printing as a new process?
6.3.Transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
6.4.Car seat heaters
6.5.Seat sensors
6.6.High power electronics represent a major growth opportunity
7.1.Progress in 3D printed electronics
7.1.1.Nascent Objects (now Facebook)
7.1.3.nScrypt ad Novacentrix
7.2.University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)
7.4.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics
8.1.Narrow bezels change the market
8.2.Laser cut vs photopatternable inks
8.3.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and paste in the touch screen industry
9.1.RFID market size and business dynamics
9.2.Processes, Material Options and Market Shares
9.3.Transparent ultra low-resistivity RF antenna using printed metal mesh technology
9.4.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks in UHF and HF RFID antennas
10.2.Glucose sensors
10.3.Market forecasts for conductive inks in glucose test strips
10.4.Capacitive sensors
11.1.Laser Direct Structuring and MID
11.2.Aerosol deposition
11.3.Others ways of printing structurally-integrated antennas
11.4.Market projections for printed 3D antennas
12.2.Definition of terms
12.2.In-mould electronics in consumer electronics
12.3.Ink requirements in in-mould electronics
12.4.Suppliers of IME inks rapidly multiply
12.5.Other materials used in in-mould electronics: the merit of a portfolio approach
12.5.1.IME PEODT
12.5.2.IME Carbon nanotubes
12.5.3.IME Metal mesh
12.5.4.Insert moulding or transfer attachment will do just fine?
12.6.Market forecasts for IME conductive inks
13.1.Electronic textile industry
13.2.Stretchable inks: general observations
13.3.Stretchable e-textile inks multiply
13.4.Performance of stretchable conductive inks
13.5.Future performance improvements for stretchable inks
13.6.The role of particle size and resin in stretchable inks
13.7.The role of pattern design in stretchable conductive inks
13.8.Washability for stretchable conductive inks
13.9.Encapsulant choice for stretchable inks
13.10.The role of the substrate in stretchable inks
13.11.Applications of inks in e-textiles
13.12.Examples of products with conductive yarns
13.13.Graphene as a stretchable e-textile conductive ink
13.14.PEDOT as a conductive e-textile material
13.15.Market projections for stretchable conducive inks
15.1.Background to the PCB industry
15.2.'Printing' PCBs for the hobbyist and DIY market
15.3.'Printing' professional multi-layer PCBs
15.4.Print seed and plate approach
15.5.Progress on seed-and-plate PCBs
15.6.Comparison of different PCB techniques
15.7.Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing
16.1.Market forecast for transparent conductive films
16.2.Changing market requirements
16.3.A brutal consolidation set in but has now ended?
16.4.Progress and opportunities for conductive inks
16.4.1.Embossing followed by silver nanoparticle printing
16.4.2.Self-assembled silver nanoparticle films
16.4.3.Inkjet printed silver nanoparticles as transparent conducting films
16.5.Direct printing of fine line metal mesh
16.6.Direct printing can go ultra-fine feature, achieving sub-micron resolution?
16.7.Printing of metal mesh TCF using photo-patterned conductive pasts
16.8.Direct screen printing of metal mesh films for ultra large area displays
16.9.UV patterned silver nanoparticle based metal mesh
16.10.Market Projections
19.1.OLED Lighting market dynamics and challenges
19.2.OLED lighting in search of a unique
19.3.Cost projections of OLED lighting
19.4.OLED lighting market forecast
19.5.Requirements from conductive inks in OLED lighting
19.6.Market projections
20.1.Why large-area LED array lighting
20.2.Examples of LED array lighting
20.3.Role of conductive inks in large-area LED arrays
20.4.Competitive non-printed approach to making the base for large-area LED arrays
21.2.Overall market situation for printed RFID logic
21.3.Market for printed backplanes for displays
21.4.Market for printed backplanes for large-area sensor arrays
21.5.Latest progress with solution-processable metal oxides
21.6.Latest progress with fully printed organic thin film transistor arrays
21.7.The need for printed nanoparticle inks and the latest progress
21.8.Market forecasts for silver nanoparticles in fully printed thin film transistors
22.2.Applications of printed thin film memory
22.3.The structure of printed memory and the role of printed conductors
22.4.Market forecasts for conductive inks in printed memories
23.1.Background to EMI shielding solutions
23.2.Current market estimates for EMI shielding solutions
23.3.Printing or spraying conductive paste as conformal EMI shielding
23.4.Sputtering vs spraying for conformal EMI shielding
23.5.Nano vs micro inks for EMI shielding
23.6.Sputtering currently dominates but printing is a major medium-term future opportunity
23.7.Numbers of suppliers working on or launching conformal on-chip EMI shielding pastes increases
23.8.The challenge of magnetic shielding at low frequencies
23.9.Value proposition for magnetic shielding using printed inks
23.10.Market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in consumer electronics EMI shielding- can it be the next big market outside PV?
24.2.Sintered die-attach pastes
24.3.Material choices for die attach pastes
24.4.Influence of sintering temperature
24.5.Performance of sintered Ag paste
24.6.The rise of nanoparticles
24.7.The number of suppliers of nano-based and hybrid pastes multiply
24.8.Commercial success has already arrived: biggest market for silver nano?
24.9.Market forecasts for nano or hybrid sintered Ag die attach paste in value and tonnes
26.2.Material usage and price analyses for MLCC
26.3.Key powder and paste suppliers in the MLCC electrode business
27.2.Frequency-Selective Transparent Shielding Patterns
28.1.The use of conductive inks in wearable e-reader devices
28.2.Market forecasts for conductive inks in e-readers
29.1.Battery Heaters
29.2.Plant heaters
30.1.1.Conformal printing
30.2.Desktop and professional single to multi-layer PCB printing
30.3.On-chip conformal EMI shielding
30.4.Sintered silver die attach pastes
30.5.Directly printed metal mesh
30.6.Hybrid (emboss then fill) metal mesh for ITO replacement
30.7.Inkjet printed metal mesh TCF
30.8.Seed layer for plating Cu films for FCCL
30.9.Replacing solder balls for chip assembly
30.10.Print seed and plate in wafer-based Si PV
30.11.Top up conductor layer in thin film PV
30.12.Seed layer in PCB
30.13.Transistor and memory
30.14.OLED lighting
30.16.Stretchable and in-mold electronic inks
31.1.Agfa-Gevaert N.V.
31.3.Bando Chemical Industries
31.4.BeBop Sensors
31.6.Cartesian Co
31.7.Cima NanoTech Inc
31.8.Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH
31.9.ClearJet Ltd
31.10.Colloidal Ink Co., Ltd
31.11.Conductive Compounds
31.12.Daicel Corporation
31.14.DuPont Advanced Materials
31.15.Electroninks Writeables
31.16.Flexbright Oy
31.17.Fujikura Kasei Co Ltd
31.18.Genes 'Ink
31.20.Hicel Co Ltd
31.22.InkTec Co., Ltd
31.23.Intrinsiq Materials
31.24.Komori Corporation
31.25.KunShan Hisense Electronics
31.26.Lord Corp
31.27.Methode Electronics
31.28.Nagase America Corporation
31.30.Nano Dimension
31.33.O-film Tech Co., Ltd
31.35.Perpetuus Carbon Technologies Limited
31.37.Promethean Particles
31.38.Pulse Electronics
31.39.PV Nano Cell
31.40.Raymor Industries Inc
31.41.Showa Denko
31.42.Sun Chemical
31.43.Tangio Printed Electronics
31.44.The Sixth Element
31.46.Toda Kogyo Corp
31.47.Tokusen USA Inc.
31.48.Ulvac Corporation
31.49.UT Dots Inc
31.50.Vorbeck Materials
31.52.Xerox Research Centre of Canada (XRCC)
31.53.Xymox Technologies
32.1.Advanced Nano Products
32.2.AIST and NAPRA
32.4.Applied Nanotech Inc.
32.5.Asahi Glass Corporation
32.6.Asahi Kasei
32.8.Chang Sung Corporation
32.9.Cima Nanotech
32.11.Giga Solar Materials Corp
32.13.Hitachi Chemical
32.14.Kishu Giken Kogyo Co.,Ltd.
32.15.Liquid X Printed Metals, Inc.
32.16.Indium Corporation
32.17.NanoMas Technologies
32.20.Novacentrix PulseForge
32.21.Samsung (former Cheil Industries)
2.1.These tables show the performance and processing conditions of screen-printable silver pastes.
2.2.Table listing the key suppliers of metallic powders/flakes and conductive inks/paste.
2.3.Performance and typical characteristics of various silver nanoparticle inks on the market.
2.4.List of silver nanoparticle suppliers.
4.1.List of companies supplying or researching copper or silver alloy powders, inks or pastes.
4.2.The performance and key characteristics of copper inks and pastes offered by different companies
9.1.Table outlining the operational frequency and main features of each RFID tag.
9.2.Average sales price of passive RFID tags in USD cents
13.1.The resistivity and loading levels of graphene inks by different graphene suppliers
23.1.Which chips have EMI shielding and what method has been used to deposit them
32.1.Screen Printable Silver Paste
32.2.Other Silver Pastes
32.3.Inkjet Printable Inks
32.4.Applied Nanotech products
32.5.Ferro's metal products
32.6.Outline of Noritake product list
32.7.Silver and carbon pastes offered by Toyobo
32.8.Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
1.1.Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by 24 application areas
1.2.Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
1.3.Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV included.
1.4.Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
1.5.Ten-year market forecast for micron-sized (non nano) conductive inks and pastes split by application
1.6.Ten-year market forecasts for silver nanoparticle conductive inks and pastes split by application
1.7.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in touch screens
1.8.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in the automotive sector as de-foggers, seat heaters and occupancy sensors.
1.9.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes as piezoresistive sensors in value and tonnes
1.10.Conductive inks and pastes used in capacitive (non-transparent) touch in value and tonnes
1.11.Conductive inks and pastes used in glucose test strips in value and tonne (carbon excluded)
1.12.Conductive inks and pastes used in printing UHF RFID antennas in value and tonne
1.13.Conductive inks and pastes used in printing HF RFID antennas in value and tonnes
1.14.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in 3D antennas
1.15.Ten-year market forecasts for IME conductive inks and pastes in the automotive sector
1.16.Ten-year market forecasts for IME conductive inks and pastes in white good appliances
1.17.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in ITO replacement
1.18.Ten-year market forecasts for stretchable conductive inks and pastes in e-textiles
1.19.Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing
1.20.Ten-year market forecasts for stretchable conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics.
2.1.Different morphologies of micron-sized silver particulates used in conductive paste/ink making
2.2.The process flow for making a conductive pastes.
2.3.These charts show the curing behaviour of PTFTs using a box oven and UV heater.
2.4.These charts show a typical firing profile for firing-type conductive pastes
2.5.Typical equipment used in curing silver PTFs
2.6.A roll-to-roll photosintering machine by Novacentrix
2.7.A Xenon photosetting machine as well as its lamp
2.8.SEM images of flake and spherical Ag pastes after heat and photo curing.
2.9.Images comparing the packing of flake-based and nanoparticle-based conductive lines.
2.10.Conductivity values of different sputtered and printed conductive materials.
2.11.This measured data shows that silver nanoparticle inks can form lines that are both thinner and more conducting.
2.12.Melting temperature as a function of gold particle size
2.13.Current and projected roadmap for the curing temperature and resistivity level of silver nanoparticle inks.
2.14.Data showing the thermal curing behaviour of silver nanoparticle inks. It is observed that silver nanoparticle inks require curing temperatures comparable to PTF pastes.
4.1.Spot price of silver as a function of year
4.2.The annealing method is a key step in creating conductive tracks from copper.
4.3.Apparatus and process for curing printed copper lines using Toyobo's superheated steam.
4.4.Creative copper conductive traces using reactive agent metallization
4.5.Various photosintering machines
4.6.Comparing an ideal silver-coated copper vs the ones typically produced.
5.1.Left: price history of silicon PV cells. Right: price levels and production volumes of crystalline silicon PV. The price levels are now around 30 cents per watt or less.
5.2.Price learning curve of c-Si and thin film PV technologies
5.3.The large-scale loans made available to Chinese producers between 2010 and 2012, establishing the financial basis for the expansion of production capacity.
5.4.List of companies that went bankrupt, closed, restructured or sold equity at discount prices during the consolidation period.
5.5.Shipped production for the top 10 suppliers of solar cells.
5.6.The industry has dramatically changed over the years. US Japan and Europe have lost their leading positions at various times whereas Japan has risen.
5.7.Production in GW of solar energy by China-Taiwan, Japan, Europe, North America and Row between 2005 and 2017
5.8.Comparing production volumes, measured in megawatts, of different solar cells technologies in 2013(red bars) and 2014 (blue bars).
5.9.Market share of different PV technologies: Si (wafer-based), a-Si, Cd-Te and CIGS
5.10.Cost breakdown of a typical wafer-based silicon solar cells.
5.11.The cost of silver conductive paste as an overall portion of the energy-generation cost of a silicon PV (in cents per watt peak) as a function of time.
5.12.Annual GW PV installation by year by region between 2005 to 2020
5.13.Stock price of largest PV manufacturers worldwide
5.14.Table outlining the changes in China's Feed-in-Tariffs between 2016 and 2017 for different regions in RMB/kWh.
5.15.Photovoltaic market forecasts
5.16.Screen printed conductive lines on a typical wafer-based silicon PV.
5.17.The production process for a silicon PV showing when metallization and curing (firing) takes place
5.18.Typical curing profile of firing-type conductive pastes used in the photovoltaic industry.
5.19.Silver content per cell as a function of time. These are IDTechEx projections and underpin our market forecasts. We are more conservative that industry projections on how much silver consumption per cell can be reduced. The techno
5.20.Projections reductions in silver consumption per wafer by ITRPV over the years. The projections are for years 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. It demonstrates the difficulty in predicting future silver consumption per wafer even
5.21.The reduction in the silver content is made by possible by innovation in inks.
5.22.Survey results showing what the industry expected in the next decade
5.23.Predicted trend for minimum as-cut wafer thickness
5.24.Benefits of a silicon ink in improving solar cell efficiency
5.25.Methods of plating the metallization layers: (1) thickening a screen printed Ag line with; (2) direct plating on Si.
5.26.Current efficiency of select commercial PV modules.
5.27.Market share of different silicon solar cell architectures/technologies
5.28.Comparing the BSF and PERC cell architecture
5.29.2018-2028 market forecasts for conductive pastes in wafer-based Si photovoltaic in tons and value.
5.30.Describing the basics and production process behind CIGS technology.
6.1.Existing and emerging use cases of conductive inks in the interior and exterior of cars
6.2.Comparing the performance of a standard conductive paste as a de-froster when deposited on a PC and a glass substrate.
6.3.Ten-year market forecast for conductive paste used in de-foggers
6.4.Laser transfer printing process
6.5.Structure of a typical printed seat heater
6.6.PTC carbon inks with Ag bus bars to form a heater.
6.7.Resistance vs temperature behaviour of a PTF carbon ink
6.8.Ten-year market forecasts for the use of conductive inks (carbon plus silver) in car seat heaters
6.9.Operation of a FSR
6.10.Response curve of a typical FSR from IEE. Product name: CP 149 Sensor
6.11.Examples of FSR individual sensors from IEE
6.12.Ten-year market forecasts for the use of conductive inks and pastes as occupancy sensors in cars.
7.1.Ten-year market projections for 3D printing industrial machines split by SLA/DLP, extrusion, metal powder, binder jetting, etc. in annual unit sales.
7.2.Ten-year market projections for 3D printing personal machines (desktop machines) in annual unit sales
7.3.Plastic filaments used in 3D printing and suppliers thereof
7.4.Plastic powders used in 3D printing and suppliers thereof
7.5.Examples of embedded and metallized 3D printed objects.
7.6.Nascent Objects seeks to modularize electronic components so that they can placed inside 3D printed objects and upgraded (exchanged) when new versions arrive
7.7.A Voxel8 3D printed electronics machine
7.8.A 3D printed electronics object with embedded circuitry
7.9.A 3D printed quadcopter with 3D printed embedded circuit
7.10.(Left) Photonically-cured copper in and (right) nScrypt's patented SmartPump
7.11.nScrypt 3D printed electronic equipment. This is a highly stable hybrid 3DP extruder with a paste dispenser together with photonic curing for the conductive traces. The sales price is around $0.5m per machine. I took this photo at
7.12.3D printed electronics objects by University of Texas
7.13.Performance sheet for Nagase Ag nano ink compatible with multiple plastic substrates and suitable for the 3DPE market.
7.14.IDTechEx market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics (in tons and value)
8.1.Schematic of a touch screen system and a close-up of printed edge electrodes
8.2.The process flow for patterning photo-patterned Ag conductive pastes by Toray (Raybrid)
8.3.Table showing the linewidth resolution of various processes used in making touch screen bezels
8.4.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in value split by touch screen device type
8.5.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in tonne split by touch screen device type
9.1.Examples of RFID tags
9.2.Typical examples of RFID antennas
9.3.The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RFID tag
9.4.RFID tag figures and ten-year forecasts by application in billion USD
9.5.Cost estimates for making RFID antennas using different production processes
9.6.A Suica transit card widely used in Japan's transport network. The antenna consist of a printed silver conductive track
9.7.Comparing the printing speed, thickness and applications of different printing techniques
9.8.Schematics of different printing processes used in RFID antenna production
9.9.Examples of printed RFID antennas.
9.10.Examples of printed transparent antenna using printed metal mesh technology
9.11.Ten year market forecast for the use of conductive inks in UHF RFID antennas split by ink type (Cu, Ag (micron), and Ag(nano)).
9.12.Ten year market forecast for the use of conductive inks in HF RFID antennas split by ink type (Cu, Ag (micron), and Ag(nano)).
10.1.Typical construction and behaviour of piezoresistive force sensors.
10.2.The IDTechEx market and technology roadmap for piezoresistive sensors
10.3.Ten-year market projections for piezoresistive sensors at the device level
10.4.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in printed piezoresistive sensors by value and tonnes
10.5.Different glucose test strips on the market.
10.6.The anatomy of a glucose test strip. The working electrode here is carbon based
10.7.Manufacturing steps of a Lifescan Ultra glucose test strip.
10.8.Benchmarking printing vs. sputtering in glucose test strip product. Here, 5 refers to the strongest or highest.
10.9.Printed glucose test trip market.
10.10.Market forecasts for the use of Ag-based inks in glucose test strips (value and tons)
10.11.Printed capacitive sensors used in automotive (infotainment module) and home appliance applications. Source: Polymatech. I took these photos at Nepcon Japan 2017
10.12.Printed capacitive touch sensor unit aimed at first-class seats in passenger airplanes.
10.13.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pasts in printed capacitive touch sensors in $m and tonnes
11.1.Many components in a typical consumer electronics device such as a mobile phone are or can potentially be printed.
11.2.Schematic showing the sales volume of phones.
11.3.The production process using LDS.
11.4.A typical smartphone antenna made using LDS.
11.5.Examples of LDS products on the market.
11.6.The aerosol deposition process and its key features.
11.7.The core components making up an aerosol deposition machine
11.8.Aerosol deposited 3D antennas directly on mobile phone components
11.9.Comparing the LDS vs aerosol processes.
11.10.(Left) An antenna dispensing machine and (right) an antenna being printed (dispensed) directly on the phone case.
11.11.Ten-year market projections for the use of conductive inks (silver nano inks) in printing 3D antennas.
12.1.The process starts by printing on a flats or 3D substrate before being thermoformed into a 3D shape.
12.2.Examples of use case of IME technology in the automotive industry
12.3.Picture of an actual IME overhead console by T-Ink and DuPont
12.4.AC control unit for cars using DuPont inks. This is not yet commercial but DuPont confirms that it has two products that are close to qualification. Source: DuPont, photo taken at the Wearable Expo Japan 2017
12.5.Comparison of overhead control panels
12.6.The formation of car overhead consoles using in-mould electronics is a multi-step process.
12.7.Application ideas for the use of IME technology in consumer electronics
12.8.A commercialized washing machine with an IME switch board
12.9.Example of how in-mould electronics (here referred to as structural electronics) can result in the formation of simple and elegant designs.
12.10.Schematic showing how TactoTek makes its structural or in-mould electronics.
12.11.The inks formulated for IME are expected to withstand elongations as high as 60% without failure although the resistance does typically undergo change (e.g., 30% or so)
12.12.These images demonstrate the impact of ink formulation on its performance after being stretched.
12.13.Examples of IME inks by DuPont, T-Ink, Henkel, NRCC, Yoyobo, Fujikura Kasei and others
12.14.The process for IME using PEDOT films
12.15.Examples of IME PEDOT thermoformed films and some product demonstrators.
12.16.Air conditioning controller unit for a car.
12.17.Increase in resistance as a function of change in length.
12.18.Examples of thermoformed products made using a CNT-on-PC film
12.19.Examples of SWCNT and DWCNT films thermoformed into 3D shapes
12.20.Example of a 3D-shaped IME dome made using Fujifilm's metal mesh technology
12.21.Example of an IME 3D car touch screen using copper metal mesh and a thermoformed silver nanoparticle 3D surface
12.22.Example of an transferred printed functional film onto a 3D object
12.23.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks/pastes in IME automotive applications in $m and tonnes
12.24.Ten-year market projections for IME conductive inks in the home appliances in $m and tonnes
13.1.Medium-term market projections for smart textiles.
13.2.Some examples of prominent e-textile products are shown in this slide.
13.3.Percentage of e-textile players using each material type
13.4.Microcracks and voids appear in a printed conductive lines under stretch causing it to lose its conductivity.
13.5.Stretchable inks containing only Ag flakes show great resistivity variations under stretch compared to inks containing a distribution of particle sizes.
13.6.Printing a typical conductor on a fabric or textile is currently a four-step process
13.7.Apparatus used for laminating printed conductive films onto textiles
13.8.Examples of stretchable e-textile conductive inks from Taiyo, NAmics, Toyobo, Jujo Chemical and Ash Chemical
13.9.Examples of stretchable e-textile conductive inks from DuPont, Henkel, Cemedine, Polymatech
13.10.Performance characteristics of conductive by Panasonic, Henkel, Fujikura Kasei, DuPont, EMS, Ash Chemical and so on.
13.11.Comparing the performance of GenI and GenII of stretchable inks supplied by the same company to track industry evolutions.
13.12.Table qualitatively showing how resin choice affects flexibility, adhesion strenght and heat resistance. Resins considered are acrylic, epoxy, pheno, polyester, urethane, silicone and polymide type
13.13.SEM image showing a typical particle size distribution in a stretchable inks
13.14.Change in resistance as a function of elongation for the same ink printed in different patterns
13.15.Change of resistance as a function of washing cycles.
13.16.TPU alternative being developed by Hitachi Chemical.
13.17.TPU alternative being developed by Showa Denko, Osaka Industry, Nikkan Industry, etc
13.18.The change in resistance with strain for the same ink printed on the same substrate with and without TPU encapsulation
13.19.Effects of straining printed lines on different substrates. The different made by the choice of the substrate is visible with the naked eye as the strain range changes from 0 to 40%.
13.20.Examples of wearable products employing conductive inks.
13.21.Example of e-textile products and prototypes by Toyobo, Jujo Chemical and DuPont.
13.22.Examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.23.Recent examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.24.Recent examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.25.Recent examples of e-textile products using printed conductive inks
13.26.Examples of e-textile sports products made using conductive yarns.
13.27.Examples of prototype of graphene inks on textile and graphene stretch sensors.
13.28.Examples of graphene-including electronic textiles
13.29.Examples of PEDOT used as a conductive e-textile materials
13.30.Ten-year market projections for stretchable conductive inks in e-textiles in $m and tonnes
14.1.Two examples of wearable devices on the right hand side
14.2.Stretchable printed circuit board following the rigid island and stretchable connector approach
14.3.Example of stretchable interconnects
14.4.Example of printed flexible interconnects for cameras in fax machines (left) and stretchable printed interconnects for ECGs
15.1.Left: example of pre-PCV electronics wit rats nest wiring. Right: example of early PCB.
15.2.Examples of through-hole (left) and SMD PCB (right).
15.3.Schematic using a typical construction of a double-layer (left) and multilayer (right) PCB.
15.4.Breakdown of the PCB market by the number of layers
15.5.Traditional PCBs are a mature technology
15.6.Production steps involved in manufacturing a multi-layer PCB.
15.7.PCB market by production territory
15.8.PCB design files are often sent to the other side of the world to be manufactured and shipped back
15.9.CNC machine create double-sided rigid PCB.
15.10.AgIC have developed a specially-coated PET substrate for inkjetting
15.11.Left: example of a desktop printed single-sided PCB on a plastic (flexible) substrate. Right: example of a Cartesian desktop PCB printer.
15.12.Example of a bot factory machine in the IDTechEx office
15.13.Professional multi-layer desktop PCB printer by NanoDimension (beta version)
15.14.Professional multi-layer desktop PCB printer by NanoDimension (final version on sale)
15.15.Example of a multi-layer professional PCB printed using a professional desktop PCB printers.
15.16.Example of a lower cost and lower spec multi-layer professional PCB printer
15.17.Classification and structure of FPCB
15.18.Example of a PCB manufactured using inkjet printed photoresist. Here, printing replaces photolithography
15.19.seed-and-plat PCB using screen printing by Tatsutu
15.20.prototypes of screen printed seed and plated PCB with L/S 50/59
15.21.Comparison of different PCB techniques
15.22.Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing by value
15.23.Market for conductive inks in desktop and professional PCB printing by tones
16.1.Examples of application that use a transparent conductive layer (glass or film) and the performance of ITO films
16.2.Ten-year market forecast for transparent conductive films split by TCF technology
16.3.The sheet resistance requirements scale with the display size.
16.4.Sheet resistance requirements and efficiency of organic photovoltaic.
16.5.Sheet resistance as a function of radius curvature for ITO films. ITO cracks and its sheet resistance goes up when the film is bent.
16.6.Sheet resistance as a function of bending cycle or angle for different TCF technologies such as metal mesh, PEDOT, silver nanowires and carbon nanotubes.
16.7.ITO film price drop from $35/sqm to $18/sqm in a space of two years
16.8.Comparing the market forecast for medium-sized (e.g., AIOs) touch screens pre and post 2012.
16.9.Sales of TPK by touch display size.
16.10.Quantitatively benchmarking different transparent conductive film technologies
16.11.The process flow for making TCFs developed by NanoGrid based in Suzhou
16.12.Nanoimprint technology process flow for establishing a metal mesh with 5um linewidths
16.13.Printed silver nanoparticle inks and a large touch module
16.14.ClearJet inkjet prints drops of specially formulated silver nano inks, which then self-assemble into a pattern shown above to form a conductive network that is also transparent
16.15.Process flow for gravure offset printing metal mesh with 5um linewidths
16.16.Plastic surfaces covered with printed transparent Ag metal mesh with 5um linewidth
16.17.Further examples of directly printed fineline metal mesh films (Shashin Kagaku and Komori)
16.18.Direct printing achieving ultrafine features
16.19.Mould making process for enabling R2R printing to achieve ultra finefeatures using nanoinks
16.20.Printing drum, process and results for printing metal mesh with nanometer scale linewidths
16.21.Metal mesh TCF made using screen printed photo-patternable conductive pastes. Here, we see linewidths as low as 3.5um, a prototype touch screen and flexibility data.
16.22.3M large-area touch table made using 3um metal mesh
16.23.Large area touch table with screen printed metal mesh
16.24.High performance metal mesh using UV patterned silver nanoparticles
16.25.Ten-year market projections for the use of silver nano inks as an ITO replacement
17.1.Conductive pattern drawn using an ink supplier by Electronics Inks. The pen shown in the photo is the conductive ink that Sakura and Electroninks jointly developed.
17.2.Examples of applications and performance levels of a conductive ink developed by Dream Inks in China.
17.3.Colloidal's ink curing and resistivity
17.4.Example of conductive pattern inkjet-printed using an Epson printed and Colloidal's inks.
18.1.The structure of a digitizer in a mobile phone.
18.2.Value chain of printed digitizers in consumer electronics from powders to devices.
18.3.results of a 5.5inch digitizer with printed Cu lines
19.1.Commercial and prototype OLED vs existing (2013 data) LED performance levels
19.2.Examples of LED and OLED lighting installations showing that LED can achieve effective surface emission thanks to the use of waveguides.
19.3.Flexible, thin and light-weight OLED lighting products launched by LG Chem and Konica Minolta.
19.4.Cost projections in $/Klm as a function of year.
19.5.Examples of latest OLED lighting installations in museums, nightclubs, festivals and libraries.
19.6.Ten-year market projections for OLED lighting as a function of year segmented by end application
19.7.Structure of a typical OLED lighting device
19.8.Ten-year market projections for silver nanoinks in OLED lighting applications.
20.1.Large-area LED arrays developed by FlexBright Oy
20.2.Printed interconnects over large areas with mounted (pick and place) LEDs for use in decorative purposes.
20.3.Front and backside of a printed large-area LED array
20.4.Example of a flexible LED sheet
20.5.Example of LED lighting array on an etch FPCB.
21.1.Comparing traditional and printing methods of manufacturing thin film transistors
21.2.Examples of printable semiconducting materials and their mobility levels for printed TFTs
21.3.Unit sales of electrophoretic displays between 2010 and 2014 showing the market downturn
21.4.Printed photo or x-ray arrays with printed backplanes
21.5.Pressure and temperature sensor arrays with printed transistors
21.6.Publication trends for solution-processed metal oxides
21.7.High temperatures are often needed to anneal solution processed metal oxide TFTs
21.8.Performance and characteristics of Evonik's solution-processed metal oxide TFT
21.9.Picture, application and device structure of fully-printed organic TFT array by JAPERA
21.10.Microscopic images of printed interconnects for printed thin film transistors and schematic of the printing process
21.11.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in printed TFT/memory
22.1.Revenue and net income of Thin Film Electronics between 2011 and 2015
22.2.Counterfeiting and consumer engagement printed memory tags
22.3.Printed temperature sensor tag with printed memory
22.4.Image and schematic of the printed memory devices
22.5.Images of an actual device, printed memory role, and the process flow
23.1.Example of conductive-adhesive paste EMI shielding tapes: film structure and an example of use case in flexible printed boards
23.2.Premium market for high EMI Shielding using PVD
23.3.Transition from metallic cans/cages to conformal coatings for EMI shielding
23.4.Why conformal on-chip EMI shielding?
23.5.Process flow for conformal coatings, printed or sprayed, on chips
23.6.Apparatus for spraying conformal coatings on chips
23.7.Process flow for spraying coating package-level EMI shielding paste
23.8.Overcoming the sinking and agglomeration challenges in the spray tank
23.9.Comparing the shielding effectiveness of a conventional vs specially formulated conductive paste
23.10.Image of chips in iphone7 with EMI shielding.
23.11.Duksan is actively seeing to commercialize its package-level conformal EMI shielding paste
23.12.Agfa has demonstrated an inkjet printable on-chip conformal coating
23.13.Fujikura Kasie has demonstrated its conformal on-chip EMI shielding paste
23.14.Effectiveness of copper as an electric and magnetic shield from 10KHz to 1 Gz
23.15.Attenuation of magnetic fields by metallic and ferromagnetic materials at low to high frequency ranges
23.16.Effective of conductive ink-based magnetic shields at medium to high frequencies
23.17.Market forecasts for conductive inks in EMI shielding coatings in consumer electronics
23.18.Market forecasts for Ag nano inks in EMI shielding coatings in consumer electronics
23.19.Market forecasts for non-nano inks in EMI shielding coatings in consumer electronics
24.1.Applications and performance of different high power transistors (Thyristor, IGBT (module & discreet), IPM, GCT, etc)
24.2.Electronic devices in vehicles in high temperature environments
24.3.Cross-section of a power device showing the die attach, the TIM, the heatsink, etc.
24.4.Trend in thermal conductivity going from basic solder and low end Ag-filled epoxy to pressured or nano sintered Ag pastes.
24.5.Example of a sintering profile
24.6.The electrical resistivity vs sintering temperature for a nano Ag based die attach paste
24.7.Cross-section of sintered die attach paste
24.8.Process of going from wet printed line to drying/necking then cured state
24.9.Performance of conventional Ag based sintered die attach pastes
24.10.Comparing the thermal cycle behaviour of sintered Ag die attach paste vs high-T solder
24.11.Top image: sintering mechanism using a hybrid (nano plus hybrid) composition. Bottom: sintering process for a nano based system.
24.12.The cross section of sintered die attach paste before and after experiencing a 1000 thermal cycles
24.13.Sintered low temperature Ag die attach paste (150-170C sintering with no pressure)
24.14.Market forecast for nano or hybrid sintered Ag die attach paste in value and tonnes.
26.1.Typical structure of MLLC and typical production process thereof
26.2.Material breakdown for MLLC (PME vs BME)
27.1.Design and performance of frequency-selective surface and reflectarray grating with printed conductive inks
28.1.Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks/pastes in flexible e-readers
29.1.Printed large-area battery and plant heaters
30.1.(left) Optomec aerosol printing heads; (right) antennas printed on 3D-shaped objects using aerosol
30.2.(right) industrial professional multi-layer PCB printers and (left) examples of flat and curved multi-layered printed PCBs
30.3.Replacing the switch and TCF layer with Ag NP in a capacitive touch unit
30.4.Effectiveness of on-chip conformal EMI shielding
30.5.Sintered die attach paste for power modules using nano silver
30.6.(top) supermooth R2R ultrafine metal mesh printing (bottom) S2S flexo metal mesh printing
30.7.Process for metal production using the hybrid approach
30.8.Inkjet printed large-area transparent conductive film with fine features
30.9.Silver nanoparticle seed layer for plating Cu films
30.10.Replacing solder balls for chip assembly
30.11.Inkjet printed metal grids for OLED lighting
32.1.Properties of the low-melting-point alloy before and after melting (structure and conductivity)
32.2.Electron microscope images of the Napra-developed copper paste (left) and of commercially available resin silver paste (right)
32.3.Resistivity of silver and copper pastes (Commercially available copper pastes: A, B, and C; Napra-developed copper paste: D; and commercially available silver paste: E)
32.4.Resistivity vs. cure temperature for glass-coated silver nanoparticles
32.5.The annealing process and equipment used for Hitachi Chemical's inks and pastes
32.6.Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
32.7.The Pulse Forge principle
32.8.Copper pastes developed by Toyobo
32.9.Flexographic formulation of Vor-Ink from Vorbeck
32.10.Packaging Natralock┬« with Siren™ Technology

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